# Write short notes on each of the following

1 ) The advantage of panel informations over cross subdivisions at individual points of clip and over clip series on individual observation units.

Panel informations give multiple observations on an person over clip. Hsiao ( 2003 ) states that panel informations provide a big figure of informations points, increasing grades of freedom and cut down collinearity amongst explanatory variables, which consequences in improved econometric estimations.

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It is hard for cross-sectional informations to assist find a pick between two hypotheses because the estimations will include in inter-individual differences

innate in comparing different people. By following given persons or houses over clip as they change position, as with panel informations, it becomes possible to analyze the before and after consequence

In general, panel informations licenses proving more complex behavioural theoretical accounts than cross-section or time-series informations. Additionally, it helps simplify the econometric job that the ground that certain effects occur is because of omitted or unseen variables that are correlated with the explanatory variable.

For illustration, as MaCurdy’s ( 1981 ) survey as quoted by Hsiao ( 2003 ) shows that a worker’s labour-supply map can be expressed as a map of Y, the logarithm of hours worked, x, the logarithm of existent pay rate and omega, the logarithm of the worker’s fringy public-service corporation of initial wealth, as a step of life-time rewards ( and therefore constant through clip for each person, but changing amongst persons ) . This poses a job if one was to gauge B for the equation

Y = a + B x + c omega

since ten is correlated with omega. In general, it is non possible to gauge B systematically from a cross-sectional information set, but with panel informations it would be possible by first differencing the equation.

2 ) Probit theoretical accounts and their relationship to latent variables

Latent variables refer to variables that are inferred from discernible and straight measured variables which can demo a distinct result, such as “yes” or “no” or “1” or “0” . Probit theoretical accounts are regression theoretical accounts for when these types of variables exist. It measures the consequence of a set of independent variables X on the chance of success or failure on the dependant variable Y. The ascertained happening of a given pick is taken as an index of an implicit in, unobservable latent variable. It is characterised by holding a threshold shaping place at which one switches from one option to the other. Probit uses the opposite of the criterion normal cumulative distribution map.

Based on Maddala ( 1983 ) the probit theoretical account can be defined as:

P ( happening of event A ) = P ( Y=A ) = F [ relevant effects ]

As an illustration, think of the chance of traveling to college: Y =1 if one goes to college and Y = 0 if one does non, as a map of assorted factors such as success in high school, academic makings, fiscal support, etc. This is a latent variable based on the discernible factors. In this instance,

P ( Y=1 ) = F ( i??’x ) , where i?? represents the impact of alterations in ten on the chance. This requires the cumulative normal distribution map to be solved, which is the footing of the probit theoretical account:

If Y* is a latent variable given by

Y* = i??’x + i??iˆ

so the discernible variable Yttrium is related to Y* as below:

Y = 1 if Y* & gt ; 0 and Y = 0 if Y*& lt ;0

Since E ( Y ) = i?° = P ( Y=1 )

= P ( Y* 0 ) = P ( -i??iˆ iˆ?iˆ i??’x )

= i?¦iˆ?i??’x )

which represents the criterion normal cumulative distribution map.

3 ) Generalised additive theoretical accounts for ordered responsesAs Hutcheson ( 2007 ) describes, Generalized Linear Models, in peculiar the logit theoretical account, can be used to foretell ordered categorical information. This is done via the Proportional Odds theoretical account, which is an extension of logistic arrested development. Ordered information is analysed as a figure of dualities, set uping the ordered informations into a series of binary comparings. This allows comparings between higher and lower degrees of a variable.

In these theoretical accounts, how a variable is classified does non count, every bit long as the order is represented right. This is because each binary comparing is like a separate logistic arrested development theoretical account. Modeling a four-category ordered response variable requires three arrested development theoretical accounts. These would supply three estimations for the consequence of each explanatory variable on the response. However, it is best to construe a individual parametric quantity for each explanatory variable and obtain one theoretical account of the response variable. In order to make so, it is assumed that the consequence of each variable is the same for each binary comparing. When the binary comparings are combined, the relative odds theoretical account yields a individual parametric quantity to foretell the chance of being in a higher compared to a lower class of the response variable as each explanatory variable alterations.

The general theoretical account is of the signifier:

Logit [ Pr ( Y & gt ; J ) =iˆ i?? + i?? X1 + i?? X2 + … + i?? Xk

Before gauging the theoretical account it is necessary to corroborate the premise for the relative odds theoretical account that the explanatory variable consequence can be averaged. To prove this, the odds ratios for the single binary comparings must be compared to see if they are significantly different from one another. The chief end when utilizing this analysis is that the result will demo the chance of being in a higher or lower class instead than a distinguishable sum.

