Why do people windsurf
Windsurfing and the windsurfing sub-culture was invented during the counter-culture of the 1960 ‘s ( Midol, 1993 )
This Chapter will try to give the reader a greater apprehension of the windsurfing and the definitions and theories of motive. It will utilize old research that has been carried out to analyze farther some of these theories and detect consistences and in-consistencies in the country of motive in athleticss, out-of-door athleticss and “ high hazard ” athleticss. It will so utilize this information to
Purpose of Research
Clarification of Terminology
Historical Background of Windsurfing
In the late 1940 ‘s, Newman Darby discovered how to sail a three meter sailing boat without utilizing a rudder by tilting the canvas towards the bow and aft of the boat. It was non until 1964 that he designed the first cosmopolitan articulation, “ a constituent that connects the canvas to the board that allows it to travel in any way ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //windsurfingmag.com/how-to/2008/03/26/windsurfing-glossary/ ) .
It was non until 1968 that Californian surfboarder Hoyle Schweitzer and Sailor Jim Drake got together and utilizing Darby ‘s thoughts created the first windsurfer. They patented their design and in the 1970 ‘s began to bring forth it widely. It was Darby ‘s construct of the Universal Joint that was at the nucleus of their design that allowed the windsurfer to be steered without a rudder.
Initially the windsurfer consisted of merely one board which beginners learnt on and experts prevailed on. Everyone used the same kit regardless of the conditions or accomplishment. ( http: //www.windsurfing-academy.com/information_bank/history/the_history_of_windsurfing.asp ) . The board was made from polythene, was 12 pess ( 3.5m ) long and weighed 60 lbs ( 27kg )
By the late 1970 ‘s windsurfing had taken a steadfast clasp of America and Europe with one in every three families in Europe possessing a windsurfer. ( http: //www.windsurfing-academy.com/information_bank/history/the_history_of_windsurfing.asp, The Windsurfing Movie, 200? ) The first universe title for windsurfing was held in 1973 and windsurfing became an Olympic athletics for work forces in 1984 and in 1992 for adult females.
“ Wind-propelled setup in which a mast is universally mounted on a trade and supports a roar and canvas. Specifically a brace of curved roars are accurately connected athwart the mast and procure the canvas at that place between, the place of the mast and canvas being governable by the user but being well free from polar restraint in the absence of such control. ” hypertext transfer protocol: //inventors.about.com/od/wstartinventions/a/windsurfing.htm
Development of Windsurfing
This subdivision will look at how windsurfing has developed both in relation to the equipment designs and the attitudes towards it. It will besides look at where windsurfing is today and effort to foretell the way it may be heading towards.
Definitions of Motivation
For the intent of this research it is of import to understand what is meant by the term motive. This subdivision provides several definitions for motive along with farther information to bear in head about the term “ motive ”
The term “ Motivation ” is derived from the Latin word movere intending “ to travel ” ( Onions 1996 ) cited in ( Moran, 2004 ) .
The construct of motive can be defined as “ The conjectural concept used to depict the internal and/or external forces that produce the induction, way, strength and continuity of behavior ” ( Vallerand & A ; Losier 1999 ) cited in ( Vallerand & A ; Rousseau, 2001 )
Motivation can besides be defined as “ being concerned with those factors which initiate or energise behaviour ” ( Moran, 2004, p. 38 ) .
Sage ( 1977 ) cited in ( Festeu, 2002 ) states that motive is the stimulating component of personality which is reflected in persons way and strength of attempt.
Within the field of athleticss psychology motivational issues are implicated when “ a individual undertakes a undertaking at which he or she is evaluated or enters into competition with others, or efforts to achieve some criterion of excellence ” ( Roberts, 2001, p.6 ) cited in ( Moran, 2004, p. 38 ) .
Assorted theories of motive will be looked at in greater item within the following chapter “ Theories of Motivation ” .
Harmonizing to Roberts ( 2001 ) cited in ( Moran, 2004 ) , “ motive is one of the most misunderstood concepts in athleticss psychological science ” . Roberts ( 2001 ) provinces there are three grounds for this. Firstly motive is frequently confused with rousing. Roberts ( 2001 ) states arousal demands to be channeled in a specific way for motive to happen. Second Roberts ( 2001 ) states that motive can non be enhanced through positive thought as normally believed. Research on end scene shows peoples aims have to be governable and realistic to be effectual. Finally some managers believe that motive is inherited genetically something which is besides contradicted by research which shows motive can be changed through appropriate direction. Roberts ( 2001 ) cited in ( Moran, 2004, p. 39 ) . Arousal
Theories of Motivation
This subdivision will look at the assorted theories of motive that have been developed over the old ages. These theories are non all straight relevant to the topic of this research but are necessary to let a greater apprehension of the country and theories, both past and current, of motive. It will besides look at the different types of motive and the different factors that affect them. It will pull on information from assorted surveies utilizing these theories to try to develop a farther apprehension of these theories and how they are relevant to the countries of said surveies.
