Who was responsible for the cold war – Russia – Discuss with re…
When looking at the issue of who was responsible for the cold war, we have to look at what the relationship between the United States and USSR ( Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ) was like before the start of World War Two. By the terminal of the 19th century Marxism in Western Europe was going more and more national. The imperial deductions of both Marxist idea and Russian history provide the wide background and context for understanding Soviet engagement in cold war. “ The Soviet worldwide had been shaped by a history that was dramatically different from that of the West[ 1 ]“ . For illustration the Bolshevik revolution, the civil war, and the experience of World War two all contributed to a alone Soviet position. Furthermore after the revolution of 1917, Soviet Russia assumed the duty of distributing the Marxist message. “ Stalin seen himself as the keeper of the Marxist religion, it would liberate world ”[ 2 ]. In add-on historiographers such as Zubok and Constantine suggest that history gave the Russians the ground to see themselves as Jesuss of the universe. Due to the events that occurred before the Cold War we can see this. Furthermore historians believed that “ each of them would do his ain intricate cold war journey, guided by the two deceptive Suns of imperium and revolution ” .
Many historiographers believe that it was because, the United States and USSR political orientations were so different and believed that to be the implicit in cause for their fright of one another. For illustration Russia was communist which put the demands of the province in front of personal human rights and was ruled by a dictator. The USA was a capitalist democracy which valued freedom and believed that communism was something to fear. Americans saw themselves as title-holders of the free universe, and autocrats such as Stalin represented everything the United States opposed. At the same clip, the Soviets, who believed that capitalist economy exploited the multitudes, saw the United States as the oppressor. To underscore the difference between the two states we can see this by looking at their visions of the universe. For illustration Stalin saw the universe as divided into two cantonments: imperialist and capitalist governments on the one manus, and the Communist and progressive universe on the other. In 1947, President Harry Truman besides spoke of two diametrically opposed systems: one free and the other set on repressing other states. Although World War Two was meant to be the “ War to stop all wars ” it was non, the reverberations and the wake of what the war had caused, it merely take to a more discerning atmosphere all over the universe, and as we can see this was rebelliously the instance when sing the relationship between the US and USSR. Although dealingss went on a downward spiral after World War Two it was non ever this manner, they were one time Alliess during World War Two. However things changed after WW2, one time the menace of Hitler was over, they became fearful of each other, Russia ‘s hatred for capitalist economy deepened when they was non rewarded for their attempts during World War Two, alternatively they became focused back on by the universe that they was the menace the “ ruddy panic ” began to escalate. Furthermore historiographers have suggested that because of the tremendous forfeit of the Russian people in the Second World War, had led to the Soviet leaders to believe that the Alliess owed them a great trade. The “ cold war emerged from the ruins of universe war two ”[ 3 ]Stalin expected to be rewarded for their part in the war particularly when Russia lost 27 million people. His primary undertaking was to recover the districts lost to Russia during the war and revolution from 1915 to 1921: the Baltic ‘s, Finland, Poland, and Bessarabia. This end was virtually fulfilled by the terminal of 1945.
The Cold War was a period of East-West competition, tenseness, and struggle short of all-out war. It was characterized by common perceptual experiences of hostile purpose between military-political confederations or axis, both systems believed that they were making the right thing. The events that happened before and after World War two had an irreversible impact on how both of these states perceived one another.
Furthermore Stalin ‘s foreign policies contributed an tremendous sum to the tensenesss of the Cold War. His purpose, was to take advantage of the military state of affairs in post-war Europe to beef up Russian influence, this was perceived to be a menace to the US and everything they stood for. Stalin was extremely effectual in his end to derive district, with triumphs for illustration in Poland and Romania. To the western universe, this success looked as if it were the beginning of a series of Russian aggressions. The aggressive enlargement in Eastern Europe was one of the chief grounds for the cause of the cold war. Therefore it can be questioned that if the Soviets had non adopted the expansionist policy, so the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan may non hold been initiated to maintain Stalin and his spread of communism at bay.
Furthermore Stalin ‘s ain character could be seen as another cause for the cold war, for illustration when Ivan Maisky and Maxim Litvinov were appointed in 1943. Maisky wrote that the chief Soviet end after the war would be to guarantee a lasting peace sufficiency for the USSR “ to go so powerful ” that “ no combination of powers in Europe or in Asia could even believe of endangering her ”[ 4 ]. This suggest that even though Russia had non got the wagess they was anticipating from World War two and the part of the West in the civil war in 1918 all contributed to Stalin ‘s position on distributing Communism and being strong plenty to non be threatened or have a fright of being invaded by any other state. In add-on Stalin ‘s actions to desiring to distribute communism throughout the universe, lead to policies such as the China policy which historian Odd Arne Westad came to the decision that “ Joseph Stalin China policy in the autumn of 1945 was as aimless and incoherent as his European policy. However much he hoped to avoid station war confrontation with the United States, Stalin could… non do his head how to accomplish this purpose. ”[ 5 ]This position gives of import penetration into the impact of Stalin ‘s character on the beginnings of the cold war. In add-on Historians have besides wondered whether another cause for the cold war was Stalin ‘s hapless diplomatic negotiations. For illustration the diplomatic force per unit area he put on Meleagris gallopavo caused him great jobs with the West and subsequently in 1948 his effort his effort to take Tito in Yugoslavia by agencies of “ communist democracy ” backfired and merely weakened their place. The mistakes Stalin made and the policies he created showed him to be aggressive and desiring to spread out USSR ‘S boundary lines distributing they manner of communism. This finally created more of a craze and fright in US, hence being a chief subscriber to the cause of the Cold War.