4 ) Good of fit statistics in theoretical account for binary responses

Hutcheson ( 2007 ) believes that there are assorted facets to prove how good a theoretical account fits the information. These are sing the full theoretical account, single variables and single classs within variables. For proving the whole theoretical account and single variables, he suggests statistics based on the aberrance step such as -2LL, -2x log-likelihood.

-2LL has about a i??2distribution which allows proving significance. It can be said that the smaller the value of -2LL, the better the tantrum of the theoretical account. If the value is 0, it means that the theoretical account fits the informations absolutely and there is no aberrance. Goodness-of-fit can be obtained by comparing the -2LL with the -2LL of the void theoretical account, called -2LLdiff.This can be defined as:

-2LLdiff= ( -2LL0) – ( -2LL1)

Where -2LL0is the aberrance measuring of the void theoretical account logit ( P ) = i??

And -2LL1is the aberrance measuring of logit ( P ) = i??iˆ iˆ«iˆ i??x

It efficaciously compares the theoretical account with all the variables with the void theoretical account with no variables. The difference between these shows the consequence the explanatory variable has on the response variable. The alteration in -2LL is the consequence that the explanatory variable on the aberrance, whose significance can be measured utilizing the i??2distribution.

Harmonizing to SAS ( 1999 ) , for binary responses, the goodness-of-fit trials havem-qgrades of freedom, wheremis the figure of subpopulations andQis the figure of parametric quantities. If the consequences yield high p-values, so there is deficient verification for rejecting the void hypothesis, therefore the theoretical account is a good tantrum.

5 ) Proportional odds in theoretical accounts for binary responsesProportional odds theoretical accounts, besides known as Accumulative Logit Models for Ordinal Responses, were foremost studied by McCullagh ( 1980 ) as quoted by Rodriguez ( 2000 ) . Its general signifier is: Where are intercepts and i?? is the arrested development coefficients for the covariate vector tenI. The theoretical account implies that the cumulative odds ratio for any two values of the covariates is the same for all response classs. That is to state, the odds that a response is below a certain response degree are changeless, independent of which degree you choose. This theoretical account can be extended so that it constrains some forecasters to hold common parametric quantities whilst others can hold different 1s. This type of theoretical account is called a partial relative odds theoretical account.

Either the relative odds theoretical account or the relative jeopardies theoretical account can be used to pattern ordinal responses. The relative odds theoretical account is used more frequently because it is an extension of the logistic arrested development theoretical account from binary response to ordinal response with more than two classs.

Valenta et Al ( 2006 ) province that the relative odds logistic arrested development theoretical account can be utile in binary results every bit good. From a chance point, the cut-off values for the result variable would connote either of the two binary category ranks with equal opportunities. If an intermediate degree for marginal readings is included, utilizing the relative odds theoretical account for two parallel logistic arrested developments, there will be a boundary line reading within normal boundaries and at other times, unnatural readings of the binary response. The two arrested developments use different cut-offs, but a common estimated arrested development coefficient. , doing the odds proportional.

6 ) The function of Multi degree theoretical accounts in analyzing hierarchically structured informations

Harmonizing to Plewis ( 1998 ) , multilevel mold uses statistical techniques in a societal context, which adds a hierarchal nature to traditional multiple arrested development theoretical accounts. This is peculiarly helpful in analysing information which has a nested construction. Multi-level theoretical accounts are able to analyze the degrees within these constructions at the same time, extinguishing inquiries sing which degree within the hierarchy should be analysed. These theoretical accounts can be used in both perennial step and multivariate informations, every bit good as when there is losing informations.

Multi-level mold is utile in the societal sphere, where both persons and their societal contexts must be studied. It gives more information between factors impacting an result. Since there are different variables at the different hierarchal degrees, sometimes it is hard to find which level the analysis should be carried out at. In the instance of multi-level theoretical accounts, informations must be collected and analysed at all degrees at the same clip, extinguishing the determination of taking a degree or aggregating informations to analyze it.

These theoretical accounts are utile for perennial steps informations. He explains the instance of a figure of persons with one-year income over a figure of old ages. Here, the times income was measured could be one degree and each of the persons the 2nd degree. Income could be modeled as a smooth map of clip to see how parametric quantities change from one person to another, without necessitating each of the persons to hold the same figure of measurings.