Most current athleticss psychological science can be traced back to William James ( Model, 2005 ) . James ( 1890 ) published an article called “ What is replete ” . James suggested that involvement plays an indispensable function towards attending and attendant behavior. This theory bears many similarities to the Self Determination Theory proposed by Deci & A ; Ryan ( 1985 ) . The Self Determination Theory will be further discussed subsequently in this subdivision.
Sigmund Freud ( 1915 ) provided one of the earliest theories of motive resuscitating James ‘ theories. Freud ( 1915 ) cited in ( Model, 2005 ) suggested that persons are inactive existences and are moved by inherent aptitudes, the chief two being sex and aggression. Together these formed Freud ‘s ( 1923 ) Instinct Theory ( Model, 2005 ) , ( Vallerand & A ; Rousseau, 2001 ) .
A major unfavorable judgment of Freud ‘s theory is that inherent aptitudes can be difficult to place. Freud ‘s theory besides fails to take into history the consequence the environment may hold on motive. ( Silva III & A ; Stevens, 2001 ) .
Need Achievement Theory
The Need Achievement Theory considers both personality and situational factors as of import forecasters of behavior. ( Atkimson, 1974 ) cited in ( Festeu, 2002 ) . Personality refers to an person ‘s thrust towards success and turning away of failure.
Murry 1938 Atkimson 1974 – festeu ( 3 )
Drive Theory is an enlargement of Freud ‘s Instinct Theory put frontward by Clark Hull ( 1948 ) . Freud ‘s Instinct Theory was originally named the thrust theory but was subsequently re-named. ( Model, 2005 ) .
Hull concluded that motivational behaviors derive from one of four thrusts: sex, hungriness, thirst and trouble turning away. “ A thrust occurs and provides energy for action ” Hull ( 1938 ) cited in ( Model, 2005 ) . Hull ‘s theory creates a nexus between inherent aptitudes or thrusts and behavior. Harmonizing to Hull ‘s theory, as these thrusts occur, such as hungriness, we become motivated to cut down these thrusts to zero in this instance by eating. This is the first theory that implies extrinsic motive. ( Model, 2005 ) .
Flaws observed within Hull ‘s Drive theory came to visible radiation as better apprehensions of rousing and its effects on people came to visible radiation. Arousal will be discussed further in the following chapter “ Factors That Affect Motivation in Sport ” . Hull ‘s Drive Theory besides did non take into history of the differing degrees of motive between different undertakings and persons. ( Silva III & A ; Stevens, 2001 )
Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs
Self Determination Theory
The Self Determination Theory is a theoretical account of human motive that stems from the innate demands for competency, liberty and relatedness within the environment. It provides an over-riding model for intrinsic and extrinsic motive. ( Baldwin & A ; Caldwell, 2003 ) The Self Determination theory proposes that these psychological demands and the societal environment will find one of many motives. Each motive can hold varied effects on our ideas, behaviors and feelings. These motives fall along a continuum and are all connected to each other ” ( Deci & A ; Ryan, 1985 ) cited in ( Model, 2005 )
Self Determination Theory ( Cooke, Fielding ) .pngCited in ( Cooke & A ; Fielding, 2010 )
As the graduated table above shows, motive can be divided into six different signifiers from intrinsic motive at one terminal of a graduated table to extrinsic motive at the other terminal ( Deci & A ; Ryan 1985 ) cited in ( Baldwin & A ; Caldwell, 2003 ) .
Amotivation refers to no motive at all. ( Baldwin & A ; Caldwell, 2003 ) depict it as a manner of depicting behaviour which is neither regulated or knowing.
Extrinsic motive refers to “ prosecuting in an activity as a agency to an terminal and non for its ain interest ” ( Vallerand & A ; Fortier, 1998 ) cited in ( Moran, 2004, p. 40 ) . It can be separated into non-internalised and internalised, as displayed in the diagram above. Internalised signifiers of extrinsic motive carry some intrinsic factors lending towards behavior but the primary grounds are still external.
External ordinance is the most utmost signifier of extrinsic motive. ( Baldwin & A ; Caldwell, 2003 ) . This refers to the making of an activity entirely to fulfill external demands such as for a wages or to avoid penalty.
Introjected ordinance is based on ego controlled, ego orientated behaviour that is normally driven by what others may believe. Introjected motive is non independent but instead externally focussed behaviour normally carried out to avoid guilt of anxiousness or to keep position or feelings of ego worth. ( Baldwin & A ; Caldwell, 2003 ) .
