WITH REFERENCE TO WALT DISNEY STUDIOS ANIMATION

WITH REFERENCE TO WALT DISNEY STUDIOS ANIMATION FROM 1937 TO PRESENT DAY EXPLORE INSTANCES OF INHERENT RACISM AND GENDER STEREOTYPING WITHIN DISNEY’S ANIMATED FEATURE FILMS AND DISCUSS WHAT EFFECT IF ANY THESE FILMS MAY HAVE ON THEIR PREDOMINANTLY CHILD AUDIENCE.

Disney is a big transnational corporation whose ‘magic kingdom’ of alive characteristic movies entertains kids all over the universe. The success of the Disney Corporation is based on all-American images and Western values. Disney’s universe is purportedly safe, sanitised and predictable but the apparently guiltless lifes are based on stereotyped images and historical deceits ( Buckingham, 2001:269 ) . Buckingham ( 2001:269 ) claims that Disney are ‘the racketeers of semblance sabotaging people’s religion in themselves, scoring them off from their true individualities and cultural traditions and taking them towards a unvarying, mass-produced consumer culture.’ Disney’s lifes are by and large moral narratives based on fairy tales and advance an idealized version of the universe where racial and gender stereotypes are concealed by guiltless narrations aimed at kids. As Giroux ( 1995 ) puts it, Disney promotes the building of a closed universe of captivation allegedly free from political orientation. Parents and critics frequently fear that kids are influenced by force and stereotypes in lifes. This is because animated movies are freer, less constrained by the confines of world and convention than regular films ( Sternheimer, 2003 ) .

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Animations are powerful ideological tools that give us a more child-like position of the universe. Audiences tend to reject any connexion between political orientation and amusement, but it is indispensable to read Disney’s representations in the visible radiation of the company’s aggressive selling techniques that teach kids to go active consumers ( Smoodin, 1994 ) . ‘Disney stands for everything that is incorrect with modern-day capitalist economy: the devastation of reliable civilization, the denationalization of public infinite, the triumph of consumerism over citizenship, the denial of cultural differences and of history – non to advert development, racism, sexism and patriarchal values’ ( Buckingham, 2001:270 ) . The undisputed premise that animated movies stimulate phantasy through the reproduction of escapade demands to be addressed through a close reading of the ethical motives inherent in these movies. It is clear that these movies hold as much cultural authorization for learning kids specific functions, values and ideals as traditional beginnings of larning. This thesis is based on an ideological analysis of the undermentioned Disney movies: Dumbo ( 1940 ) , Pinocchio ( 1940 ) , Cinderella ( 1950 ) , Peter Pan ( 1953 ) , Aladdin ( 1992 ) , The Lion King ( 1994 ) and Pocahontas ( 1995 ) . It is indispensable to understand how the experience of watching Disney’s movies offers a intentionally manufactured phantasy. The powerful moral messages make the movies culturally important in learning kids specific thoughts about gender and race. The intent of this research paper is to analyze the repeating subjects in Disney’s movies in order to detect how their preponderantly child audience might be affected by these powerful ideological vehicles.

2. Methodology

The analysis of content of texts is a common technique in the academic survey of the media. The narrations offered within movies a laden with power. ‘Power dealingss permeate all degrees of societal being and are hence to be found at every site of societal life’ ( Hall, 1997:50 ) . Even the most guiltless of representations contains ideological messages that could potentially greatly affect a child’s worldview. Hall ( 1997:50 ) describes power as productive. This means that power does non ever quash but besides educates. The analysis of power can be done through a qualitative textual analysis based on discourse theory [ 1 ] . The term discourse refers to the production of cognition through cultural representations. ‘Knowledge, linked to power, non merely assumes the authorization of the truth but besides has the power to do itself true’ ( Hall, 1997:49 ) . Therefore, racialist and sexist representations are frequently represented as the truth, doing themselves true because in the existent universe these representations have existent effects. Discourses are based on historical contexts. Disney’s dream of childhood relies on phantasy of artlessness. Disney movies mock the regulations of the grownup universe and dispute the grownup construct of world ( Sternheimer, 2003 ) . In so making, they present an ideologically colored position of the universe. Traditionally, surveies of Disney content have employed interpretative signifiers of textual analysis. This thesis besides borrows from penetrations found in cultural surveies and feminism. The intent of this survey is to explicate how specific texts produce intending in society. It is of import to analyze specific significances, points of position and symbolism found in movies. The employment of this method combines different positions in order to happen out how representations of race and gender recreate political orientations that serve to suppress assorted groups of people. The Disney fairy tales have been accused of ‘disneyfication’ of traditional fairy tales. The movies have become simple and patronizing. As Giroux ( 1995 ) puts it, the movies combine an political orientation of captivation and aura of artlessness in narrating narratives that help kids understand society. As the analysis will uncover the movies besides idealise American values and incorporate racism and gender stereotypes. This research paper incorporates ideological discourse analysis, pull outing ideological messages from the movie narrations. The accent is on the representation of race and gender. The analysis will uncover how Disney’s building of American values serves to re-inscribe political orientations that maintain Disney’s place as a powerful manufacturer of cultural narrations. The thesis does non include audience descriptive anthropology and therefore relies to a great extent on the researcher’s ain reading of the movies.

