With the use of specific examples critically
With the usage of specific illustrations critically discuss the function of molecular engineerings in the production of fresh agents for both contraceptive and curative intents.
It is a fact that many fresh contraceptive ( preventive ) and curative ( intervention ) agents are developed and used each twelvemonth and that in the bulk of instances advanced molecular engineerings are critical to their development. Diseases such as malignant neoplastic disease, bosom disease, malaria, grippe and diabetes are now being successfully treated, and in the instance of malaria and grippe prevented, because of such engineerings as cistron look microarray, antisense engineering and recombinant DNA procedures. These three particular illustrations will now be used to foreground how of import molecular engineerings are to the on-going development of fresh drug agents.
Gene look microarray
The Institute of Cancer Research is presently utilizing this comparatively new signifier of engineering to prove how fresh curative agents change the manner that specific cistrons are expressed and from this they can find how good a new drug will be. In a cancerous cell an transforming gene regulates the grade to which other secondary cistrons are expressed. Therefore when an transforming gene is activated, secondary genomic codifications are transcribed to organize messenger RNA and from this specific proteins are produced i.e. the cistron merchandise. By mensurating the concentration of messenger RNA in a cell, cistron look microarray can observe the rate at which a particular transforming gene is working and this can give a good image sing how virulent a instance of malignant neoplastic disease is.
When fresh curative agents are applied to the cancerous cells cistron look microarray can be performed once more so that any alterations in the grade of transforming gene or secondary cistron look can be detected and analysed i.e. by re-measuring the sum of messenger RNA that is present. If cistron look has changed for the better so research workers know that they have found a possible curative agent.
This molecular technique can besides be used to prove sensitiveness and opposition of malignant neoplastic disease cells to presently used agents in add-on to fresh agents so that people with sensitiveness or opposition can be treated with alternate drug therapies. In short, cistron look microarray is a really utile manner of finding the value of fresh curative agents and as such is besides being used in malaria research. High denseness arrays are presently being used to bring forth the look profiles of both the human phase and the mosquito phase of Plasmodium falciparum’s life rhythm so that new drug marks can be identified. Hopefully this will take to the development of new contraceptive and curative agents for malaria that don’t succumb to opposition.
This 2nd molecular engineering carries on from where cistron look microarray leaves off and purposes to bring forth fresh agents known as antisense drugs.
Antisense oligonucleotides are man-made strands of Deoxyribonucleic acid that compliment a mark subdivision of DNA or RNA, the sequence of which is determined utilizing familial molecular engineerings. These oligonucleotides are used for the intent of halting a specific biological procedure that occurs in a cell ; be it written text, interlingual rendition or Deoxyribonucleic acid splice. Therefore when antisense oligonucleotides are used as curative agents, for illustration in the intervention of malignant neoplastic disease, they have the ability to halt indispensable proteins being made by cancerous cells or to suppress cell division. There are a figure of antisense drugs in the clinical test stage at present including the followers:
- ISIS 2302 which targets the ICAM-1 cistron and is used for ulcerative inflammatory bowel disease.
- Genasense which targets BCL-2 and is used in the intervention of malignant neoplastic disease.
- E2F steerer which targets the E2F cistron and is used to handle coronary artery disease.
- M998 which targets DNA MeTase and will hopefully be used to handle lung, colon and chest malignant neoplastic disease.
- 1018-ISS which target the cells of the immune system which are responsible for asthma. It is hoped that this antisense drug will hold a powerful contraceptive consequence.
New molecular engineerings have allowed research workers to understand diseases at a molecular degree and from this fresh agents can, and are being, developed which tackle the disease at its beginning i.e. at a cellular degree, instead than merely handling the symptoms. These engineerings are besides leting the research universe to develop contraceptive agents that may assist to forestall specific diseases and medical conditions.
Recombinant DNA procedure
This is a molecular biological science technique whereby DNA molecules that are non of course found together are combined to organize recombinant DNA and this new signifier of DNA codifications for a specific biological molecule.
This procedure is being widely used to develop contraceptive vaccinums to some of the world’s worst known viruses including the grippe virus and those responsible for malaria, cholera and listeria. At present research is concentrating on associating the protein of a specific vaccinum antigen with a length of bacterial flagellin so that the terminal merchandise i.e. the vaccinum is much more powerful. These merger vaccinums are formed when a round DNA vector that codes for a peculiar flagellin-antigen merger vaccinum is inserted into a bacteria. Once inside the DNA vector initiates the production of vaccinum molecules which are secreted into the environing media and from there the recombinant protein is isolated and purified.
This technique that uses simple bacteriums can be employed on a immense graduated table so that fresh vaccinums can be manufactured quickly, therefore it is suited to the bar and intervention of all pandemic viruses. Already these recombinant Deoxyribonucleic acid techniques have been used to bring forth a figure of vaccinums which generate strong immune responses in animate being theoretical accounts, even to virulent pathogens such as listeria and grippe.
These new molecular engineerings that cover the subjects of genetic sciences, immunology, microbiology and molecular design are indispensable if research workers want to go on to develop fresh curative and contraceptive agents, particularly with respects to diseases in which the virus or other vector responsible mutates on an one-year footing e.g. grippe, or where the disease-causing agent rapidly becomes immune to the presently used drugs e.g. malaria. Many of the transnational research institutes are utilizing these molecular engineerings even though they are improbably expensive to put up and run, which once more points to the fact that they are priceless for today’s advanced research methods. A simple correlativity can be made between promotions in molecular engineerings and promotions in the effectivity of contraceptive and curative agents which certainly can’t be a happenstance. Thus it is safe to state that molecular engineerings do in fact play a important function in the development of fresh contraceptive and curative agents.