With reference to economic, political and military

Brief 99096

With mention to economic, political and military agreements examine Adenauer’s policy of prosecuting West Germany ‘s sovereignty by integrating into the West between 1949-1955

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Konrad Adenauer enjoyed a long calling as a politician dating back to the Weimar Republic and including courageous resistance to the Nazis government. For Adenauer the precedence after 1945 was reconstructing West Germany to economic prosperity and stableness ( Crystal, 2002, p.7 ) . Adenauer did non desire history to reiterate itself ; the Wiener Republic had been fatally hampered by the reverberations of the Treaty of Versailles and its viability was undermined by the failure to set up economic and political stableness or good dealingss with its neighbors. The Third Reich had achieved great power position through war and conquering. For the West Germans who efficaciously did non hold a state after 1945 ways were needed to give their state sovereignty instead than remain under the control of Britain, France and the United States. Integration in to the West seemed to Adenauer the best policy for accomplishing that end. Adenauer became Chancellor of the Exchequer after the Christian Democrats ( CDU’s ) and its alliance spouses narrow triumph in 1949.

For Adenauer the policy of prosecuting West Germany’s sovereignty by integrating into the West between 1949 and 1955 as it was the most matter-of-fact policy available to him. Politically states such as France, Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States wished to incorporate the political, economic and military power of Germany to forestall it doing another universe war. That is why the four powers had divided Germany into four zones after the Third Reich had been defeated. The Western Alliess controlled foreign policy, defense mechanism policy and industry ( Bark & A ; Gress, 1993, p.252 ) . The Soviet Union plundered its zones for reparations and communist regulation was imposed. The turning tensenesss between the Soviet Union and her former Western Alliess that led to the Cold War presented Adenauer with the chance to derive full sovereignty for Western Germany ( Watson, 1997, p.74 ) . Any opportunities of reuniting the Eastern zone of Germany in to Western Germany seemed over by 1947 whilst the increasing fright of the Soviet menace increased the support for integrating within Western Europe and close confederation with the United States ( Hobsbawm, 1994, p.236 ) . The economic desolation that the Second World War brought in its aftermath meant that Reconstruction was needed to forestall the spread of communism. The United States authorities had contributed vastly to Reconstruction with Marshall Aid and a call for closer economic integrating within Western Europe. Adenauer was non entirely in believing that an economically powerful Western Germany was critical for strong and stable economic growing in Western Europe. The British, Gallic and Americans had reached similar decisions ( Roberts, 1996, p.515 ) . He would believe that his integrating policies contributed to the CDU’s impressive election triumph in 1953 that gave his authorities the strength to prosecute its policy more wholeheartedly ( Bark and Gress, 1993, p. 324 ) .

Adenauer proposed economic integrating as a manner of get the better ofing Gallic frights about Western Germany utilizing a revived economic power as the footing for future expansionist military and foreign policy. Integration was besides supported in other states, which helped Adenauer accomplish his purposes more quickly than if merely he had backed integrating. From 1949 Adenauer was in a better place to force frontward on integrating as Western Germany became a to the full fledged independent province in that twelvemonth paralleled with the creative activity of East Germany ( Pulzer, 1995, p.57 ) . Adenauer was willing to organize and fall in administrations that encouraged economic integrating as it brought West Germany closer to the remainder of Western Europe plus it offered the chance of advancement and prosperity. The European Coal and Steel Community ( ECSC ) established in 1951 was the first measure in the procedure towards European political and economic brotherhood. The post-war West German economic miracle started in 1949 under the divine policies of the finance curate Ludwig Erhard and made the procedure of economic integrating more appealing to the other five members of ECSC and subsequently the European Economic Community or EEC ( Watson, 1997, p.129 ) .

With mention to military integrating, Adenauer believed that West Germany should be rearmed adequate to lend towards its ain defense mechanism and those of its military spouses. The British, Gallic and Americans had originally intended to go forth West Germany without its ain armed forces. However, the Cold War meant that West Germany rearmed in response to the Soviet menace. To guarantee that West Germany would non prosecute aggressive military enlargement the Basic jurisprudence banned violative action ( Pulzer, 1995, p.13 ) . Adenauer believed that West Germany needed its ain armed forces to hold full sovereignty. Military integrating was needed to turn West Germany from a defeated occupied enemy into an efficaciously armed allied spouse. Formal confederations were wanted non merely by the Germans but other Western European states to guarantee the United States maintained a military presence to counter the Soviet menace. West German rearmament was dependent on West German economic resurgence ; both factors needed integrating to demo West German good religion and to demo that they could be trusted ( Bark & A ; Gress, 1993, p.257 ) .