3. Literature Reappraisal

Film surveies theoreticians have examined the dominant patterns of Hollywood studios and identified several alone properties during specific clip periods or for specific movie genres. Although the Disney company has produced a broad scope of amusement, the company is best know for merchandises based on a specific Disney expression ( Wasko, 2001:110 ) . The movie narrations have remained the same even after Walt Disney’s decease since Eisner took over as the CEO in 1984. Wasko ( 2001:110 ) identifies ‘Classic Disney’ , mentioning to the company’s movies, which ever represent similar subjects, values and ethical motives and a black and white worldview where characters are either good or evil. The chief features of ‘Classic Disney’ are: 1 ) the reinvention of common people narratives, 2 ) a specific narrative manner based on commercial Hollywood film, 3 ) authoritative characters based on formulaic stereotypes, 4 ) the representation of mainstream American subjects and values ( Wasko, 2001 ) .

The construct of political orientation is cardinal to the survey of Disney narrations. The term refers to thoughts and understanding about the societal universe and how these thoughts are related to the distribution power in society ( Branston and Stafford, 2003:499 ) . Constructed values and ethical motives are represented as natural even though they are frequently based on stereotypes. Stereotypes simplify representations, cut downing characters to easy identifiable types. ‘Classic Disney’ manner includes a batch of music and temper, frequently go arounding about anthropomorphised characters ( Wasko, 2001:111 ) . Hall ( 1995:8 ) explains that political orientations are non separate and distinguishable constructs. Rather, they articulate different constructs together into a set of significances. Political orientations therefore work by leting topics places of designation and cognition that help them to build their ideas within wide ideological models ( Hall, 1995:18-19 ) . The political orientation of Disney encourages citizens to work hard and keep an optimistic attitude to life. The films emphasis autonomy and conservative values ( Wasko, 2001:112 ) . Harmonizing to Wood ( 1982:478 ) , ‘ideologically ‘pure’ movies are those which are most stereotypical.’ Ideologically pure movies hence divide characters into binary resistances based on the constructs of good and evil.

Movies are trade goods – the stuff merchandises of a capitalist society. As such they reproduce dominant political orientations, reaffirming the ideological system in which they are created. Disney’s place as a transnational corporation means that the company is chiefly responsible to its stockholders, working the resources and people of other states. Fukuyama ( quoted in Byrne and McQuillan, 1999:73 ) suggests that the tremendously productive and dynamic universe created by progressing engineering and rational administration of labor has a enormous homogenizing power Wasko ( 2001:112 ) suggests that traditionally Disney movies represent specific values and a chiseled political orientation. These values are based on the company’s entire selling construct along with development in other media platforms and selling. Giroux ( 1995 ) claims that ‘Disney’s pretension to innocence appears to many critics as little more than a promotional mask that covers over its aggressive selling techniques and influence in educating kids to the virtuousnesss of going active consumers.’

Disney movies do non interrupt dominant political orientations, showing a familiar universe which reassures audiences of their suitableness for kids. Pinsky ( 2004 ) thinks that the films’ accent on mythic narratives and pre-Christian imagination ; make a ‘magic’ that keeps kids hooked. Children learn from good and evil from Disney and pass more clip having moral instruction from these narratives than any other beginning ( Pinsky, 2004:3 ) . It is upseting, so, that these movies sentimentalise the household, support patriarchal gender divisions and trust on racial stereotypes. Pinsky ( 2004: 12 ) notes that there is turning grounds that animated movies have a existent impact on children’s lives.

Dorfman and Mattelart ( 1975:70 ) analyse Donald Duck cartoon strips reading them through representations of American imperialism. They claim that ‘the Disney universe is sustained with wagess and penalties ; it hides an Fe manus with the velvet glove’ ( Dorfman and Mattelart, 1975:70 ) . Patriotism relies on gender stereotypes and racism and is based on American capitalism’s expansionary nature. The historical and political conditions that permeate Western capitalism’s enhanced function in relation to other civilizations are made seem natural. Other races are equated with nature, and hence with childly qualities. Buckinham ( 2001: 278 ) refers to ‘Disney’s inclination to ape every other civilization in the world.’ Harmonizing to Dorfman and Mattelart ( 1975: 43 ) generalizing the features of the ‘other’ makes colored races seem crude. Sternheimer ( 2003:98 ) acknowledges that ‘Disney movies are frequently set in another clip and topographic point, which decontextualizes their distressing representations of race, gender and nationality.’

