What are the key challenges and measures of
What are the cardinal challenges and steps of success confronting the direction of a FTSE500 organisation implementing a successful and valuable company broad intranet?
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As the complexness in the operating environment has increased, modern organisations have evolved from being defined by direction constructions based on centralized control and standardised procedures to using systems of direction which emphasize flexible relationships and adaptable methods. Information engineering has made similar patterned advance from a focal point on formalistic undertaking mechanization to advancing flexible cognition webs. Intranets, inter-organisational webs based on cyberspace protocols, have the flexibleness to back up the changeless alterations to procedures and relationships that result from organisations accommodating to quickly altering runing conditions. The presence of intranets among big organisations, peculiarly the FTSE500 organisations determines the association between intranet acceptance and encompassing more flexible, antiphonal, and less hierarchal direction system features. Furthermore, the turning figure of variant computing machine systems within organisations presents a possible job for information sharing and cognition development if the systems are non inter-operable. The unfastened architecture of cyberspace engineering has become attractive to concern organisations for internal usage because it enables standardisation of information system interfaces every bit good as the connectivity of disparate systems. Using intranets to link heterogenous systems provides a mechanism in which information sharing can be facilitated between bing information systems without major alterations to the applications themselves. This essay focuses placing the key challenges and steps of success confronting the direction of a FTSE500 organisation implementing a successful and valuable company broad intranet.
Key Challenges and Measures
The term intranet refers to the usage of unfastened cyberspace protocols and applications for streamlining the flow of information within an organization’s boundaries. Intranet applications may include electronic messaging among employees by utilizing SMTP ( Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ) , FTP ( File Transfer Protocol ) , and shared entree to volumes of corporate information through the usage of web package based on HTML ( Hypertext Markup Langauage ) and HTTP ( Hypertext Transfer Protocol ) ( Trowbridge 1996 ) . The tools to make applications for intranet usage are the same as those used to make internet applications. The difference is that intranet applications are for internal organizational usage merely.
Intranets are a specific category of information web integrated across non-standard hardware, package and informations storage constellations. This allows for flexible information sharing across concern unit, physical and functional boundaries within the organisation while being antiphonal to specific organisational ends ( Trowbridge 1996 ) . Thach and Woodman ( 1994 ) have observed that intranets support the 1990’s phenomenon of coincident upward integrating and downward variegation of information flow and determination devising. FTSE500 organisations require flexibleness to equilibrate top-down control with bottom-up environment to guarantee determinations are made at the most informed degree. Intranet credence in organisations is compatible with force per unit areas for a direction displacement from centralized control to distributed information flow and decision-making ( Halal 1994 ) . Increasing the span of information flow supports increased coaction, cooperation and consensus edifice, therefore leting organisations the flexibleness to accommodate to, and accommodate quickly altering runing conditions.
Once organisations have made the determination to implement intranet engineering, the extent to which the engineering will e utilised must be determined. There are three by and large accepted definitions of intranet deployment degrees that organisations use. Each is based on the complexness of its applications. The Gartner Group ( 1996 ) has defined the three platforms as Enterprise Wide Web ( EWW ) , Interactive Collaborative Platform ( ICP ) , and Interactive Application Platform ( IAP ) . EWW is the simplest signifier of intranet to deploy as it involves really small proficient cognition ( Gartner Group 1996 ) . Organizations use EWW platform for information sharing and publication. EWWs utilize web engineering to supply a individual user interface to information shacking on heterogenous systems. Using basic HTML-based web pages, bing information can be seamlessly connected for endeavor broad entree ( Gartner Group 1996 ) . Examples of EWW applications include web-based corporate policies and processs, employee directories, internal occupation listings and company merchandise and services information. Other than hyperlinks to other web pages or resources, the EWW application pages are by and large inactive in nature ( Gartner Group 1996 ) .
The ICP platform extends the publication theoretical account by adding an on-line medium for coaction and group work. ICP applications include calendaring and scheduling, electronic mail, treatment groups, and work flow and document direction. The ICP platform is intended to standardise the interface to collaborative applications through a individual common web shoping tool that can be utilized on heterogenous hardware and package platforms ( Gartner Group 1996 ) . The ICP application may utilize the standardised web browser interface on an bing proprietary groupware application, or it may be a web-based groupware application in and out of itself. The advantage of ICP web-based interface is that organisational users can join forces on undertakings irrespective of their location or the sort of systems that they are utilizing to entree coaction tools. With the 3rd degree of synergistic deployment, IAP, organisations use the intranet to supply standardised synergistic entree to applications and databases ( Gartner Group 1996 ) . Existing bequest applications and informations warehouses can be accessed seamlessly through a web browser supplying a individual common interface. One illustration of an IAP application is web based order processing, in which a standardized user interface is designed to interact seamlessly with a back-end order treating dealing system. This application apparatus enables users with any sort of computing machine in any location to interactively entree the dealing system and its informations with a common, standardised interface ( Gartner Group 1996 ) .