In add-on when the Western democracies and the Soviet Union met up to discourse World War II, and the nature of the post-war colony at conferences in Tehran 1943, Yalta February 1945, and Potsdam July-August 1945. At these conferences the Soviets agreed to let the states of Eastern Europe to take their ain authoritiess in free elections. Stalin agreed to the status merely because he believed that these freshly liberated states would see the Soviet Union as their savoir and make their ain Communist authoritiess. When they failed to make so, Stalin violated the understanding by pass overing out all resistance to communism in these states and puting up his ain authoritiess in Eastern Europe, doing the state of affairs to escalate. To do the state of affairs worse, Stalin deepened the alienation between the United States and the Soviet Union when he asserted in 1946 that World War II was an ineluctable and inevitable effect of “ capitalist imperialism ” and implied that such a war might reoccur. This resulted in an addition in universe spread fright of communism due to Stain fundamentally traveling towards the idea of another World war, which could hold lead to a atomic war. In add-on many of the tensenesss that existed in the Cold War can be attributed to Stalin ‘s policy of Soviet enlargement. It is necessary to see that the function of Stalin can be seen as a accelerator to the Cold War
Furthermore the state of affairs affecting Poland was that Poland had ever been the cardinal province needed from which to establish an onslaught against Russia. He besides wanted Poland to hold a pro-Soviet authorities. Therefore after some clip, he set up a communist authorities in Poland. He said that his control of Eastern Europe was a defensive step against possible hereafter onslaughts to the West it appeared to them that Russia ‘s attitude went against all of the promises that Stalin had made at Yalta chiefly that Stalin would allow free elections in the eastern European provinces. Russia argued that it needed to keep a domain of influence in the country for security grounds. This caused farther anxiousness over Stalin ‘s policy of enlargement. This so lead to the West to present the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, both of which sought to collar the spread of communism.
The induction of the Marshall program for European recovery, nevertheless from Stalin ‘s point of position the marshal program was a big graduated table effort by the United States to derive permanent influence in Europe. The marshell program was a serious challenge to Stalin vision of a future Europe every bit good as to German- Soviet dealingss. Therefore he had to protect his boundary lines but by making so it caused him to look like an aggressive tough towards states that would non follow his lead. For illustration when leading of Czechoslovakia hesitated before stoping their engagement in the Marshall program it outraged Stalin, he told Czechoslovakia instantly to call off the programs to have assistance from the US, Gottwald ( leader of Czechoslovakia ) complied. This merely shows the bullying Stalin was willing to set other states through to maintain them communist and non wade to the side of the US. The states that complied with Stalin and agreed non to take part in the Marshall program, their economic systems deteriorated, while those of the western European provinces began to retrieve and see betterment in their economic systems. To Stalin this was a challenge of his authorization in Eastern Europe, therefore his following actions was to concentrate on Czechoslovakia, the Communist group in Prague carried out a putsch in February of 1948. Shortly after the putsch the Czech president was replaced by the leader of the Czech Communist party, Gottwald. Furthermore it was incidents like these that caused indignation in the western universe, the bullying of another state to non take a opportunity that could assist their economic system, to halt them states from deflecting from the manner of communism instead than capitalist economy. Therefore if Russia had non behaved and acted this manner due to their enlargement policy, it may non hold of all time got out of control and at that place would hold been no demand to implement the Marshall program which lead to the execution of the Truman Doctrine.
To further America ‘s fright of communism, due to their aggressive foreign policy, between 1943-46 most western European Communist parties were at a extremum in the old ages instantly following World War Two. The Gallic Communist Party, for illustration, won about 30 % of the ballot in 1946 elections. Greece was in crisis they were at the threshold of civil war which eventually occurred in 1946 after the Grecian Communists tried to prehend power in 1944 due to a rise in communist leg guerilla. This resulted in an economic crisis which at the clip was being supported by Britain nevertheless this was no longer possible. Therefore America stepped in because they feared that the people would look more towards communism through despair. This so resulted in the debut of the Truman Doctrine in March, 1947. The Truman philosophy announced that was to be given to Greece and Turkey in the declared context of a general war against communism. The US gives $ 400 million as assistance to assist Greece in their economic crisis. However it can be said that in many ways, the Truman Doctrine marked the formal declaration of the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union.It besides solidified the United States ‘ place sing containment. However, even though this suggests that US started the war, but if Russia had non been sharply spread outing their imperium and distributing communism so it would non hold caused the US to step in and present the Truman philosophy due to their fright of communism.
