Work Study And Work Simplification Accounting Essay
Work survey is chiefly related to human work, method of making work and criterion of public presentation. It is an of import direction tool to accomplish higher productiveness. The endurance of any administration depends on usage of latest engineering and well-organized methods of production. The efficiency of production should be improved to bring forth better quality merchandise at decreased cost. Historically, work-study purposes at bettering the bing and proposed ways of making work and set uping standard clip for work public presentation.
ILO defines work survey as the technique of method survey and work measuring employed to guarantee the best possible usage of human and material resources in transporting out a specified activity.
Work survey is to understate cost either by planing work for high productiveness or by bettering productiveness in bing work through betterments in current methods and by cut downing uneffective and otiose clip.
Work survey is a direction service based on those techniques, in peculiar method survey and work measuring, which are used in the scrutiny of human work in all its contexts and which lead to the systematic probe of all the resources and factors which affect the efficiency and economic system of the state of affairs being reviewed, in order to impact betterment.
A generic term for those techniques, peculiarly method survey and work measuring, which are used in the scrutiny of human work in all its contexts, and which lead consistently to the probe of all the factors which affect the efficiency and economic system of the state of affairs being reviewed, in order to consequence betterment ‘ .
Work Study is the systematic scrutiny of the methods of transporting out activities such as to better the effectual usage of resources and to put up criterions of public presentation for the activities carried out.
( Time Study )
Method survey involves survey of work to cut down work content and set uping best manner of making the work.
Method survey is the systematic recording and critical scrutiny of bing and proposed ways of making work, as a agency of developing and using easier and more effectual methods and cut downing costs.
Work measuring is related to look intoing and cut downing any uneffective clip associated with the work and set uping clip criterions for an operation carried out as per criterion method.
Work measuring is the application of techniques designed to set up the clip for a qualified worker to transport out a specified occupation at a defined degree of public presentation.
12.2 IMPORTANCE OF WORK-STUDY
Work-study is a agency of heightening the production efficiency ( productiveness ) of the house by riddance of waste and unneeded operations.
It is a technique to place non-value adding operations by probe of all the factors impacting the occupation.
It is the lone accurate and systematic process oriented technique to set up clip criterions.
It is traveling to lend to the net income as the nest eggs will get down instantly and go on throughout the life of the merchandise
It has got cosmopolitan application.
12.3 OBJECTIVES OF WORK STUDY
To urge and implement the coveted betterment in work methods by set uping the most economical manner of making work.
Examination of bing method.
Finding failing in production procedure ( If any ) .
Most effectual use of bing or proposed resources.
Effective use of resources.
Puting public presentation criterions.
Measuring public presentation.
Use of public presentation criterion to pay inducements.
Standardise method, stuff and equipments used in the production procedure.
12.4 ADVANTAGES OF WORK STUDY
I ) It selects best method of making a work.
two ) It helps to accomplish uninterrupted production with minimal holds and breaks.
three ) It helps to cut down cost of production by extinguishing wastage and unneeded operations.
ivl Properly designed work content helps to carry through committednesss made to client.
V ) Improved workplace design.
six ) Better working conditions for workers.
seven ) Higher use of resources.
eight ) Standard clip is used to cipher work force and machine demands.
12.5 WORK STUDY PROCEDURE
Work survey process consists of 8 basic stairss some of them are common to both method survey and work measuring. They are shown in Figure 15.1.
Job or Process to be studied
All the inside informations refering occupation utilizing assorted entering techniques
Recorded facts critically by inquiring inquiries like who, what, when, why
Most economical method
The sum of work involved and set standard clip to make that occupation
The new method as a criterion pattern
New method and standard clip
New method as in agreement criterions
Basic stairss involved in Work Study
12.6 WORK STUDY AND WORK SIMPLIFICATION
Work force, stuff, equipment and machines are the of import resources of any production procedure. Work survey ensures use of these resources. Quickly altering engineering has made procedure and method more complicated. Method survey, an of import constituent of work survey divides work into smaller elements. The elements which are unneeded are eliminated. Then all work elements are rearranged to acquire new and improved method for better production planning and control. Such analysis of method ensures optimal use of resources. The work simplification starts with the item analysis of merchandise to transport out alterations in design, extinguishing unneeded operations etc.