Multilevel techniques allow research workers to widen the types of inquiries that can be answered from informations and theoretical account in a more sophisticated and complex mode. The challenge becomes more of a affair of construing the consequences, which requires paying attending to the implicit in premises. Besides, this attack requires a much larger sum of informations in order to transport out equal analysis.

7 ) A probit theoretical account specification for ordered class responses

The ordered probit theoretical account should be used when there are ordinal variables alternatively of numerical 1s in an analysis.

The ordered probit theoretical account has the signifier ( SAS, 1999 ) : Which can besides be expressed as: where is the opposite of the cumulative criterion normal distribution map, or probit. Therefore, represents denotes the cumulative criterion normal distribution map

Hausman et Al ( 1991 ) depict the ordered probit theoretical account as “a technique used most often in cross-sectional surveies of dependent variables that take on merely a finite figure of values possessing a natural ordering.” They use the illustration of instruction degree as such a variable, which can be measured by assorted classs, college, high school or prior to high school which are ordered ( you must travel to high school before traveling to college ) . Ordered probit is a generalisation of the additive arrested development theoretical account, for when the dependant variable is distinct, as is the instance in the instruction degree illustration above.

This analysis assumes that there is a arrested development theoretical account with a latent uninterrupted dependant variable Z* whose conditional mean is a additive map of ascertained “explanatory” variables. Z* is related to Z ( an discernible distinct random variable ) which in bend is determined by where Z* lies in its sphere. By partitioning Z into finite distinguishable parts, Z can be an index map for Z* over these parts. Ordered probit can be used for any polynomial distribution, and has the advantage of besides capturing monetary value effects of certain economic variables ( as regressors ) .

8 ) Iterative generalised least squares

Rodriguez ( 2000 ) indicates that an advantage of generalised additive theoretical accounts, and generalized least squares in peculiar, is that they can be fit to informations utilizing one algorithm, known as iteratively re-weighted least squares.

Adbi ( n.d. ) has written that one of the premises behind Ordinary Least Squares ( OLS ) is that there must be homoscedasticity. However when there are different sub-populations that have their ain estimation of the mistake discrepancy, so generalised least squares ( besides called weighted least squares ) can give a better estimation than OLS. Each observation is given a weight depending on the degree of the uncertainness of the measuring. This weight will be related to the discrepancy of each observation.

When the parametric quantities for nonlinear maps are so estimated, utilizing derivates may non give right consequences. When this occurs, it is necessary to utilize iterative methods to get at an estimation. The manner this is done is utilizing bit-by-bit arrested development to happen the best estimation. This is to state, at each measure a additive appraisal is found and so this is refined rectifying in the undermentioned back-to-back stairss. These techniques are called gradient descent and Gauss-Newton estimates. They are algorithms used for optimisation. This is done by taking stairss relative to the negative of the incline of the map at a peculiar point. This is done repeatedly until the best estimation is found, work outing little piecewise additive jobs. Another method involves work outing consecutive jobs with a changeless weight and taking the last solution obtained to recompute the weight for the following job.

9 )The function of multilevel theoretical accounts in avoiding ecological false beliefs

Freedman ( 1999 ) explains that the ecological false belief occurs when one thinks that relationships that apply to certain groups must besides keep true for persons. Some illustrations would be if person thought “if states with more Protestants tend to hold higher self-destruction rates, so Protestants must be more likely to perpetrate self-destruction ; if states with more fat in the diet have higher rates of chest malignant neoplastic disease, so adult females who eat fatty nutrients must be more likely to acquire breast cancer.” Even if these tax write-offs were right, they do non hold sufficient informations to back up them. Multilevel theoretical accounts help turn to this by stressing non merely the person, but their societal context every bit good.

Multilevel theoretical accounts supply a model that combines single degree study informations with aggregative group degree informations. If traditional theoretical accounts were used they could merely make so at a individual degree: individual degree ( with single degree informations ) or group degree ( with sum informations ) . In these instances, if single degree illations were made, they might be out of context, if the group degree information was non taken into history. Multilevel theoretical accounts allow both single and group degree analysis together and at the same clip. Alternatively, dummy variables could be used for the group analysis, called the fixed effects attack. Yet this is non every bit efficient as multilevel modeling. The latter allows uniting informations from several beginnings and let sophisticated hypotheses to be tested without the demand for extra variables or interactions to the theoretical account. Therefore, in a simple mode, the whole truth can be discovered, without come ining into an ecological false belief.

