women prisoners in india and australia
Introduction –This research proposal aims to discourse on the Australia’s adult females captives in Townsville, Queensland and the India’s adult females captives of Goa. A critical comparing between the 2 gaols will be cited. Practically, there are already legion histories of literature reappraisals refering to the passage direction of captives both in Goa and Queensland during the former decennaries, which are conducted by authoritiess, bookmans and advocators in reply to the turning captive populations and recidivism rates. A general international understanding is already taking topographic point in these topographic points along with other states on the best pattern rules and common forms in gaols that have been observed over legal powers, which, therefore, permits the concerned parties to portion and cooperate on the instances.
Hypothesiss– This research proposal has aims and hypothesis needed to be applied in the prison direction of Queensland in Australia and Goa of India ( Walsh, 2006 ) . The following are specified as:Hypothesis 1– Is the Prisoner Rehabilitation Policy and Practice found in Queensland and Goa correcting? andHypothesis 2– What are the best pattern plans applied in Goa and Queensland, which are resulting in turn toing their prisoners’ public assistance and intervention demands, hence warranting the effects of their disadvantage and decreasing their susceptibleness to perpetrate future offenses?
Theoretical Framework –In this research proposal, Michel Foucault ‘s “ power-knowledge-discipline ” constructs shall be applied as a suggestion for the captive rehabilitation policy and pattern to be applied in Queensland, Australia. He is of import for this short application,
when one considers the ordinance of organic structures, clip and infinite in the
imprisonment context. To me, the bringing of human rights might be
constrained by such ordinance. The theoretician is known for his book – “The Archaeology of Knowledge” ( Bate, 2007 ) . He argues in his magisterial Discipline and Punishment: The Birth of the Penitentiary that the prison represents modernness itself, which leads to get downing a “ carceral society ” inquiring gaol governments to pattern proper power, cognition, subject, and control within the boundaries of prison and the captives while they are in gaol. Furthermore, he said that one should analyze the prison non merely concentrating on the single captives, but every bit good as the whole prison. Its function in the society is implementing societal order and non devoid of the prisoners’ human rights ( Dodge, 1999 ) , which if in a confinement state of affairs and other stages of corrections are expected to take to “rehabilitation” , “reintegration” and so on as the demand for the re-shaping of these captives arises. In theory, these concerns are fundamentally capable to different restraints, but all can be attributed to Foucault’s theory. In this stead, governments in a prison should bear good cognition and exemplifies subjects that unfastened doors to chances able to make transmutations in individual. Queensland prison direction should use this theory in their captive rehabilitation policy and pattern in order to run into a “ rationally ” constabulary, educate, socialize and sanitise being of the captives. Foucault besides advises to set modern theories together with the application of history in system.
Several associating subject and punish theoreticians can be applied on Goa, India on the other manus for a theoretical base model. They are Piers Bierne, who said that the intersection of 2 countries of province activity in penality and statistics can ensue to positivism in criminology ; Nanette Davis said that the development of societal scientific discipline subject has shown efforts on what is an ideal societal improvement that can be promulgated as a theoretical principle ; and David Jones gave intending to positive criminology being related to the consequences of a useful penal policies application in policing and imprisonment ( Neyhouse, 2002 ) . Such theoreticians can back up the hopes for bettering the current province of Goa’s Prison Department, wherein the lone resources are minimum to reply the basic demands of its captives, unlike gaol systems in other states, like Australia and USA that shows predominating criterions of society, prison conditions being normally adequate ( Foreign Prisoner Support Service, 1997 – 2006 ) .
Other criminology theoreticians are Mark Findlay – the method of time-space compaction or globalization has given additions on the kernel of offense relationships, where it is comparable to any other important market force ( Findlay, 1999 ) ; John Irwin – found in his survey in criminology that there is no existent relationship in additions in the imprisonment with the lowering of offense rate through a arrested development analysis correlating records in imprisonment and offense transmutations in every province of America ( Irwin, Schiraldi & A ; Ziedenberg, 2000 ) ; and Don Weatherburn together with Lucy Snowball conducted an Australian survey on a subject of racial prejudice in condemning grownup wrongdoers, which concluded that Autochthonal wrongdoers show longer condemnable records over non-Indigenous opposite numbers ( Weatherburn & A ; Snowball, 2007 ) .
Australia Women Prisoners in Townsville, Queensland –The Corrective Services Act 2000 Qld states an history of the intents in QLD restorative services system, with regard on offense bar, particular demands, rehabilitation, humane containment, supervising, and community safety before to be perchance reintegrated into the community. Such legal application is accounted by the criminological theory, legal codifications, at all degrees from the State, to Federal authoritiess, to State or regional ordinances to the UN and Department of Corrective Services. Furthermore, it is an updated version of its Kennedy Review back in 1988. Who are the captives of Qld? – Most of the captives originate from exceptionally disadvantaged backgrounds, which are fundamentally Indigenous, hapless or homeless, inveterate under or unemployed and undereducated or nonreader ( Walsh, 2006 ) .
India Women Prisoners of Goa –Its gaol system suffers from critics that said the current conditions of poorness in Indian society rely on recidivism, due to the gaol induing minimum degrees of nutrient, vesture, and shelter. Furthermore, India ‘s prisons are truly overcrowded. Their Goa captives are sing a better or worse intervention depending on the inside informations of their offense and economic position. The Prison Act 1894, Transfer of Prisoners Act of 1950 and Prisoners Act of 1900 provinces that gaol officers should pattern an efficient disposal of the captives, who are constituted by the criminological theory, legal codifications, at all degrees from the State, to Federal authoritiess, to State or regional ordinances to the UN ( Foreign Prisoner Support Service, 1997 – 2006 ) .
Methodology –This research proposal aims to carry through its methodological analysis with the agencies of executing a series of discovered interviews and qualitative studies with the both former captives and existent captive service suppliers in Goa and Queensland. Together with this, a thorough research on the statistical grounds and information found online and in libraries sing reported judicial reappraisal determinations should take topographic point ( Walsh, 2006 ) .
Conclusion –In decision, the part of cognition derived from this research proposal will significantly sum up the human rights conditions of Australia’s adult females captives in Townsville Queensland and the India’s adult females captives of Goa. If a prison community security is to be ensured, there will be a significant transmutation of the current rehabilitation system in jails nowadays in the 2 localities. Importantly, the lone manner this can be reached is to guarantee that the captives come ining the prison system are ‘corrected ‘ during their detainment footings. A committedness of thorough attention, gradual release, aftercare and concentrating on the particular demands of every captive groups should be met. Merely so, that it can be said that the QLD and Goa prison gaols are resulting international best pattern rules.