With The Advancement Of Technology Psychology Essay

With the promotion of engineering, utilizing the Internet on a day-to-day footing has become the norm of the young persons. More than 93 of American young persons went on-line as of 2009 and the current figure of young persons online is likely on the rise ( Lenhart, Purcell, Smith & A ; Zickuhr, 2010 ) . The increasing sum of Internet use and Internet interactions has been the tendency in Singapore and overseas. In Singapore entirely, there are more than 3 million Internet users, or 68 % of the population, harmonizing to International Telecommunication Union ( 2009 ) .

Many research surveies have been interested in how the Internet affects our lives. There are many aspects of the Internet that have been of research involvement: computing machine games, web sites, confab suites, on-line communities and forums. Among these subjects, surveies normally focus on the negative impact of Internet related activities such as erotica, gaming, Internet and bet oning dependence, online fraud, and how all these activities affect the mental and physical wellbeing of people and, in peculiar, kids. The focal point of research subjects with respects to Internet dependence is besides great ( Davis, 2001 ; Grohol, 1999 ; Holmes, 1997 ) . Studies show that Internet dependence has been associated with major depression, anxiousness, personality upsets, substance maltreatment and shortages in societal accomplishments ( Shaw & A ; Black, 2008 ; Block, 2008 ; Ghassemzadeh, Shahraray & A ; Moradi, 2008 ; Bernardi & A ; Pallanti, 2009 ) . On the other manus, Campbell, Cumming & A ; Hughes ( 2006 ) argue that clip spent online is unrelated to anxiety or depression and people who on a regular basis use confabs are less socially fearful.

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However, as Internet is seen more of a necessity in the day-to-day life of a Singaporean young person, it will be hard to separate an Internet nut based on the figure of hours one has spent on the Internet. It is common for Singaporean young persons to be given e-homework or on-line survey interruptions where pupils are encouraged to make self-study online. The line between what is necessary and what is inordinate is so farther blurred due to the cultural alteration of the importance of the Internet in a young person ‘s life.

There are many on-line platforms available on the Internet where people can pass on and interact with each other. Social Networking Sites, or SNS, are web-based services that allow persons to ( 1 ) concept a public or semi-public profile within a delimited system, ( 2 ) joint a list of other users with whom they portion a connexion, and ( 3 ) position and track their list of connexions and those made by others within the system ( Boyd & A ; Ellison, 2007 ) . SNS such as Facebook, Friendster, MySpace, are a combination of older online communicating engineerings like confab suites, web sites and avocation groups, which allows users to make many different types of interactions on a individual platform. Traditional on-line communities typically provided individual-centered service whereas SNS provides a group-centered attack to online communications. SNS sites allow users to portion thoughts, activities, events, and involvements within their single webs. These sites typically allow users to make a profile page where they can expose their name, images, personal information, avocations, involvements and other information that users want to expose. The profile page on SNS becomes an on-line individuality or character that a individual uses to interact with friends and aliens on the web. Depending on the characteristics of the SNS, users can post articles, quotation marks, pictures, music, remarks and other types of on-line media to each other ‘s profile page. The interaction that users have with each other online is surely non any less than confab suites, electronic mails, or other signifier of on-line interaction since SNS encompass all these characteristics. This is why SNS are the most visited web sites in the universe, with Facebook being the most popular societal networking platform ( Lenhart, Purcell, Smith & A ; Zickuhr, 2010 ) .


Harmonizing to Facebook ‘s imperativeness room web page ( “ Facebook Press Room ” , 2010 ) , there are presently 400 million active users worldwide. Harmonizing to Alexa Top 500 Global Sites ( 2010 ) , a web site that analyzes web traffic statistics, Facebook is the 2nd most visited web site in the universe after Google.com. Facebook is besides the top web site visited in Singapore, Indonesia, Norway, Philippines and Malaysia. Singapore entirely has 2.6 million users on Facebook harmonizing to Social Bakers Singapore Facebook Statistics ( 2012 ) . With Facebook ‘s increased popularity since the company was foremost started in 2004, it should come as no surprise that it is now common for people of all ages and backgrounds to hold a Facebook page, if non some other sort of societal networking profile.