12.7 WORK STUDY AND HUMAN RELATIONS
Higher productiveness can non be obtained without co-operation of workers, supervisors and direction. To carry on method survey, good human dealingss among workers, supervisors and direction is perfectly necessary. Work survey should non be carried out in the ambiance of misgiving. Work survey involves alterations in method ( through method survey ) and may affect re-development or transportation of some employees. Therefore there may be protest from some employees. By and large in developing states, it can be ground of hapless industrial relation, work stoppage etc. However work survey is good in longer tally. Therefore work survey should be carried out with proper treatment with supervisors and workers. Top direction should back up it. Work survey should be carried out by qualified individual who can win assurance of workers.
12.8 WORK STUDY AND MANAGEMENT
Management must back up the work survey for its success. They should hold positive mentality towards supervisors and workers. In earlier yearss of industrialization, there was belief that workers are lazy and they do non work hard till they are forced. But this is non right. Working conditions, motive, engagement in determination devising, etc related to
workers must be given due concern. ..
Management must gain that workers are existent subscribers in bettering productiveness and success of any administration. Before presenting work survey, workers must be taken into assurance. They should be told about benefits of work survey. They should be assured of their occupation, better working conditions, etc. While transporting out work survey, every bit far as possible, workers should be allowed to take part in determination devising of their work and work related jobs. Management should make healthy environment of trust so that workers will experience proud to lend positively in the betterment.
12.9 WORK STUDY AND SUPERVISORS
Supervisors acts as go-between between direction and workers. But work survey adult male may confront jobs of supervisor & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s attitude. Success of work survey depends upon co-operation offered by supervisor. Before presenting work survey, aims, intent and process of work survey must be explained to supervisor. He must be taken into assurance because he is the 1, who can convert the workers successfully about benefits of work survey.
12.10 WORK STUDY AND WORKERS
Work survey brings the alterations in method of making a work, process etc. However orkers resist or protest the alterations due to fear of loss of occupation. Therefore before presenting work survey, workers must be taken into assurance. They must be told about the benefits of work survey to administration and workers. They must be allowed to take portion in determination doing procedure of worker related jobs. Through co-operation of direction. supervisor and workers, administration can successfully implement work survey. Work survey should non merely be restricted to work or method of making work. It besides considers working conditions to workers. ennui due to insistent occupation etc. Therefore the man-agement must seek to supply such on the job conditions in which person will experience like working in place.
12.11WORK STUDY AND WORK STUDY MAN
Work survey adult male must be qualified sooner university alumnus in technology. He should hold cognition of all constituents of production procedure. He should hold experience to the assorted fabrication system. He should hold good cognition of work survey. He should be sincere, honest. He must be self confident and should hold attitude of seeing state of affairs from other ‘s point of position. He should hold ability to cover with workers successfully. He should hold ability to implement work survey successfully by winning heads of workers.
12.12 CONCEPT OF WORK CONTENT
The sum of work in a given occupation is referred to as work content. The work content has two components:
I ) Basic work content: Basic work content is minimal clip required theoretically to make a occupation. Basic work content represents: perfect design, no work clip loss and exact follow up of process. It means ideal state of affairs.
two ) Excess work content: The existent clip required to finish an operation or work is more the than standard clip in pattern. The extra work content is called as extra work content.
Reasons of extra work content
In a fabrication procedure, the extra work content gets added, because of the following
a ) Design related work content
Bad design of the merchandise.
Lack of standardization of stuff. constituent, parts etc.
Incorrect specifications and quality criterions.
B ) Work content related to methods and production
Inproper choice of procedure and machine.
Incorrect choice of tools.
Use of old or outdated engineering and machines.
Ill maintained machines and equipments.
Poor works and store layout.
Inefficient stuff handling.
degree Celsius ) Work content related to direction
Poor working conditions.
Lack of motive.
Poor production planning and control.
Frequent machine apparatus.
Use of sub standard natural material-
Deficit of stuff / equipments.
Lack of public presentation criterions.
In equal preparation.
Scarce in quality consciousness
Poor direction -workers dealingss.
Lack of safety steps.
vitamin D ) Work content related to workers
Higher age of worker.
Apprenticeship of workers.
Negative attitude towards work.
Poor public presentation.
12.13 TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE WORK CONTENT
a ) Management techniques related to merchandise
Development of Product.
Standardization of stuffs, constituents.
B ) Management techniques related to treat
Execute procedure planning carefully.
Make usage of method survey.
Plant layout analysis.
degree Celsius ) Management techniques related to direction
Standardization of merchandise.
Appropriate preparation for development of workers.
Employ different safety steps and supply proper working conditions.
Production planning and control.
Plan care of the machines.
Make usage of stock list control techniques.
Use of Quality control techniques.
vitamin D ) Management techniques related to workers
Make usage of motivational techniques.
Training and development of workers.
Fiscal and non-financial inducements.