Systematically, subjects of intranet execution revolve around enhanced productiveness and creativeness, the effectual and accelerated execution of alteration, and the enhanced capableness of persons to work together ( Murgolo-Pooreet Al2003 ) . In footings of dimensions, they help organisations to run smoother operations, enhance and sometimes alter their civilizations and facilitate procedures. However, there are many technological issues which FTSE500 organisations must be able to digest and utilize for their benefits.
As intranets have become widely disseminated, a figure of concerns have been raised in the engineering imperativeness. Powellet Al( 1998 ) warned of an at hand web crisis that they attributed to ad hoc methodological analysis being used to construct web sites, and the deficiency of preparation in structured scheduling among web developers. They suggested that web sites would hold fewer jobs had they been developed utilizing good package programming methodological analysiss. Dart ( 1999 ) besides suggested that hapless development methods were to fault for a crisis in web care undertakings to transcend organisational staffing degrees. Furthermore, Sliwa ( 2000 ) studies pandemonium on corporate intranets ensuing from their unchained growing. A province of crisis in pull offing intranet content was besides proclaimed in a study from Gartner Group ( 2000 ) . Gartner’s experts recommend that all organisations develop a content direction scheme embracing activities throughout the content lifecycle. They besides recommend content direction package to hive away paperss, track the motion of information, and automatically update content.
Organizations are bombarded with altering package, hardware, new thoughts, and perchance better mechanisms for executing the same undertakings they have been making for old ages ( Scheepers 2003 ) . It is ever hard to measure and research every technological discovery or new thought that is brought to the organization’s attending. In short, the issues that challenge the FTSE organisations are the same that have challenged organisations in the yesteryear. How to increase productiveness, lessening cost, and use company’s assets in the most efficient mode possible are still the common issues that are the root to organisations being more successful in the hereafter than they have been in the yesteryear ( Scheepers 2003 ) . Basically, there are three cardinal technological issues when implementing an organization-wide intranet. The first issue emphasizes the intranet’s dependance on resources that must be in topographic point for the intranet to be implemented. Damsgard & A ; Scheepers ( 2000 ) argue that there is a demand for the intranet to be grabbed by the direction. If the direction does non foster the intranet, it can non germinate beyond its experiential beginnings. The 2nd issue emphasizes the demand for a critical mass of both content and users to co-exist for the intranet to self expand and go self sustaining ( Damsgard & A ; Scheepers 2000 ) . If this is non met, the intranet will stagnate and regress to being an experimental engineering. The 3rd cardinal challenge trades with the planning and processs that must be in topographic point for the intranet to remain up to day of the month and utile, neglecting which intranet stagnates ( Damsgard & A ; Scheepers 1999 ) . Therefore, it is at hand that each phase poses a cardinal challenge that has to get the better of to continue to the following phase. Is these challenges are non met, the intranet stagnates. Success and failure at each phase relates to the organisational pervasiveness of the engineering.
A figure of solutions have been proposed to pull off the rapid growing of organisational information and its associated challenges including portals, content direction systems, and information direction systems that employ a new signifier of informations coding called XML ( Extended Markup Language ) . Portals are package applications that integrate multiple endeavor computer science applications so that all organisational information can be accessed from a common entry point ( Roberts-Witt 2000 ) . While portals in theory offer advantages through consolidation of multiple information systems, in pattern they are hard to implement every bit good. Other normally proposed solutions to information giantism are content and document direction systems. Content and document direction systems are automated authoring and document work flow systems that standardize information activities through papers templets, simplified authoring environments, papers workflow direction etc ( Gartner 2000 ) .However, these systems tend to deconcentrate information activities by necessitating attachment to system imposed criterions, cut downing the flexibleness and adaptivity that are the strengths of distributed work systems ( Telleen 1996 ) .
XML is another proposed solution in which the component parts of paperss – headings, references, paragraphs etc are broken up and coded utilizing XML coding strategy so that the separate elements can be stored in databases ( Huang 2001 ) . When a papers is needed, the system calls up all of the papers parts and reassembles them to make a new papers with all of the latest information, therefore guaranting all content in the papers is the most recent version. XML is attractive in environments with high degrees of domestic certification, such as industrial equipment makers that have to track 1000000s of equipments parts or maintain tonss of proficient paperss. However, XML systems are highly complicated to implement, necessitate high skilled content analysis and coding accomplishments, and thrust important alterations in information systems, concern procedures and information direction processes ( Huang 2001 ) .
One of the greatest challenges big organisations face is tackling the power of intranet to ease organisational alteration. The intranet needs both seeable support from direction and a administration construction that supports its position as a critical concern tool. It merely adds value to the extent that it is used by the employees. An effectual intranet is the merchandise of clear way, non fancy programming. Technical troubles are non the dominating concern, communicating is. A clear apprehension of what needs to be accomplished and how resources should be allocated are far more of import than the type of books, artworks and tools used for a web page. Furthermore, to accomplish organization-wide coherency standardisation may besides be instrumental, but over-standardization can be counter productive.
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