Facebook has gained such popularity that there are people coining the term “ Facebook Addiction Disorder ” , although there have been small surveies on the subject. In an article on CNN ‘s web site, Cohen ( 2010 ) interviewed several healers, and one described “ Facebook Addiction Disorder ” as “ a irresistible impulse – a irresistible impulse to disassociate from your existent universe and travel unrecorded in the Facebook universe. ” The article besides implied that the ground people are addicted to Facebook is to get away from their existent lives, and that Facebook is really much ingrained into our day-to-day lives, non unlike Internet dependence.

Due to the alone functionality of Facebook and other SNS, there has late been increased involvement in research on societal networking. Hence, surveies concentrating on user wonts and how Facebook affects persons ‘ lives in assorted facets have been on the rise.

This survey chooses to chiefly analyze Facebook use as SNS is an ongoing tendency, through which most young persons interact with other people after school. Due to the huge figure of activities one can prosecute in on Facebook, it satisfies the amusement demands of young persons. We suspect that many young persons have besides been set uping friendly relationships on the Internet via societal networking tools.

To to the full understand why Facebook is such a powerful platform which has attracted so many people, one would hold to research the different characteristics that Facebook offers. Currently, Facebook allows its users to “ friend ” people on their Facebook page, where one can custom-make their privateness scene of their Facebook “ friend ” to let their “ friends ” to hold full entree or limited entree to their Facebook page.

Users can besides post remarks, images, pictures and links on their ain Facebook page, or remark on others ‘ . Users can wish each other ‘s remarks and answer to them every bit good, so there is multi-way interactivity between users. Other characteristics of Facebook besides include the “ Gifts ” options where users can give practical gifts to others, or “ Poke ” which serves no other purpose other than virtually poke ating others. Users can besides utilize Facebook ‘s instant courier to chew the fat with their friends real-time.

There are many other applications within Facebook that adds even more dynamic functionality to the web site and the figure of applications available to its users are turning every twenty-four hours. Applications available on Facebook include: games, instruction, concern, life style, athleticss and public-service corporations. All of these applications allows for users to utilize them while interacting with other users and their friends. As Facebook faces many rivals in the market, they continue to spread out and incorporate more functionality to their site to prosecute a wider scope of users. With the increased popularity of smart phones, nomadic phones that can entree the Internet and let for users to put in applications, it is besides really common for people to utilize Facebook on their nomadic phones. This allows for users to utilize Facebook even when they are in school, at work, taking public transit or holding repasts.

SNS provides many differing applications and maps, and its of all time increasing usage leads it to go a growingly built-in portion of the day-to-day lives of grownups and striplings. As such, it is both a critical and fascination country for research into its effects. Although the survey on computing machine mediated communicating is non new, there are many different facets of SNS applications yet to be researched about.

Chapter 2


This chapter describes the literature on some of the research done on Facebook users, and lists the research inquiries and hypotheses investigated in this thesis.

Why Study Social Networking Sites?

Most surveies agree that because of the reduced gestural cues in Internet use, users experience a greater sense of namelessness online than in face-to-face exchanges ( McKenna & A ; Bargh, 2000 ; Bargh, McKenna, & A ; Fitzsimmons, 2002 ) . Campbell, Cumming and Hughes ( 2006 ) further argue that the Internet was used by socially dying, down, inhibited persons as a signifier of low-risk societal attack. Socially dying kids and striplings have been found to exhibit significantly poorer societal accomplishments than those who are socially good adjusted ( Beidel et al. , 2007 ) . Hence, the usual manner of interaction with others will present troubles for them compared to interactions on the Internet where less societal accomplishments are required to socialize. As the online platform eliminates the demand of being physically face-to-face with the other individual, people who are less comfy with doing oculus contact, being in physical contact with person else and who are afraid of examination can be more at easiness pass oning through a medium that does non necessitate these accomplishments.

As physical attraction is non of import in the Internet environment, it may offer them a safe chance for individuality experiments with much less fright of disapproval and rejection ( Ando & A ; Sakamoto, 2008 ) . Therefore socializing and pass oning through on-line methods are more appealing to lonely and socially dying people ( Morahan-Martin & A ; Schumacher, 2003 ) . Furthermore, as interacting on Social Networking Sites ( SNS ) allows for amendments or omissions of what was posted or said, people have greater control over what will be expressed to others.