By 1946, the United States and Britain were doing every attempt to unite all of Germany under western regulation. The Soviet Union responded by consolidating its clasp on Europe by making satellite provinces in 1946 and 1947. One by one, communist authoritiess, loyal to Moscow, were set up in Poland, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria. Stalin used Soviet communism to rule half of Europe. This created more of a misgiving in the USSR and the US dealingss ensuing in the physique up to the Cold War, and obviously demoing that the roots of the job was the Russia ‘s enlargement policy.
In relation to the old point made to demo Russia ‘s enlargement during the clip taking up to the Cold war, we have to look at Winston Churchill “ Iron Curtain ” . Churchill said that “ From Stettin on the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic, an Fe drape has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient provinces of cardinal and Eastern Europe -Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia. ”[ 6 ]Therefore demoing the graduated table of how fast Russia was spread outing through Eastern Europe. It besides emphasis the split between Russia and the US making more of an alienated relationship between the two ace powers, because it is demoing the spread of communism and how speedy it was happening. The United States feared the most was the “ Red Scare “ which was going more serious with each invasion of the states within Eastern Europe.
Stalin besides set up the Berlin Blockade with the thought that he could force western power out of Eastern Berlin, which merely escalated the state of affairs. “ The cold War was the brave and indispensable response of free work forces to Communist aggression. ”[ 7 ]Schlesinger believes that the Sovietss were incorrect and that the USA was seeking to halt the USSR from traveling any farther. Another position is T.A. Bailey who besides believed that the Soviets were to fault ; he thinks that they ever had one more program for universe domination up their arms.
In add-on farther actions took by Stalin which was lending to the terminal consequence in being the cold war, was the Berlin Blockade on the 24th June 1948. Stalin decided to obstruct West Berlin by cutting off route and rail links. To interrupt the encirclement armed forces would hold to nail the encirclement, nevertheless this would be seen as an act of war which Stalin new US would n’t make. He believed they would abandon their zones and leave the whole of Berlin in Soviet custodies. However Stalin failed to derive control of Berlin. Although he failed in this instance, it still antagonised America doing them to revenge. Therefore due to Stalin desiring to derive a pes clasp in Europe and to maintain sharply spread outing. This shows that each action Stalin made were all accelerators in doing the Cold War.
In add-on the relationship between Russia and the US escalated further to the extent were another proxy war was happening, which was the Korean War ( 1950- 1953 ) . The Korean War was a military struggle between the Republic of Korea, supported by the United Nations, and the Democratic People ‘s Republic of Korea and People ‘s Republic of China ( PRC ) , with air support from the Soviet Union. The war began on 25 June 1950 it was a consequence of the political division of Korea by understanding of the winning Allies at the decision of the Pacific War. In 1945, following the resignation of Japan, American decision makers divided the peninsula along the 38th Parallel, with United States military personnels, busying the southern portion and Soviet military personnels busying the northern portion. It was soviets foreign policy that lead to them being involved in the Korean War nevertheless it was China who physically participated in the war, where as Russia was moving behind the scenes to non really do a physical war between them and the US. By being involved in the war it merely caused the US to be more wary of Russia and showed how much influence and power the USSR had gained to hold that “ control ” over China and other states that were besides communist.
After looking at the events taking up to the cold war, the short term and long term causes when concentrating on the US position we see that their position was flawed because they feared what they did non understand, they did non understand how a state could be ran under a communist authorities and still work, particularly when the US system was capitalist. The US ‘s response was based on their misinterpretation and fright of USSR which was more normally known as the ruddy panic. For illustration the US and Britain believed that merely before WW2 they seen the USSR as more of a menace than Hitler at that clip.
Overall some historiographers such as the Traditionalist believed that Russia was to fault for the Cold War. They believed that the Soviet-led authoritiess sought to subvert bing capitalist authoritiess, which can be reinforced by the fact that Russia ‘s foreign policy was aggressive enlargement. In add-on the US and its Alliess were simply reacting to the menaces of the Soviet Union, as we can see by the Truman philosophy. I agree with diehard ‘s thought due to the fact that Stalin and his replacements were convinced that the legitimacy of their regulation depended on formalizing Marxist-leninist anticipations of universe revolution. If they believed that they would merely win when these anticipations were completed so they were to fault for the cold war. Russia actions of aggressive enlargement throughout Eastern Europe support this.