Another recurrent subject in Disney movies is the stereotyped representation of gender. Zipes ( 1995: 36 ) notes that the representation of female characters is done through a male discourse. Womans are represented as teenage heroines whose ultimate end in life is to happen her prince and marry ( Wasko, 2001, Buckinham, 2001, Sternheimer, 2003 ) . The heroines are traditionally beautiful, thin and without craft, repeating many novels of the 19th century ( Pinsky, 2004:53 ) . The evil adult females of many of these movies either possess a cold, dark, sexual beauty or are highly ugly or fat. Mothers are notoriously absent from Disney’s discourse of muliebrity, and older adult females are ever godmothers, faeries or retainers. The teenage heroines’ lives are therefore determined through the patriarchal order. Sternheimer ( 2003:104 ) points to the fact that male laterality seems natural and without negative effects for the heroine. Gender stereotypes are hence every bit naturalized as racial 1s. As this thesis will demo, in the visible radiation of the political orientation of racial and gender stereotypes, Disney movies do non look so guiltless and harmless after all.

4. Academic analysis

4.1 Representations of race

Disney’s trouble with racial representations started every bit early as the 1940’s. Many of the company’s movies have been accused of learning kids that cultural differences which ‘do non bear the imprint of white, middleclass ethnicity are aberrant, inferior, stupid or dumb’ ( Giroux, 1995 ) . The Disney discourse nowadayss life from a traditional point of position, where the scoundrel is ever a representative of the ‘other’ . Dumbo ( 1940 ) has normally been perceived as Disney’s foremost major usage of characters that are racially marked as black ( Byrne and McQuillan, 1999:95 ) . Dumbo, like Pinocchio, was an early front-runner of parents, built around clear messages of tolerance and credence for kids ( Pinsky, 2004:40 ) . When Dumbo’s circus train pulls into town, Dumbo emerges from the train behind his female parent. At the same clip, a group of brown deckhands come out of another passenger car. These figures are clearly marked as cultural with deep ( black ) voices. They are representative of slaves, as they sing about break one’s backing at work until they are about dead but still non fring that all American work ethic. Furthermore, the elephants are a dignified, proud race, talking in white American speech patterns. A film based on animate being characters shows that racism in the Disney existence does non merely look in negative images of the ‘other’ , but is besides reproduced through racially coded speech patterns ( Giroux, 1995 ) . The word picture of crows in Dumbo is besides representative of an open usage of racialist stereotypes. As Byrne and McQuillan ( 1999:95-96 ) put it, ’ the crows inhabit a set of codifications that are readily recognizable as public presentations of inkiness which conform to white audience outlooks in the 1940’s.’ The vocalizing and dancing reminds the viewing audiences of the US music hall and wind civilization, whilst the crows speak in African American speech patterns. A representation of inkiness in carnal characters can besides be found in a ulterior Disney movie, The Lion King ( 1994 ) , where the evil hyaena are voiced by African American speech patterns. The Lion King appears to go on racial forms foremost used in Dumbo. However, Dumbo’s crows are basically supportive characters and harmonizing to some they are non black stereotypes as such but black characters ( Pinsky, 2004:43 ) . This differs from the representation of many other cultural characters in that the crows are non scoundrels. The hyaena on the other manus are corrupt and unsafe non least because they are recognizable as black and Latino characters populating in a jungle version of a ghetto ( Wasko, 2001:141 ) . Furthermore, it is clear that Dumbo is an early illustration of Disney’s scheme of covering with the issue of race through theanthropism. ‘By doing cultural characters animate beings, Disney persistently sets up a false resistance between simulacra and representation when portraying blackness’ ( Byrne and McQuillan, 1999: 104 ) . The beds of simulacra screen out Disney’s inability to stand for people of African beginning in its movies, doing the movies look like guiltless phantasies of the existent.