It is worthy to observe that the bulk of the surveies on shyness, solitariness, societal anxiousness and peer support cited are likely to mention to individual ‘s perceived feelings based on face-to-face interactions with other persons or the deficiency of this. As the Internet allows for persons to get the better of such feelings by giving an alternate platform of interaction besides physical contact, surveies of the Internet and particularly SNS might uncover different consequences from face-to-face interaction. Some surveies cited besides researched on the Internet as a whole, instead than different facets of the Internet. This survey, nevertheless, will merely concentrate on SNS and its relationship with shyness, solitariness, societal anxiousness, peer support and on-line societal comfort.


Shyness is typically characterised by an suppression of societal behaviours in the presence of others, and anxiousness reactions such as tenseness, uncomfortableness and antipathy of regard ( Buss, 1980 ; Chen, Chen & A ; Kaspar, 2001 ) . Past surveies besides show that diffident persons typically report holding fewer friends than non-shy persons ( for illustration, Jones & A ; Carpenter, 1986 ) . However, many surveies of shyness in the yesteryear ( for illustration, Buss, 1980 ; Cheek & A ; Buss, 1981 ) have focused on suppression of face-to-face societal behaviours which does non account for on-line societal behaviours. Furthermore, Cheek and Buss ( 1980 ) argues that shyness and sociableness are distinguishable personality temperaments.

Using SNS to spread out one ‘s societal web would appeal to those that have trouble prosecuting in societal communicating in the existent universe, like those that are diffident. When compared with older Internet platforms such as forums or online bulletin boards, SNS enables synergistic communicating to a greater grade. The functionality of most SNS would enable people to portion images, send short messages, update and maintain path of activities in their lives. Ward and Tracey ( 2004 ) found that diffident persons were more likely to set up on-line relationships. Therefore diffident persons who might hold jobs set uping offline face-to-face relationships tend to happen it easier to make so on SNS. Warden and Tracey ( 2004 ) speculated that for diffident persons to hold higher Facebook use is due to the namelessness that might appeal to them.

In a survey of shyness and Facebook use, Orr et Al. ( 2009 ) found that for undergraduate pupils, shyness was correlated with the clip spent on Facebook ; these persons have higher Facebook use. They besides found that diffident persons experienced more on-line societal comfort on Facebook than non-shy 1s.

A survey by Madell & A ; Muncer ( 2007 ) showed that diffident persons have some different penchants of on-line interactions, such as lesser electronic mail use, but they have similar blink of an eye messaging and confab room use as others that are non diffident. They besides concluded that although shyness did non promote greater usage of on-line communicating tools, it did non move as a barrier.

Sheeks and Birchmeier ( 2007 ) found that diffident persons were more likely to describe fulfilling relationships established online. They besides argue that because of the perceived control characteristics of on-line interactions, people with societal suppression frequently turn to the Internet to run into their societal and intimacy demands.

Our survey will construct on old surveies to look into whether Singaporean young persons who are shy will hold increased SNS use.

Social Anxiety

Social anxiousness has been defined as the “ abiding experience of uncomfortableness, negative ideation, and unqualified public presentation in the expectancy and behavior of interpersonal dealing ” ( Hartman, 1986 ) . Social anxiousness is besides characterised by a strong fright of humiliation and embarrassment during exposure to unfamiliar people or possible examination by others ( Kashdan & A ; Herbert, 2001 ) . Shyness/inhibition and societal anxiousness are likewise conceptualised, in that both phenomena pertain to fear and anxiousness experienced in public presentation and other societal state of affairss, although societal anxiousness is a more debilitating status ( American Psychiatric Association, 2000 ) . La Greca and Lopez ( 1998 ) found that kids and young persons with societal anxiousness are sensitive about being rejected, have fewer friends and close relationships, and experience less supported and accepted by their equals. Shyness has been pointed out specifically as a precursor of societal anxiousness ( Schwartz, Snidman & A ; Kagan, 1999 ) in surveies of both striplings and grownups ( Degnan & A ; Fox, 2007 ) . Hence, societal anxiousness can be said as a more serious province of shyness whereby the socially dying individual have troubles in interacting with others and jobs socialising.