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10 ) The Weibull Latent variables and its function in patterning jeopardies

Hazard maps have a function in survival analysis. As portion of this, the Weibull map can be interpreted in footings of a relative jeopardies theoretical account. Proportional jeopardies ( Wikipedia 2007 ) are portion of endurance theoretical accounts. Survival theoretical accounts have two parts, the jeopardy map ( that shows how risks alteration over clip ) and the consequence parametric quantities ( how the hazard is related to other factors ) . The relative jeopardies premise states that consequence parametric quantities multiply jeopardies.

If one assumes that the relative jeopardies premise is true so one can besides reason that the map follows a known signifier. For illustration, in the Weibull jeopardy map, the endurance times follow the Weibull distribution.

Rodriguez ( 2000 ) explains that the log-log transmutation

 i??I= log ( -log ( 1-i?°I) ) ,

Is the opposite of the cumulative distribution map ( cdf ) of the log-Weibull distribution, so its cdf is

 F ( i??I) = 1 – vitamin E-ei??I.

If i?°Iis little, so the complementary log-log transmutation is near to the logit. However, in contrast to probit or logit, as the chance additions, the transmutation approaches eternity more easy.

Rodriguez ( 2000 ) confirms that “this log-log nexus map can be obtained from the general latent variable preparation if we assume that -UIhas a standard extreme value distribution, so the mistake term itself has a contrary extreme value distribution, with c.d.f.“

 F ( UI) = vitamin E-e-UI.

In the generalized theoretical account with binary response combined with log-log nexus, the effects of covariates on a latent variable follow a additive theoretical account with rearward utmost value mistakes. This transmutation can be interpreted in footings of jeopardy ratios.

Mentions

Abid, H. ( n.d. )Least Squares[ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.utdallas.edu/~herve/Abdi-LeastSquares-pretty.pdf [ cited 22 August 2007 ]

Freedman, D. ( 1999 ) .Ecological Inference and the Ecological Fallacy. [ on-line ] International Encyclopaedia of the Social and Behavioural Sciences Technical Report no. 549. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.stanford.edu/class/ed260/freedman549.pdf [ cited 22 August 2007 ]

Hausman, J. A. et Al, ( 1991 ) .An Ordered Probit Analysis of Transaction Stock Monetary values[ online ] . NBER Working Paper No. W3888. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //press.princeton.edu/books/lo/chapt10.pdf [ cited 23 August 2007 ]

Hsiao, C. , ( 2003 ) ,Analysis of Panel Data. 2neodymiumerectile dysfunction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hutcheson, G. ( 2007 ) .The Generalized Linear Model, Lecture Notes[ online ] from Manchester University. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.education.man.ac.uk/rgsweb/EDUC61022_2006_lec08.pdf [ cited 21 August 2007 ]

Lee, S-Y. ( 2007 ) ,Handbook of latent variable and related theoretical accounts, Boston: Elsevier/North-Holland.

Long, J.S. , ( 1997 ) ,Arrested development Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables.A volume in the Sage Series for Advanced Quantitative Techniques. California: Sage Publications.

Maddala, G.S. ( 1983 ) .Limited-dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometricss. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Plewis, N. ( 1998 ) . Multilvel Models.Social Research Update[ online ] ,23. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //sru.soc.surrey.ac.uk/SRU23.html [ cited 21 August 2007 ]

Rodriguez, G. , ( 2007 ) .Lecture Notes: Generalized Linear Models.[ online ] from Princeton University. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //data.princeton.edu/wws509/notes/default.htm [ cited 20 August 2007 ]

SAS Institute, ( 1999 ) .Goodness of Fit Tests and Subpopulations[ online ] from SAS web site. Available from:

hypertext transfer protocol: //v8doc.sas.com/sashtml/stat/chap39/sect50.htm # logx11b [ cited 22 August 2007 ]

Valenta, Z. et Al, ( 2006 ) , Proportional odds logistic arrested development – effectual agencies of covering with uncertainness in dichotomising clinical results,Statisticss in Medicine[ online ] ,25: 4227-4234. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/112770432/PDFSTART [ cited 22 August 2007 ]

Wikipedia, ( 2007 ) ,Proportional Hazards Models[ online ] , Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proportional_hazards_models [ cited 22 August 2007 ] 