Although the representation of African Americans has received a batch of unfavorable judgment in the United States, there is another group of people that have been represented stereotypically – the Native Americans. Furthermore, non merely have Indians been represented below the belt, Disney has resorted to sanitation of the history of the colonization of the Native American’s lands. This relates closely to Disney’s government of representations and trade goods, which is meant to raise up a nostalgic position of America as the ‘magic kingdom’ ( Giroux, 1995 ) . As a consequence, Disney has become synonymous with the impression of artlessness that sharply rewrites the historical and corporate individuality of the American yesteryear ( Giroux, 1995 ) . Peter Pan ( 1953 ) and Pocahontas ( 1995 ) represent Disney’s journey in the description of Native Americans. The narrative of Peter Pan is set in the age of European colonialism, when white work forces assumed their high quality over darker peoples ( Pinsky, 2004:63 ) . The Red Work force in the movie are described as barbarians by John Darling, who assumes that Western colonialists will easy get the better of the Red Men. The movie relies on stereotyped racial classifications based on the sexualised logic of racial distinctness familiar from Western cultural outlooks of other civilizations. The Native Americans are portrayed through racial nomenclature. Their skin coloring material is bright ruddy ; they are monosyllabic, deformed, and cunning but decidedly non intelligent. The Indians have large olfactory organs ; they wear war pigment and headbands with plumes. As Pinsky ( 2004:64 ) describes it, the represents ‘almost every demeaning cliche about Native Americans: peace pipe, membranophones, whooping, mark linguistic communication, broken English and adult females referred to as squaws.’ The distressing thing is that these Native Americans seem to be anticipating the white work forces to learn them about civilisation whilst at the same clip they give pathetic replies to white men’s inquiries about the Indians. These are the model inquiries about beginning, where, as Byrne and McQuillan ( 1999:106 ) describe it, ‘the Indian must supply accounts for his ain difference and the beginnings of difference as it is understood and defined by the white coloniser.’ The full race is therefore ridiculed, learning kids about the American history as if it were merely natural that the Western civilisation was meant to virtually destruct the Native American civilization. The inquiries are answered during a child-friendly vocal. In Peter Pan, the Red Man is complicit with the obviously overdrawn pigeonholing in representation of these to a great extent caricatured indigens, yet besides needs to be explained in order for the already known lower status of the Indian to be naturalised ( Byrne and McQuillan, 1999:106 ) . This naturalization can merely be done through Western eyes, because the Western high quality is frequently based on fright of the ‘other’ and the desire to cognize the ‘other’ . Difference is reduced to race in Peter Pan. The inquiry ‘What made the Red Man red? ’ is peculiarly racist as the answer implies that the Red Man must hold been white foremost in order to turn ruddy when kissed. Since the Red Man turned ruddy due to crimsoning, his representation is besides sexualised. The sexualisation of the ‘other’ is familiar with the representations of Hollywood film, where black work forces where represented as being cardinal, sexual and unmanageable. As he is invariably ruddy, the Red Man is hence seen to be invariably crimsoning and hence in changeless province of sexual exhilaration ( Byrne and McQuillan, 1999 ) . However, as Peter Pan is directed at kids this sexual logic of Western stereotyping must be concealed by artlessness. The Lost Boys coexist with the Indians, playing with them in the Never-Never Land. This drama is non malicious as the existent enemy is Captain Hook. This sanitation of the existent, bloody and tragic history of colonialism denies the nature of American imperialism and it is about possible to believe that all races can be in harmoniousness – but merely when white work forces are in charge of the fates of others.

Disney revisits the relationship between the white and the ruddy adult male in Pocahontas ( 1995 ) . As times have changed since the 1950’s, the portraiture of the Native Americans is no longer so rough in this movie. This alteration in the representation is best portrayed by the coloring material of the Indians’ tegument, which has now changed into a igniter, Cu coloring material. ‘All Indians were imitations in Peter Pan’ ( Wasko, 2001:140 ) , but multiculturalism has had an consequence on the portraiture of the Native Americans in Pocahontas. Disney explained at the clip that they consciously intended to react to the unfavorable judgment that other movies had attracted because of racial stereotypes ( Wasko, 2001:141 ) . Pocahontas is based on the historical figures of Pocahontas and John Smith, hence accurate portraiture of history would hold been of import. However, the movie did non rather manage to stand for a true version of the history. It seems that the thaumaturgy of artlessness ever demands sanitation, the cleaning up of narratives, so that they will be suited for kids and will learn them the ‘correct’ lessons. The movie has been condemned for beliing historical fact and in fact it ignores several events of Pocahontas’s life and fabricates others, sanitizing much of the force of colonial conquerings. The movie significantly ignores Pocahontas’s decease in order to build a ‘Classic Disney’ narration where the chief characters ne’er die.