Some surveies did non happen important age or class differences for striplings in western states for societal anxiousness ( La Greca, 1999 ) , whereas others reported higher tonss on the Social Anxiety Scale for striplings in early to mid-adolescence than older ages ( Inderbitzen & A ; Walters, 2000 ; Storch, Masia-Warner, Dent, Roberti & A ; Fisher, 2004 ) . One survey of Chinese striplings reported higher degrees of anxiousness in older striplings ( 16-19 old ages ) than younger 1s ( 14-15 old ages ) on the societal anxiousness subscale of the Chinese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children ( Yao et al. , 2006 ) .

Campbell, Cumming and Hughes ‘ ( 2006 ) survey found that the chat maps of Internet applications could supply socially dying persons with a agencies to get by with their societal anxiousness. Besides, regular confab users had less societal anxiousness and the sum of clip spent online is unrelated to anxiety or depression.

This survey aims to analyze whether socially dying persons, similar to diffident persons, will hold increased SNS use.


Loneliness is a subjective emotional province where people feel isolated from others. It is during adolescence that societal relationships start to spread out outside of the person ‘s household unit ( Giordano, 2003 ) , hence peer credence and societal engagement is important at this phase. Furthermore, solitariness in adolescence has been associated with depression, antisocial behaviours, and societal anxiousness ( Beidel, Turner, Young, et al. , 2007 ; Prinstein, Boergers & A ; Vernberg, 2001 ) .

Kraut et Al. ( 1998 ) conducted a 2-year longitudinal survey where 169 participants who had ne’er been on-line were given full Internet entree and found that there were correlativities between hours spent online and reported feelings of depression and solitariness. They concluded that the more hours people used the Internet, the less clip they spent in contact with “ existent human existences ” and the poorer their psychological well-being in countries of depression and societal anxiousness. However, it may besides be the instance that people with depressive inclinations turn to the Internet, instead than the Internet causation depression. In a later survey, Kraut and co-workers ( Kraut et al. , 2002 ) reported that the ascertained negative effects of Internet usage had faded. In add-on, they conducted another longitudinal appraisal of Internet usage and psychological wellbeing with a sample of new computing machine and telecasting buyers but were unable to retroflex their earlier findings.

Many surveies ( Prisbell, 1988 ; Riggio, Throckmorton, & A ; DePaola, 1990 ; Segrin & A ; Flora, 2000 ; DiTommaso, Brannen-McNulty, Ross & A ; Burgess, 2003 ) have found a important negative relationship between solitariness and self-rated and observer-rated societal accomplishments. For illustration, Spitzberg and Hurt ( 1987 ) found that an person ‘s grade of solitariness was negatively related to his or her self-rating of interpersonal competency. Similarly, in a survey on solitariness and interpersonal accomplishment in dating state of affairss, Prisbell ( 1988 ) concluded that alone people reported holding greater trouble with originating face-to-face societal activity, less involvement in face-to-face societal activity, and perceived societal activity to be less honoring than non-lonely people.

If SNS like Facebook can function as a platform for interaction with equals, spread outing their circle of friends, set uping and keeping relationships, so possibly the forms of loneliness versus Internet use will be reciprocally related. SNS is hypothesised to function as an alternate communicating method instead than an flight from world as suggested by other surveies ( for illustration, Caplan, 2003 ) . Caplan ( 2003 ) besides claims that lonely and down persons may develop a penchant for on-line societal interaction. However, if solitariness is perceived social-isolation, so insulating oneself from SNS might alternatively bring forth the same feelings of solitariness.

Children ‘s societal, emotional and behavioural jobs has besides been found to impact their relationships, taking to loneliness ( Kupersmidt, Sigda, Sedikides & A ; Voegler, 1999 ) . A survey by Bonetti, Campbell, and Gilmore ( 2010 ) reported that pupils aged 10 to 16 old ages old, who self-reported being more lonely had higher on-line communicating use. They posit that Internet use allows them to carry through the demands of societal interactions, self-disclosure and individuality geographic expedition. These pupils besides reported pass oning more often about personal and intimate subjects.