The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation ( NATO ) was formed in April 1949 and was the context in which West German rearmament finally took topographic point. It was an extension of the Brussels Treaty that had formed the Western European Union ( Roberts, 1996, p.523 ) . NATO rank allowed West Germany to obtain sovereignty in defense mechanism affairs by 1955 ( Hobsbawm, 1994, p.237 ) . NATO was non merely intend to incorporate Soviet enlargement it was hoped to do war between West Germany and France or Britain impossible ( Dunbabin, 1994, p.100 ) .

Not everybody in West Germany, for case the Social Democrats ( SPD ) thought that Adenauer was prosecuting the right policy in incorporating with the remainder of Western Europe. His critics believed that his policies were estranging the Soviet Union and doing German reunion extremely improbable ( Bark & A ; Gress, 1993, p.252 ) . The Korean War made many in the West believe that West Germany needed to rearm as the Soviet Union had much greater strength in conventional weaponries. The Soviets seemed dying to avoid such an event and tried to allure the West into accepting a impersonal reunited Germany. The original thought was for West Germany to rearm as portion of a new European Defence Community instead than through NATO rank. However, the EDC was abandoned because Britain refused to fall in and the Gallic National Assembly rejected its confirmation ( even though the whole undertaking had been started to pacify Gallic sentiments ) . The failure of the EDC was far from a catastrophe for Adenauer’s policy of deriving sovereignty through integrating. West Germany became a full member of NATO ; dealingss with Washington remained strong. As a effect of the negotiations related to organizing the EDC the relationship between France and West Germany grew stronger. That relationship was critical for go oning the procedure of farther political and economic integrating ( Pulzer, 1995, pp.58-59 ) .

The success of the ECSC in resuscitating industry in its six members and the closer links with France meant Adenauer was happy to travel towards further political and economic integrating. The thrust towards organizing the EEC was eased by the Gallic and West Germans making understanding over the Saar rejoining West Germany. Adenauer wanted integrating to forestall his replacements holding to a weaker, impersonal reunited Germany. Alternatively what he wanted was a strong West Germany that was closely integrated with the West. German reunion was off the docket all that mattered was the consolidation of a strong democratic state with international position as an equal instead than as a disfavor defeated enemy. Further integrating would do all of Western Europe more comfortable and demo up the weaknesss of the Soviet Union. Reunion might possibly go on but merely because of the future strength of Western Germany ( Dunbabin, 1994, pp.369-70 ) .

Overall it would hold to be agreed with mention to economic, political and military agreements that Adenauer’s policy of prosecuting West Germany’s sovereignty by integrating

into the West between 1949 and 1955 was a success. West Germany had started its economic miracle after 1949 its strong growing assisting the ECSC to go a success and leting West Germany to derive control over its steel and coal production even if sovereignty had to be shared with the other five members. However integrating allowed West Germany to retrace its economic system whilst deriving the trust of its spouses and stilling the frights of the Gallic and British that economic resurgence would take to military aggression. Although the EDC failed West Germany was still able to rearm under NATO and it had the fillip of beef uping the Bonn-Paris axis that has played an of import portion in driving European Integration frontward of all time since. The strong economic, political and military foundations that Adenauer laid between 1949 and 1955 non merely provided West German sovereignty through integrating it besides meant reunion would merely happen on footings dictated by West Germany. Adenauer’s policies were a success as West Germany regained its sovereignty by being responsible and by sharing it for its ain benefit and for the benefit of its political, economic and military spouses.


Bark, D L & A ; Gress, D R ( 1993 ) A History of West Germany – From shadow to substance 1945-1963, Blackwell, Oxford

Crystal, D ( 2003 ) The Penguin Concise Encyclopedia, Penguin Group, London

Dunbabin, J.P.D ( 1994 ) The Cold War – The Great Powers and their Alliess, Longman, London

Hobsbawm, E ( 1994 ) Age of Extremes, the Short Twentieth Century 1914-1991, Michael Joseph, London

Watson, J ( 1997 ) Success in World History since 1945, John Murray, London.

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