The Indians in Pocahontas are no longer arch and simple barbarians as in Peter Pan. ‘They are fit, fine-looking, and beautiful’ ( Pinsky, 2004:160 ) . It could be said that the movie recognises Native Americans as a civilization because it portrays how they live in harmoniousness with nature. At the same clip the English colonizers are seen as greedy, violent and resolved. They set out to learn the barbarians about the universe, non to larn from them. All they think about is gilded and hoarded wealths of the foreign land. ‘Pocahontas contains a scattering of linguistic communication other than English, signalling Disney’s disclaimer of its ain collapsing of lingual difference and the hegemony of American speech patterns is Disney movies’ ( Byrne and McQuillan, 1999:109 ) . When Pocahontas and John Smith meet for the first clip, they don’t speak the same linguistic communication despite the fact that the Native Americans were talking English in the old scenes. Then Pocahontas all of a sudden starts talking American English after holding been guided by her grandma. The English linguistic communication, of course, is necessary for the merchandising of American capitalist economy all over the universe. Therefore, any other linguistic communications used in Disney movies are at that place for hushing the critics who claim that the portraiture of difference is reduced to stereotypes.

The Native Americans are seen as near to nature. They are populating of the land without the aid of engineerings. They are barbarians, in the sense that they lack the modern amenitiess of the West. Pocahontas’s life becomes troublesome when she enters the universe of white work forces. Even the hero character of John Smith has no uncertainty about the high quality of Western civilisation ( Pinsky, 2004:162 ) . He is patronizing, naming the Indians savages merely like the evil Ratcliffe. There are elements of nature worship in the lives of the Indians, reenforcing the stereotype of the ‘other’ as near to the nature. Disney’s Pocahontas reaffirms bing stereotypes, therefore implementing conformance to the dominant worldview.

The worldview of the ‘magic kingdom’ is peculiarly apparent in Aladdin ( 1992 ) , which shamelessly stereotypes and vilifies Muslims as immorality, violent and cryptic. The Disney genre is widely considered as of small concern for their representation of other civilizations to kids, but the blazing stereotypes found in these movies teach kids about differences between races. Aladdin has been widely criticised for its racism. The movie clearly supports the dominant position of the universe, where American/white people are civilized heroes and as such this movie is profoundly disturbing in the station 9/11 universe. Set in the Middle East, all characters are supposed to be from the Arab universe, but the ‘good’ characters such as Aladdin and Jasmine speak in American English whilst the scoundrels speak in Middle Eastern speech patterns. The skin tone of all the characters is similar but scoundrels have stereotyped Middle Eastern features such as heavy face funguss, turbans and big olfactory organs ( Sternheimer, 2003:102 ) . Jasmine and Aladdin on the other manus, are beautiful and slender, incarnating the stereotype of the American hero/heroine whose characteristics are balanced with no noticeable disfigurations. The most violative stereotype was relayed in the film’s original gap vocal. The vocalist says he comes from a distant land ‘where they cut off your ear if they don’t like your face ; it’s barbaric, but, hey, it’s home’ ( Pinsky, 2004:148 ) [ 2 ] . This is one of the most blazing stereotypes in the whole of Disney’s movie canon. The get downing sequence sets up the tone of the whole movie, connoting that the cryptic Arab land is full of aggressive, barbarian people. How would Muslim kids respond hearing this vocal? Disney seems to hold forgotten momently the sanitised artlessness it ever promotes by including such an obvious, verbal stereotype in the movie. Furthermore, the portraiture of the metropolis of Agrabah characteristics every possible Oriental cliche , such as blade swallowers, beds of nails, walking on hot coals, firemans, serpent smoothies and street sellers. Female characters are have oning ‘harem’ costumes, whereas Arab names are mispronounced, the written linguistic communication is absurd scribble, and the heroes are invariably threatened with the Arab pattern of penalizing by the film editing of the manus ( Pinsky, 2004:149 ) .

Aladdin is full of stereotypes, which represent the Arab universe to the guiltless kids that are likely to hold small old cognition of Muslim imposts. What is even more disturbing is that in the current clime of terrorist act, kids may hold heard about Muslim extremists and due to this movie tie in all Muslims with panic and force. It is surprising so that Aladdin was really successful, going the most profitable alive movie of its clip ( Sternheimer, 2003:104 ) . Are parents so nescient to pigeonhole that a movie so jammed with them could go so successful? Possibly its success was due to its release day of the month, which coincided with the terminal of the Gulf War when Westerners had no job with bracketing the scene of the movie as foreign and barbarian.

