Voice Over Internet Protocol Information Technology Essay

VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol. It is known as IP Telephony, Voice over Broadband and Broadband Telephony. There are assorted ways to depict this engineering but the major manner to specify IP telephone is the voice conversation routing over IP based web. VoIP is the engineering which is replacing traditional circuit switched substructure into Voice over Internet Protocol. Harmonizing to VoIP solution suppliers it is one of the great trades for the concern sector to cut down the telephone budget within an organisation but besides that it could run over on the bing substructure but it besides demands a really good configured web to run swimmingly.

VoIP: An Emerging Tendency:

Hannu Verkasalo ( 2006 ) stated about Mobile VoIP and its consumer market as Voice oriented service, in which voice is transmitted over IP based webs and the services used either on nomadic French telephones or traditional desktop system. Voice is the cardinal direction map of an organisation through which about all of the solutions can be provide. Traditionally circuit switched substructure was on boomed before IP webs. IP web has enhanced the characteristics correlated with voice every bit good as the categorization of the voice and its digitized form.

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Harmonizing to Vesa ( 2005 ) , the non-voice gross of operators throughout the universe is still significantly smaller than voice gross. No uncertainty, it is really of import to see the development of nomadic voice and IP based services.

It is expensive to hold separate circuit switched web for voice merely whereas the integrating of all information on package switched is cost effectual and scalable. That is the basic and worthy ground of VoIP influential impact in the market. It is besides noticeable in mention of VoIP calls on the same DID ( Direct Inward Dialing ) which indicates that dialing on the same DID is perfectly free and merely to pay the cyberspace service supplier for supplying the web services. In this manner all the long distance calls could be serve freely or likely it would be inexpensive plenty to transport on for a long.

Tim Hills ( 2004 ) , IP web was designed for best attempt, high dependability and entire handiness for multipurpose including voice, picture and information. But the attractive force was developed to turn the voice over IP because of cost nest eggs, web convergence and service invention. The most of import portion of VoIP services is the interconnectedness with the PSTN, in simple it is the ability to do a call through VoIP service supplier on a standard PSTN ( Public Switched Telephone Networks ) . The best portion is the inexpensive rates as comparison to standard telephone services. VoIP is the best solution boulder clay yet for concern intent to cut down the excess budget for voice.

Higher voice capacity

Lower costs

Wider scope of entree webs

Nature of VoIP:

Roger Darlington ( 2005 ) , Internet was designed as a information web for directing e-mails and browsing web. The protocols were designed consequently. Since the cyberspace uses protocol TCP/IP ( Transmission control Protocol / Internet Protocol ) , the development of these protocol has risen the term VoIP. VoIP services can be used over Internet Protocol which might be private else populace. The cardinal point that creates difference between PSTN calls and package switched ( VoIP calls ) .

VoIP is considered as the best attempt service. There is no warrant about the successful transmittal or quality of the call. It is may be due to traffic on the web. Besides it there is no dedicated line is required to go a voice. The standard cyberspace connexion can carry through voice transmittal. It is far better than PSTN Sue to high dependability and quality of voice and it besides combines basic voice services with the multimedia and blink of an eye messaging services.

Circuit Switching Vs Packet Switching:

Roger Darlington ( 2005 ) , the construct of circuit exchanging refers the dedicate lines from user A to user B when they would do a call. The line should be available to link to another terminal. It refers a physical connexion between two companies. The major advantage of this service is to acquire better call quality because of the dedicated line is installed for the call. The primary disadvantage of circuit shift is its high cost and entail enormous sum of connexions for the use of figure of users.

The surrogate of circuit shift is package switched web which transmits little balls of informations to go from finish to beginning. Packet switched web uses routers alternatively of switches. It is really cost effectual and much more users can be utilized on a individual bearer internet connexion. Initially it was non considered for voice because of holds and breakage of packages and its degree of trouble to rejoin the packages for reformation of the original informations.

Traffic Technology:

Nisar Yakoob ( 2005 ) stated that, one of the important points is to plan a contrivance free web in which there must be capacity to use the more and more figure of users. The basic job with the PSTN is the same that it has the specific figure of users and by increasing the users dedicated lines must be addition. VoIP has solved this scenario by using the same IP based web to redesign a protocol that is used to convey Voice and multimedia applications on the same web.

Configuration Management:

Harmonizing to Nisar Yakoob ( 2005 ) , the constellation of VoIP is much more complex than PSTN webs because the web is excessively various. VoIP packets travels hop to skip therefore it becomes excessively sensitive at each node. The loss or debasement of the packages can happen if the constellation direction is non appropriate. The troubleshooting scenario is more complex than constellation direction.


Hao Wang ( 2005 ) , the major constituents used in VoIP to bring forth a call are largely similar that PSTN possess. But the difference comes in protocol and the manner of transmittal. The chief elements are given below:

Media Gateways

Media Gateway Controller

IP Network

Media Gateways:

The premier duty of media gateway is to bring forth call, call sensing, creative activity of voice packages by utilizing CODEC and besides the transition of parallel to digital transition of voice. Typically each call travels through RTP or UDP protocols. In add-on it besides provides the parallel or digital compaction, silence suppression, echo cancellation. Media gateway could be an independent machine or it could be a standard computing machine system holding VoIP package.