Our survey aims to happen out if there are different forms of solitariness for different age groups of Singaporean young persons with different degrees of SNS use

Peer Support

It is during the adolescent period that equal interactions arguably hold the greatest importance for persons ‘ societal and behavioural operation ( Berscheid, 2003 ; Collins, 1997 ; Gifford-Smith & A ; Brownell, 2003 ) . Adolescents ‘ relationships with friends and equals have a important function in the development of societal accomplishments and feelings of personal competency, which are necessary for grownup operation ( Ingersoll, 1989 ) . Adolescent equal dealingss have great societal and emotional importance and have the capacity to put persons on different flights for overall accommodation subsequently in life ( Collins & A ; Laursen, 2004 ) . Besides, equal relationship seems to be influential in easing striplings ‘ sense of personal individuality and increasing their independency from households ( Ingersoll, 1989 ; Dusek, 1991 ) . By in-between childhood, more than one tierce of societal interactions involve equals ( Gifford-Smith & A ; Brownell, 2003 ) , and most striplings spend more clip with equals than they do with their households ( Fuligni, Eccles, Barber, & A ; Clements, 2001 ) . Scheier and Botvin ( 1997 ) besides found that less societal support has been linked to symptoms of anxiousness and depression.

Social isolation and deficiency of societal support seem to be more strongly associated with symptoms of anxiousness and depression in male childs than misss ( Larson, Richards, Raffaelli, Ham & A ; Jewell, 1990 ; Troop-Gordon & A ; Ladd, 2005 ; Derdikman-Eiron et al. , 2011 ) . Research on societal dealingss during adolescence has often revealed that misss by and large report having more societal support than male childs ( Armsden & A ; Greenberg, 1987 ; Furman & A ; Buhrmester, 1992 ) . However, other surveies have found no sex differences ( Shulman, 1993 ) .

The quality of friendly relationships plays a really of import function in adolescence, where young persons would larn societal accomplishments, societal behaviours, societal interactions, personal growing, etc. However, the kineticss of friendly relationships complicates with increased use of the Internet. A Nie and Hillygus ( 2002 ) survey found that the more participants used the Internet, the greater their opportunities were for sing impairment of offline societal relationships. The statement posits that Internet interaction is frequently of lower quality than face-to-face interaction, because restraints built-in in the on-line medium hinder relationships. Furthermore, usage of on-line communicating may be positively correlated with accommodation jobs because ( a ) socially awkward young persons are drawn to online interaction and ( B ) the about necessarily hapless quality of on-line communicating additions maladjustment ( Mikami, Szwedo, Allen, Evans & A ; Hare, 2010 ) .

Although many surveies have shown strong relationships of Internet use and negative behaviours, it is undeniable that young persons have been interacting with others online via a wider medium of on-line communications such as SNS. Other surveies have besides shown improved equal support with Internet and SNS use. Willoughby ( 2008 ) found tendencies that striplings ‘ self-reports of better relationships with equals, though non with parents, predicted additions in Internet usage over a 21-month period. Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe ( 2007 ) besides found that the sum of clip college pupils reported utilizing Facebook was positively correlated with their self-reported face-to-face engagement in the college community ; this relationship held after statistical control of entire Internet usage, proposing a alone map of Facebook to heighten societal communicating.

As SNS maps much otherwise from traditional Internet use, our survey posits that young persons that have greater SNS use will experience increased equal support. These young persons need non needfully be interacting with aliens, but besides with existent life friends every bit good as relations on SNS. Youths besides use the Internet platform to pass on and broaden their circle of friends, or even for maintaining in contact with relations and friends overseas.

Online Social Comfort

Caplan ( 2003 ) defined on-line societal comfort as penchant for on-line societal interaction, an single difference in knowledge characterised by beliefs that one is safer, more efficacious, more confident, and more comfy with on-line interpersonal interactions and relationships than with traditional face-to-face societal activities. It was speculated that down and alone persons felt greater on-line societal comfort due to namelessness, greater control over self-presentation, more intense and intimate self-disclosure, less perceived societal hazard and less societal duty toward others than in traditional face-to-face communicating ( Walther, 1996 ; Caplan, 2003 ) . However, pre-SNS research on on-line societal comfort focused on computer-mediated communicating ( CMC ) ( Walther, 1996 ; Caplan, 2003 ) . Some of the above mentioned grounds ( such as namelessness, societal hazard and societal duty ) does non use to SNS since SNS has different maps than older CMC.