4.2 Representations of gender

‘If the Disney principal can be seen as fostering sanitised artlessness, possibly one of the most revealing lessons it sells us is that of gender – of organic structures, gender and desire’ ( Bell, 1995 et Al: 10 ) . Feminists have argued that, while media images of adult females are more prevailing than earlier, they contain sexist political orientations of adult females and their topographic point and function in society. The portraiture of adult females in Disney’s movies provides a rich text for an analysis based on feminism. Since the 1930’s Disney has represented adult females in a stereotyped mode. ‘The engineering of life concepts gender, commanding the field of societal significance, making representations that audiences negotiate and inhabit’ ( Bell et al, 1995:10 ) . Disney’s political orientation mythologizes adult females as memorable icons. Each of Disney’s ‘princesses’ lives in a patriarchal universe where chief end in life is to get married a prince. Heroes, on the other manus, command the action. Rock ( quoted in Wasko, 2001:133 ) criticises Disney’s portraiture of adult females as stereotypically bad or good and contrasts Disney’s heroines with its heroes. She concludes that the heroes win, non because of how they look or what they wish for, but because of what they do. This is surely true of the more equivocal movies such as Peter Pan, Pinocchio and Dumbo, where each supporter is masculine and must get the better of enemies or work out jobs in order to accomplish a end. The prince in Cinderella, John Smith and Aladdin are representative of the more overtly masculine Disney heroes, who both expression and act heroic. ‘Disney’s heroes are male because that has been considered the norm for American selfhood’ ( Bell et al, 1995:101 ) . Woman is the exclusion in the universe of patriarchate. The stereotyped representation of gender functions implies that ‘the merely tests of most heroines require nil beyond what they are born with’ ( Wasko, 2001:133 ) .

Cinderella ( 1950 ) is one of the most popular early Disney heroines. She is besides one of the weakest. She seems wholly incapable of independent action, dreaming of her Prince Charming. She is treated severely by her stepmother and her half sisters who have forced her to go their amah. She hence does ‘women’s work’ in the house and appears to be diffident, obedient, guiltless, naive and maternally. She is understood in a stereotyped mode by what she looks like, whilst her personality is good, sort and passive. Marriage is all about love and the future hubby must be handsome. Cinderella represents Disney’s expression for a heroine, which as Pinsky ( 2004:53 ) implies, is based in portion on aesthetics. This expression is still recognizable in more recent Disney movies even though some analysts have argued that movies such as Pocahontas and Aladdin represent more modern, adventuresome and active heroines. Whilst Cinderella needs a adult male on a white Equus caballus to deliver her and present her with the ultimate victory: matrimony, heroines such as Pocahontas and Jasmine appear slightly more independent. Matoakas is independent and adventuresome ; she has bravery to cover with the force of white work forces. She has ideas and thoughts of her ain, even though her male parent doesn’t believe that she does. She refuses to get married the adult male chosen for her, preferring her freedom. She doesn’t delay for a prince to deliver her ; even though she falls in love with John Smith, she decides to stay with her people at the terminal of the movie. Pocahontas is less stereotyped than her predecessor Cinderella, whose narrative has become synonymous with ‘a syndrome of otherwise intelligent adult females passively waiting to be whisked off by a prince’ ( Pinsky, 2004:55 ) . However, as seen in the old chapter, Pocahontas as a movie is loaded with racial stereotypes which overshadow any gender stereotypes in this movie.

‘One of the most distressing facets of Disney’s new heroines is that on the surface they frequently seem independent, but within the filmic narration are every bit as dependant on the male characters as their predecessors’ ( Sternheimer 2003:103 ) . Although the portraiture of Jasmine in Aladdin is representative of the new spirited Disney heroine, Aladdin is the hero who commands all action. Jasmine has the desire to get away from domesticity, as she is required to get married a prince. Jasmine has led a sheltered life within the castle and has ne’er even ventured outside. She continuously needs Aladdin to salvage her when she escapes her hereafter into the ‘real’ universe. Like most Disney’s heroines, matrimony and domesticity are her destiny even though she dreams of get marrieding for love. She is simply portion and package of the gendered bundle that Disney sells its audiences. The movie is similar to Cinderella in that it promotes matrimony as the ultimate fate of a adult female. In this stereotype adult females can non hold separate, independent lives. The ultimate power lies with work forces and the movies show how adult females are non permitted to prosecute lives outside patriarchate. In the terminal, Jasmine is allowed to take who she will get married, but is this existent independency? I don’t think so. I think that it is a instead restricting stereotype of the modern adult female, particularly in the visible radiation of the fact that all Disney’s heroines are adolescent beauties who marry fine-looking heroes.

The most apparent stereotype sing Disney’s female characters is the portraiture of the heroine as beautiful and slender, and the evil adult females as ugly, fat or upseting. The organic structures of all Disney’s heroines from Cinderella and Snow White to Pocahontas, Jasmine and Ariel ( The Little Mermaid ) embody the sort of Western young person and beauty promoted in most Hollywood movies every bit good as the Americanised civilization in general. They are cover girls for immature male childs taking their first probationary stairss into maleness and function theoretical accounts for immature misss who aspire to be princesses and danseuses. These heroines exemplify beauty that is highly thin, shapely and sensuous ( Wasko, 2001:135 ) . Wasko ( 2001:135 ) notes that the portraiture of the heroine as fairer, dilutant and prettier than evil characters presents a bigoted deformation of the human organic structure to kids watching and larning about gender. The age of Disney’s characters is controversial as they are married off to the heroes as adolescents. This, combined with the female characters’ teenage organic structures represented as ( sexual ) competitions for the male hero and scoundrel, disturbs Disney’s guiltless image. The immature protagonists’ artlessness does non work to sanitise the stereotype due to the love affair subjects running through most Disney movies. Byrne and McQuillan ( 1999 ) suggest that more than the clear racialist stereotypes that manage to naturalize racial differences, gender stereotypes showcase Disney’s job in accommodating household values and amusement with gender stereotypes.