Identified ordinance has elements of intrinsic motive but behaviour is undertaken for chiefly external grounds. ( Baldwin & A ; Caldwell, 2003 ) . An illustration of this is cross-training in athleticss. Windsurfers may partake in other exercisings such as running or cycling non for the enjoyment but to keep or increase fittingness for windsurfing. They may bask the running or cycling but this is non their primary ground for engagement.
Integrated ordinance is the most independent signifier of extrinsic motive. A individual carries out this behaviour because it represents what they stand for. This can be demonstrated amongst voluntaries for non-profit administrations. They carry out behaviour for external wagess frequently with small compensation or direct benefit to themselves.
Intrinsic motive refers to peoples grounds for set abouting an activity “ for itself and the pleasance and satisfaction derived from engagement ” ( ibid. , p.390 ) cited in ( Moran, 2004, p. 39 ) . This can besides be described as the chase of an activity that one finds interesting and is engaged in for the built-in satisfaction derived from engagement. ( Baldwin & A ; Caldwell, 2003 ) .
Factors that Affect Motivation and Participation in Sports
This subdivision will detect the varying factors that encourage or deter engagement in athletics or physical activity as a whole. It will pull on information gathered from the old chapter and associate them straight to feature utilizing research already carried out in the country of motive in athleticss
( 5 bombilation drug addicts ) ( 8 understanding engagement in athleticss )
( The Art of Healthy Risk Taking )
Motivation in Outdoor Activities
This subdivision will try to farther research the country of motive towards the country of out-of-door activity. It will research motivational factors in assorted countries and assorted athleticss that draw from the natural environment to supply a medium to set about the specific activities. It will besides pull on research already carried out in this country to try to develop a greater apprehension of any consistences or in-consistencies in this country.
( 5 bombilation drug addicts ) ( The Art of Healthy Risk Taking ) ( festeu 4 )
Nature and hazard in escapade athleticss – Doctrine, hazard & A ; escapade athleticss
Is Windsurfing an “ Extreme Sport ” ?
Windsurfing is normally regarded as an “ Extreme athletics ” nevertheless this term may be misdirecting. This label was attached to assorted alternate athleticss by the media originally in North America in an attempt to pull the more moneymaking teenage audience. ( Dant & A ; Wheaton, 2007 ) . The term “ High Hazard ” is now normally used by research workers in the field of these athleticss in topographic point of the term “ utmost ” . It can be observed that the bulk of windsurfing practised by most windsurfers can non be described as “ high hazard ” due to the reasonably low hazard of hurt. ( Dant & A ; Wheaton, 2007 ) . It is of import to retrieve that the more risky conditions attempted by many windsurfers by come ining the seas in air currents upwards of gale force and big crestless waves still constitutes a high hazard environment to come in. With this in head, windsurfing can merely truly be described as a high hazard athletics when undertaken in such inauspicious conditions that if gear failure or rider mistake were to happen, self deliverance would be near to an impossibleness.
This subdivision will analyze hazard taking both existent and perceived in the country of motive and effort to make an apprehension of how this may change person ‘s attitudes towards general activities and so specifically high hazard athleticss.
( The Art of Healthy Risk Taking ) ( To the Extremes – out of the cistron pool )
What is even stranger is that some people go beyond being
perceivers and take existent hazards, and expose themselves to existent injury of
one sort or another, and that they do so wholly voluntarily.
Why do people, of their ain free will, take part in such activities
as sky diving, mountaineering, bungee-jumping, white-water rafting,
large moving ridge surfboarding, pot-holing, base jumping, cave diving, and
In this regard, it is interesting that new signifiers of voluntary hazard
are continually emerging or being invented in different parts of the
universe, and this seems to hold been peculiarly true in the last
decennary or so. ( Danger quest for exhilaration )
This subdivision will analyze how the natural environment can impact attitudes and motive towards engagement in activities.
( To the Extremes – out of the cistron pool ) ( 6 Environmental Factors )
Gender Differences in Motivation
( 5 bombilation drug addicts ) ( 13 where have all the windsurfers gone )
Windsurfing as a subculture instead than a athletics
Windsurfing is portion of a group of activities born during the counter-culture motions of the 1960 ‘s Midol ( 1993 ) cited in ( Wilkinson, 2010 ) , ( Dant & A ; Wheaton, 2007 ) . Other activities in this catagory include skateboarding, snowboarding and the revival of surfboarding.
As Belinda Wheaton ( 2003 )
Does Windsurfing necessitate a different motivational form to other athleticss?
Sport committedness of windsurfers
Sports Motivation Scale
Free Time Motivational Scale
Sport Commitment Model
Sport committedness of windsurfers ( 2 )