When one refers to “ friends ” in the context of Facebook and other SNS, the “ friends ” refer to people they have added to their page and can interact with. These “ friends ” can be their existent life friends, practical friends, relations, familiarities, co-workers, schoolmates, or even entire aliens. Hence, it would be interesting to detect how the frequence of Facebook use affects their existent life friendly relationships, every bit good as the quality of these friendly relationships as compared to online friendly relationships. As people who are more comfy with socializing online will probably prefer to utilize SNS to set up relationships with others, this survey so farther aims to demo that young persons that have more on-line societal comfort will probably hold an increased use of SNS.

Purposes of this survey

With the prevalence of young persons utilizing SNS as a signifier of socialization, it is of import to cognize how use of SNS relates to youths ‘ psycho-social wellbeing. This survey aims to demo that although it may be more appealing for shy, lonely and socially dying persons to utilize this sort of platform for socializing, it is an progressively more of import mean of socializing for young persons depending on their developmental age and gender.

Livingstone and Helsper ( 2007 ) besides revealed a “ digital divide ” by civilization, age and gender in footings of entree and quality of usage of the Internet. Hence, young persons of different shyness, solitariness and societal anxiousness degrees might demo different forms of SNS usage across different gender and age groups of young persons in Singapore.

This thesis aims to supply some replies for the undermentioned inquiries:

Are kids and striplings who are more diffident, socially dying and lonely more likely to patronize SNS?

Are kids and striplings who frequent SNS more comfy online and obtain better online societal support than their opposite numbers who use SNS less often?

The hypotheses will besides farther analyze these relationships across gender and age groups by agencies of comparing their educational degree.

Children and striplings who are diffident are more likely to patronize SNS.

Children and striplings who are socially dying are more likely to patronize SNS.

Children and striplings who frequent SNS are besides more comfy socially online than others.

Children and striplings who frequent SNS are less likely to be lonely.

Children and striplings who frequent SNS have better equal support than young persons that do non.

Chapter 5


This chapter provides a sum-up of the research findings and examines the importance of this survey in relation to other findings in the literature. Restrictions of the survey and recommendations for future research are besides discussed.

As SNS, such as Facebook, is a recent Internet phenomenon, there is a deficiency of research in the country of psychosocial wellbeing of young persons with SNS use. The research aims to research whether it is more appealing for shy, lonely and socially dying Singaporean young persons to utilize SNS as a platform for socializing, as with past research with Internet use, and whether young persons that frequent SNS experience more comfy online and have better societal support.

The first research inquiry examines kids and striplings use of SNS in relation to their shyness, societal anxiousness and solitariness. The consequences show that by and large upper primary, lower secondary and upper secondary pupils were found to be less diffident if they were high SNS users. As compared to older surveies of shyness and Internet use, this tendency of SNS users may be due to the standardization of SNS use in today ‘s on-line civilization. The alone nature of socializing online may be a socially recognized agencies of linking with each other, and therefore the shyness behaviour might be transferred on-line. In other words, people who are diffident might non utilize SNS as often due to their shyness when interacting with others. The survey besides found that lower secondary pupils who were high SNS users were less lonely than non users. In the context of Singapore ‘s educational system, pupils enter a new school after finishing their primary instruction and go to new secondary schools. In their lower secondary old ages, they face a alteration of environment and have to set to holding new schoolmates and friends. This is consistent with our survey as the degree of solitariness showed a high – low – high – low general tendency for the different educational degrees. When pupils freshly enters primary school and secondary school, they may experience a higher sense of solitariness as they will necessitate to accommodate to their new environment. Lower secondary pupils who use SNS more often might be able to accommodate to the alteration in their educational and societal environment by socializing more online. However, for lower primary pupils, non SNS users had lower anxiousness degrees than users of SNS. This could intend that lower primary pupils that are socially dying might seek out SNS as an mercantile establishment for interaction with others and utilize SNS more often than their equals. This is consistent with Campbell, Cumming and Hughes ‘ ( 2006 ) survey which found online chat provides socially dying persons with a agencies to get by with their societal anxiousness.