As mentioned earlier, work forces and maleness in Disney’s movies is ever commanding the action. Whereas the female is the job, the male is he norm. Disney’s animate being ( e.g. Dumbo ) and non-human ( e.g. Pinocchio an vitamin D Peter Pan ) characters are ever coded as male. Even though they are more equivocal than the masculine homo heroes, they still live in a patriarchal universe. Wells ( 1998:192 ) depict how male characters are defined through the obvious bureau of action, and that female characters are located as complex incarnations of difference. Pinocchio, Dumbo and Peter Pan are all morality narratives in which the characters are flawed but manage to come through in the terminal. It is of import to observe that female heroines are ever prototypes of beauty, newer flawed in the physical sense. However, Dumbo has large ears, Peter Pan has ‘fairy ears’ and can wing and Pinocchio is non even a existent male child. Despite their defects, these characters command the action and their ‘masculinity is coded through the construct of everyman, in which male figures, or figures which are assumed to be male, go the symbolic incarnation of humankind’ ( Wells, 1998:196 ) . These characters, nevertheless, are younger than their female opposite numbers – more frequently than non they are merely kids. In Peter Pan the Never-Never Land is a Eden for male childs, and in Pinocchio the Watchman collects small male childs into the Paradise Island. There are no infinites for misss in the masculine Eden of these movies. Furthermore, a instead flooring masculine political orientation emerges in Pinocchio when one of the characters, a male cat Figaro, who eats fish, carries on flirting with a female Carassius auratus. Card ( 1995:64 ) provinces that ‘such flirting with an intended point of ingestion introduces the kid spectator, nevertheless unwittingly, to the pleasances of erotica, the titillating joys of males feeding upon females.’ Disney movies teach small male childs and misss what their right functions are in society. Harmonizing to Disney political orientation, the universe is a masculine Eden from which adult females are excluded. Womans exist on the fringe of this universe as beautiful eyeglassess that aspire to be included in the masculine universe through matrimony. Work force in this universe are either masculine heroes or small male childs who whish to go that hero even though the refusal of maturity and the drama and pleasances of childhood are a batch more tempting.

5. Decision

Disney claims to offer a safe, sanitised and guiltless amusement universe that transports kids into the ‘magic kingdom’ where they can larn about the universe and be entertained at the same clip. But are Disney advancing an semblance, offering movies loaded with racial and gender stereotypes in the camouflage of amusement? They surely lead our kids towards a homogenised, American worldview where adult females are inactive and work forces are active and where other civilizations are either scoundrels or simple barbarians waiting for the civilised universe to come and deliver them with their engineerings and wealth. The modern twenty-four hours fairytales rely on stereotypes established a long clip ago. Disney did non contrive these stereotypes – they are simply a merchandise of the ideological clime in which these movies are made. As Sternheimer ( 2003:90 ) puts it, ‘we all would wish to believe that kids are pure, guiltless and without craft until corrupted by the grownup world.’ However, the analysis presented in this paper reveals that the corruptness of kids may be go oning under our really eyes in the camouflage of the alive characteristics produced by a prima transnational corporation whose CEO has admitted that the primary duty of the Disney Corporation is to its stockholders ( Pinsky, 2004 ) . What is important, is that these movies are considered acceptable for kids merely because they don’t endanger the political orientation prevalent in middle-class America which claims that power is distributed reasonably ( Strenheimer, 2003:99 ) . Parents do non frequently consider that the dominant political orientation may non be the best political orientation to learn kids, as it is frequently intolerant, stiff and false. The narrations contain dominant political orientations – which, more frequently than non advance felicity at all costs, philistinism as a manner to happiness, and above all obeisance to the dominant order ( Zornado, 2000 ) .

