Why do people take recreational drugs of abuse

Drug-taking has a long history in human societies: from intoxicant usage by Stone Age adult male to the ‘Mariani ‘ vino used by Queen Victoria which contained both cocaine and opium ( Petersen, 2002 ) . As some drug-taking has been labelled debatable, a overplus of theories and factors have emerged to speculate people ‘s ingestion, and over-consumption, of recreational drugs. The inquiry of recreational drug-taking can be broken down into: why do people get down taking drugs and how do they go addicted? This essay outlines the chief theories and provides back uping grounds.

Get downing with the inquiry of why people begin taking drugs, a assortment of demographic factors have been identified. Miller and Plant ( 1996 ) find, for illustration, that amongst 15 and 16-year-olds, 40 % reported holding taken illicit drugs. Similarly societal category and ethnicity have shown some connexions ( Petersen, 2002 ) . More research has, nevertheless, been carried out into the consequence of household and equals. Steinberg, Fletcher and Darling ( 1994 ) found that the monitoring of kids by their households was negatively associated with substance usage, and parental monitoring helped to lower degrees of substance usage. Besides, peer usage of substances appeared to promote their associates. That said, nevertheless, merely faulting friends and household is excessively simplistic, but they do organize portion of the matrix ( Petersen, 2002 ) . Other factors which have besides been implicated include the effects of civilization and norms along with which substances are easy accessible ( Petersen, 2002 ) .

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Turning now to theories concentrating on how dependence arises, these can be loosely placed into three chief classs: biological, personality-based and psychological ( Petersen, 2002 ) . Within the biological accounts, Petersen ( 2002 ) identifies two watercourses: foremost familial factors and secondly the interaction between drugs and the individual. Familial factors have been most well researched in relation to alcohol ( Hansell & A ; Damour, 2005 ) .

The strongest grounds for a familial function in dependence comes from acceptance surveies. These are considered the strongest as they greatly cut down the consequence of differences in environmental influences. Dodgen and Shea ( 2000 ) study that boies adopted out from alcoholic male parents into unrelated environments are three times more likely to develop alcohol addiction than those without alcoholic male parents. The evident familial connexion between female parents and girls is much lower. Interactional effects have been studied through duplicate research: Cloninger, Sigvardsson, and Bohman ( 1996 ) , for illustration, found support for the function of cistrons in the interaction with the environment. There is no consensus on preciselyhowcistrons might do greater substance abuse but one theory is that cistrons may impact sensitiveness and hence the experient consequence ( Dodgen & A ; Shea, 2000 ) .

Personality-based theories of recreational drug-taking are sometimes described as being mid-way between biological and psychological theories. Two common traits are the ‘addictive personality ‘ and ‘sensation-seeking ‘ trait ( Petersen, 2002 ) . A major job for personality theories is bring outing whether the personality factors or the habit-forming behaviors have primacy ( Jung, 2001 ) . Longitudinal surveies have shown, nevertheless, that personality traits can impact habit-forming behaviors, although this likely happens indirectly ( Sher et al. , 1987 ) . For illustration, more adventuresome people are more likely to seek recreational drugs in the first topographic point. Personality upsets are besides associated with habit-forming behaviors. Specifically, Antisocial Personality Disorder has the strongest relationship to substance maltreatment ( Fields, 2001 ) .

Finally, assorted strictly psychological theories have been proposed to explicate why people come to mistreat recreational drugs. Two larning theories Petersen ( 2002 ) identifies are behavioristic theories of classical and operant conditioning. Drugs can make powerful emotions and these provinces are reinforcing stimuluss for the behavior ( Hansell & A ; Damour, 2005 ) . Feeling ‘high ‘ reinforces the connexion between drugs and good feelings, and so strengthens the cringle. A related learning-based attack is that of societal larning theory ( Bandura, 1977 ) . This posits that people may copy habit-forming behaviors from those around them ( binding in with research on household and equals mentioned above ) , that self-efficacy is of import and that motive to go on comes from the pleasant effects of the drug ( Petersen, 2002 ) .

Theories of substance maltreatment based on rational pick have besides been influential. These are based on economic theoretical accounts which emphasise how a human being efforts to maximize benefits that accrue to themselves ( Becker & A ; Murphy, 1988 ) . While this theoretical account tends to see dependence as a pick, other theories tend to underscore impulse control ( West, 2006 ) . Baumeister, Heatherton and Dianne ( 1994 ) suggest, for illustration, that drug pickings can be understood as a failure of self-regulation.

This provides a sample of the scope of psychological theories that have been used to explicate the maltreatment of recreational drugs. What has emerged from the literature, nevertheless, is that there is improbable to be one individual underlying factor. Rather a multi-factor attack demands to be taken in order to outdo understand recreational drug maltreatment ( Hansell & A ; Damour, 2005 ) .

In decision, substance abuse has been approached from a broad assortment of theoretical and practical waies. A scope of influences have been suggested which cause people to take recreational drugs, and sometimes to travel on to mistreat them. These include socio-demographic, biological, personality and psychological factors. Factors act uponing the maltreatment of recreational drugs are, hence, many and widespread. While different positions can supply utile penetrations, it is the integrating of these theoretical accounts that provides the most utile account.Mentions

Bandura, A. ( 1977 ) .Social acquisition theory. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Baumeister, R. , Heatherton, T. , & A ; Dianne, M. ( 1994 ) .Losing cControl: how and why people fail at self-regulation. Oxford: Academic Press.

Becker, G. , & A ; Murphy, K. ( 1988 ) . A theory of rational dependence.The Journal of Political Economy, 96( 4 ) , 675-700.

Cloninger, C. , Sigvardsson, S. , & A ; Bohman, M. ( 1996 ) . Type I and II alcohol addiction.Alcohol Health and Research World, 20, 18-23.

Dodgen, C. , & A ; Shea, W. ( 2000 ) .Substance usage upsets: appraisal and intervention.Oxford: Academic Press.

William claude dukenfields, R. ( 2001 ) .Drugs in position: a individualized expression at substance usage and maltreatment. London: McGraw-Hill.

Hansell, J. , & A ; Damour, L. ( 2005 ) .Abnormal psychological science. London: Wiley.

Jung, J. ( 2001 ) .Psychology of intoxicant and other drugs: a research position. London: Sage Publications Inc.

Miller, P. , & A ; Plant, M. ( 1996 ) . Drinking, smoke, and illicit drug usage among 15 and 16 twelvemonth olds in the United Kingdom.British Medical Journal, 313( 7054 ) , 394-397.

Petersen, T. ( 2002 ) Researching substance abuse and dependance: accounts, theories and theoretical accounts. In: T. Petersen, T & A ; A. McBride ( Eds. ) .Working with Substance Misusers: A Guide to Theory and Practice. Oxford: Routledge.

Sher, K. J. , Trull, T. J. , Barthlow, B. D. , & A ; Vieth, A. ( 1987 ) . Personality and alcohol addiction: issues methods and aetiologic procedures. In: H. Blane & A ; K. Leonard, ( Eds. ) .Psychological Theories of Drinking and Alcoholism. New York: Guilford Press.

Steinberg, L. , Fletcher, A. , & A ; Darling, N. ( 1994 ) . Parental monitoring and equal influences on stripling substance usage.Pediatricss, 93( 6 ) , 1060-1064.

West, R. ( 2006 ) .Theory of Addiction. London: Blackwell Publishing.

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