The 2nd research inquiry examines whether kids and striplings who frequent SNS are more comfy online and reported better online societal support than those that use it less. The consequences show that online societal comfort was higher for SNS users compared with non SNS users across all educational degrees except lower secondary, and males have more on-line societal comfort than females. This consequence is expected since pupils who use SNS often will experience more comfy socializing online. Females that have higher SNS use besides reported more peer support than males. This might be due to females by and large holding more peer support than males, and possibly females respond better socially with this manner of communicating than males do. This is besides consistent with legion findings that female striplings receive more societal support than males ( Armsden and Greenberg, 1987 ; Furman and Buhrmester, 1992 ) .


The consequences of this survey suggest that the place of the Internet in societal civilization has changed really markedly over the old ages. In the past, research on Internet-related subjects were largely linked with negative personal and societal operation ; Internet dependence has been associated with major depression, anxiousness, personality upsets, substance maltreatment and shortages in societal accomplishments ( Shaw & A ; Black, 2008 ; Block, 2008 ; Bernardi & A ; Pallanti, 2009 ; Ghassemzadeh, Shahraray & A ; Moradi, 2008 ) . In today ‘s context, due to the widespread use of Internet and societal credence of SNS as a mean of socialization, it seems that past research on the Internet are no longer relevant. Furthermore, the increasing usage of Internet-enabled Mobile phones has led to increased use of SNS. The convenience of accessing the Internet and SNS is so great that people can entree information wherever they are, be it at work or in school. With the promotion of engineering, it will be no surprise that SNS and Internet-based applications will play a even greater portion of people ‘s mundane lives in the hereafter.

Our survey shows that shyness and solitariness is reciprocally related to SNS use, and that could be because SNS allows for users alternate ways of interacting with their equals. Students who are less diffident have higher SNS frequence. High SNS users are besides less lonely compared to their equals, possibly due to this signifier of societal interaction. The SNS phenomenon might be so great that pupils who do non utilize SNS might be at a disadvantage in socializing in the existent universe every bit good. SNS besides serves as a tool to heighten socializing in existent life, for illustration, many Facebook users would utilize their application to form events, which non-SNS users might go excluded from.

In past research surveies, Nie and Hillygus ( 2002 ) used 5 hours a hebdomad of Internet use as being “ regular Internet users ” . While Scherer ( 1997 ) survey on “ Internet dependence ” found that “ Internet dependant ” undergraduate pupils averaged 11 hours per hebdomad of Internet use. However, after administering our sample into High, Medium and Low SNS users, we found that High users ( 23.9 % ) consists of pupils that use SNS sites more than 3 hours a twenty-four hours, which is more than 21 hours a hebdomad. The figure of hours spent on SNS ( non including other on-line use ) is far greater than reported in past surveies. The tendency of Internet use has been so immensely different that the figure of hours spent online and standards of Internet dependence will hold to be changed ; otherwise, shortly plenty, the bulk of Internet users can be classified as being addicted.


This survey has several restrictions. First, the consequences from this survey does non connote causality as it is hard to state the way of the consequences. Although there are many interesting tendencies and relationship between SNS use and the different psychosocial health in this survey, farther research will be needed to find whether certain types of people use SNS otherwise or whether increased SNS use will do an consequence on people. Following, the sample can non be generalised to the larger population as it merely includes primary and secondary school pupils. Harmonizing to Social Bakers Singapore Facebook Statistics ( 2012 ) ( Figure 8 ) , a immense bulk of Facebook users are 18 to 44 old ages old. Hence our survey merely reveals a glance of the schooling population in Singapore.

Figure 8. Singapore Facebook age demographics

Since our survey merely focused on primary and secondary school pupils, pupils from Junior Colleges, Polytechnics and Universities were non included in our survey. It will be interesting for future surveies to analyze the factors of psycho-social health and SNS use for older striplings and grownups.

Second, there are many personality upsets and traits that will impact the psycho-social health of pupils. This survey merely examined a few of the possible factors that might lend to pupils ‘ socialization forms. Other factors that can be included in future surveies to mensurate pupils ‘ psycho-social health include self-esteem, emotional resiliency, behaviour in school, merely to name a few.

Third, as SNS are a comparatively new signifier of on-line communicating, research on this is still in its babyhood. While the most widely studied SNS includes Facebook, Facebook is non representative of all SNS platforms of on-line socialization. Besides, within each SNS, there are many different maps and facets where users can take to socialize. For illustration, Facebook users might utilize this SNS for bet oning intents, socializing with bing friends, doing new friends, interchanging short messages, showcasing images, updating others of their lives, among other interactions. Some of these interactions contribute more to users ‘ socializing on Facebook, while some might lend minimally. This survey can non account for the different types of SNS use in relation to their psycho-social health.