Animated movies have become the cardinal manner to educate kids as the impact of public instruction sites diminishes. Disney concept fantasy lands of security under the pretension of artlessness whilst at the same clip the company does its best to sell more merchandises. Part of Disney’s phenomenal success is based on its trust on our desire to keep the myth of childhood artlessness and cleaving to semblances about the yesteryear ( Sternheimer, 2003:101 ) . As Buckingham ( 2001:278 ) describes it, ‘the company’s development of emotional responses, formulaic narrations, happy terminations, simple resistances between good and evil, moralistic messages and stereotypes’ all influence the manner kids see the universe. Children learn that accomplishment and wealth bring felicity and that dreams do come true when you are good and virtuous. However, you can merely be good and virtuous if you belong to a dominant group. The kids are exploited and manipulated into believing the American political orientation. In the terminal, it is likely that kids look up to their heroes and heroines, placing themselves with the stereotypes. The message of the movies is so powerful because in these movies love conquers all and in the declaration of the movie every struggle is resolved so that characters can populate merrily of all time after. The happy stoping emphasises the fact that these movies are phantasies. But whose phantasies are they? It is hard to find what consequence Disney’s movies have on kids without an existent ethnographic survey, but at the terminal of the twenty-four hours the Disney Company is non about amusement for kids – it is about utilizing the ideological values of the United States to make net income. In the procedure of making more wealth, Disney colonises the experiences of kids, robbing them of existent artlessness. It is up to the parents to larn to understand how Disney’s animations pull the attending and determine the values of kids who view them ( Giroux, 1995 ) . It is indispensable to see Disney both as an amusement company and as a manufacturer of ideological messages. The universe will ne’er alter for the better if kids keep reiterating the errors of their parents due to the fact that their chief signifier of instruction has consisted of racialist and sexist lifes.

6. Full Bibliography

BELL, E et Al ( Eds. ) , 1995,From Mouse to Mermaid: The Politicss of Film, Gender and Culture,Bloomington: Indiana University Press

BELL, E, 1995, ‘Somatexts at the Disney Shop’ in BELL, E et Al ( Eds. ) , 1995,From Mouse to Mermaid: The Politicss of Film, Gender and Culture,Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp.107-124

BYRNE, E and MCQUILLAN, M, 1999,Deconstructing Disney, London: Pluto Press

BRANSTON, G and STAFFORD, R, 2003,The Media Student’s Book, 3rdEd, London: Routledge

BRYMAN, A, 1995, Disney and his Universes, London: Routledge

BUCKINGHAM, D, 2001, ‘United Kingdom: Disney Dialecticss: Debating the Politics of Children’s Media Culture’ in WASKO, J et Al ( Eds. ) , 2001,Dazzled by Disney? The Global Disney Audience Project, London: Leicester University Press, pp.269-295

CARD, C, 1995, ‘Pinocchio’ in BELL, E et Al ( Eds. ) , 1995,From Mouse to Mermaid: The Politicss of Film, Gender and Culture,Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp.62-71

GIROUX, H.A, 1995, ‘Animating Young person: the Disnification of Children’s Culture’ , hypertext transfer protocol: //www.henrygiroux.com/online_articles/animating _youth.htm

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DORFMAN, A and MATTERLART, A, 1975,How to Read Donald Duck, New York: International General

HALL, S, 1995, ‘The Whites of Their Eyess: Racist Political orientations in the Media’ in DINES, G and HUMEZ, J ( Eds. ) , 1995,Gender, Class and Race in the Media,Thousand Oaks: Sage, pp.18-22

HALL, S, 1997, Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices,London: Sage

PINSKY, M.I, 2004,The Gospel Harmonizing to Disney – Faith, Trust and Pixie Dust, Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press

SMOODING, E, 1994,Disney Discourse, Producing the Magic Kingdom,London: Routledge

STERNHEIMER, K, 2003,It’s non the media – the truth about dad culture’s influence on kids,Oxford: Westview Press

WASKO, J, 2001,Understanding Disney, Cambridge: Civil order Imperativeness

WELLS, P, 1998,Understanding Animation, London: Routledge

WOOD, R, 1992, ‘Ideology, Genre, Auteur’ in MAST, G et Al ( Eds. ) 1992,Film Theory and Criticism, Introductory Readings, 4ThursdayEd, New York: Oxford University Press, ppp.475-485

ZIPES, J, 1995, ‘Breaking the Magic Spell, ’ in BELL, E et Al ( Eds. ) , 1995,From Mouse to Mermaid: The Politicss of Film, Gender and Culture,Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp.21-42

ZORNADO, J.L, 2001,Reinventing the Child: Culture, Ideology and the Story of the Child,London: Garland

Web sites:

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.animation.memory-motel.net/disney_mythos.html [ Accessed 29/04/2006 ]

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.his.com/~ajp/thesis.htm [ Accessed 29/04/2006 ]

Movies:

Aladdin ( 1992 )

Cinderella ( 1950 )

Dumbo ( 1940 )

Peter Pan ( 1953 )

Pinocchio ( 1940 )

Matoakas ( 1995 )

The Lion King ( 1994 )

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