Policy Deductions

The current findings contribute to our apprehension of SNS use and psycho-social facets of Singaporean kids and striplings. As the parents of our current coevals of kids and striplings grew up before or around the clip the Internet was in its babyhood, their cognition of the Internet might non be as updated. Some parents might still experience that the Internet is merely related to negative behaviours and traits in their kid. Our happening show that, on the contrary, females reported better peer support with higher SNS use, and SNS use is besides reciprocally related to shyness and loneliness. This would connote that SNS use would in some ways value-add to their kid ‘s psycho-social health, every bit good as increasing their sense of societal connection. While, merely a decennary ago, heavy Internet users were associated with being castawaies from society at big, in our current twenty-four hours, it is those who do non hold entree to, or who do non utilize SNS who are perchance being shut out from their equal groups.

Although inordinate use of SNS and an complete dependance on online socialization could potentially stultify their interacting accomplishments in existent life, moderate use of SNS would look to be good to kids and striplings in Singapore as it becomes an of import tool for socialization, having information, acquisition, instruction and amusement.

Future Directions

Future way of research in the countries of SNS and the Internet will necessitate to research how SNS is good or harmful to kids, striplings and grownups.

As engineering continues to progress, SNS might really shortly take on even more maps. The different ways of utilizing SNS will besides impact people otherwise, as some tools of SNS might be more good or harmful than others. Besides, with the different types of SNS maps, future surveies could take a expression at how different maps of SNS sites reveal different deductions. Bet oning on SNS site, for illustration, might demo similar or different research decisions as other bet oning research presently available.

A speedy hunt on an on-line research database on “ Social Networking Sites ” will likely expose consequences that are largely negative in nature. There are many possible ways where SNS could be harmful, such as over revelation of personal information, easing intimidation ( “ cyber intimidation ” ) , and abuse of SNS for personal or commercial addition. Equally much as surveies concentrating on these subjects would function to foreground such dangers, research should besides look into how SNS can be a utile tool. SNS can potentially be used for heightening people ‘s lives, such as those with societal phobic disorder or developmental upsets, and leting people of diverse backgrounds to organize relationships.

There is besides a demand for more longitudinal surveies in this country as the current survey merely shows how SNS is related to or affects people at the point in clip of the survey and does non demo the long term effects of SNS. Besides, the forms of use of SNS will alter as kids and striplings turn up. It would besides be interesting to detect if current tendencies of SNS use and its consequence will foretell future tendencies. For illustration, would increase in SNS use in relation to their studies of equal support have any consequence in a few old ages? Or possibly an addition in SNS use in striplings who reported higher solitariness might describe less solitariness in maturity?


This current survey chose to foreground some positive psycho-social wellbeing of kids and striplings for the intent of painting a more balanced image of SNS and its users. First, the survey aimed to look into SNS use and the shyness, solitariness and societal anxiousness degrees of local pupils. Second, the survey aims to research SNS use and the degrees of on-line societal comfort and peer support these pupils faced. The survey found that for some demographic groups, higher SNS users were less diffident, less lonely and had more peer support. Although the consequences were merely true for some and non all gender and educational backgrounds, the survey gave some penetration as to how SNS might really be good to kids and striplings in Singapore in bettering their psycho-social health.

Although the survey faced some restrictions, future surveies can besides take to equilibrate out the good and harmful effects of SNS use. Longitudinal surveies will besides assist to research the long term consequence of SNS use. As new SNS platforms appear online, the demographics of users and use forms will alter every bit good. Research workers will hold to invariably update themselves with the latest on-line societal phenomena.

Peoples have been told for old ages that the Internet has a negative impact on our societal lives, and now the times have shifted such that it is a portion of our mundane lives. In order to do full usage of the Internet ‘s promotion in helping our socializing procedure, possibly people should be concentrating on educating our kids and striplings about responsible Internet use instead than the figure of hours spent on the computing machine. SNS might be a utile tool to people enduring from societal anxiousness and other psychosocial upsets. As such, more surveies should look into the possibility of SNS being a social-training tool.

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