Media Gateway accountant:

Harmonizing to Hao Wang ( 2005 ) , it is used as a resource direction portion of VoIP web. Merely a media gateway accountant is need when naming in a sphere of VoIP web. However VoIP web often connects to public webs. The media gateway accountant has the duty for phone figure interlingual renditions, calls signaling coordination and besides provides signaling gateway services to the PSTN ( SS7 gateway ) . Signing gateway accountant is used to link the SS7 web while remain in the VoIP web.

IP Network:

Hao Wang ( 2005 ) , the transmittal must be digital to go on IP web. Therefore the voice travels on web is packetized and this can be done by ISP itself or by a Personal computer. Voice can non be allowed to convey in its original form because it utilizes big bandwidth to go so it compressed and separate into equal packages or balls. The package travels via beginning by utilizing the cyberspace protocol. The packages are transmitted widely on the web by different paths and so reassembled in the proper order at the user or finish terminal. During travel packages may be lost or delayed to make its finish, for that sophisticated system or rectification techniques is required.


PSTN is Public Switched Telephone Network and typically it is based on circuit shift. One of the perceptual experiences about the PSTN is that it depends on parallel communicating. James R. Wilcox, David K. Gibson ( 2005 ) stated, to understand the PSTN, it is classified in three classs, entree, exchanging and conveyance.


Harmonizing to Wilcox, Gibson ( 2005 ) , entree is the portion of circuit that connects the client ‘s premises to the chief web exchanging point. It is besides referred as local cringle. Switch overing allows one node linking to another node via turn toing ( via phone figure ) . The switches are normally placed in cardinal office and it carries digital information between cardinal offices.


Thomas A. Muth ( 2001 ) , the switch interconnects the channel end points usually at 64 kbps. The switch so connects it to transport nexus holding the same capacity 2 Mbps. Switching is responsible to set up, keep, and disconnect calls.

PSTN Basic Architecture:

Jonathan Davidson ( 2000 ) , this is the PSTN basic architecture and by this we can easy acknowledge the length of the overseas telegram used for user to cardinal office location. This is non a cost salvaging solution in this fast paced proficient environment. The manner of transmittal is analog ; an amplifier is required to hike the strength of the voice signal if the distance between the cardinal office and user terminal is far. Amplifier is used to hike up the signal strength merely as it has non the capableness to clean the signal as it amplifies. The procedure of traveling through several amplifiers with one voice signal is called accrued noise.

Drawbacks to PSTN:

Jonathan Davidson ( 2000 ) , PSTN although is one of the best manner to transport voice traffic in an efficient mode but it lacks in forepart of informations traffic. The intent of PSTN is to exchange voice calls ; many concern webs are utilizing the same web to transport out informations traffic. Data utilizes higher bandwidth than voice. PSTN is non applications friendly ; seller can non construct new applications for the PSTN deployment. Data, voice and picture can non meet on the PSTN as presently built because the parallel lines that to most places from the switch has the capableness to link 56-kbps modem. So via this line one can non entree picture, voice and informations at the same time. It is besides of import, the line that is dedicated for the user holding 64-kbps bandwidth is booked either if a user is using or it ‘s in idle manner. This means that the telephone company can non utilize this bandwidth or authorise to person else for its effectual use.

INTEGRATED “ VOIP & A ; PSTN ” Architecture:

This is the complete incorporate image of VoIP and PSTN. Goff Hill ( 2007 ) stated, there are figure of standardised system that provide this architecture including ITU Recommendation H.323, IETF criterions ( SIP ) Session Initiation Protocol and IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem. Each criterion has its ain fluctuation and little different engineerings from each other and logically offprints. The cardinal constituent that allowed integrating between bing PSTN with VoIP architecture is the “ Gateway ” . Gateway provides two major maps mapping between two signaling criterions of each web and transition between the different media codec criterions used in each web.


The protocols that are used to transport voice signals over VoIP are given below.



H.323 H.323

SIP Session Initiation Protocol

Megaco H.248 Gateway Control Protocol

MGCP Media Gateway Control Protocol

RVP over IP Remote Voice Protocol over IP Specification

DVB Digital Video Broadcasting

H.261 Video watercourse for conveyance utilizing the real-time conveyance

H.263 Bit watercourse in the Real-time Transport Protocol

RTCP RTP Control protocol

RTP Real-Time Transport

The two chief protocols in VoIP communicating are H.323 and SIP ( Session Initiation Protocol ) . Collins, Daniel ( 2002 ) , H.323 was the first successful set of protocols and was developed by ITU ( International Telecommunication Protocols ) .


Collins, Daniel ( 2002 ) , stated about the H.323 architecture that it includes H.323 terminuss, gateways, gatekeepers and multipoint accountant units ( MCUs ) . H.323 is besides known as package based Media Communications Systems. The overall map of H.323 webs is to enable the transmittal of signals between end points that may be gateway, terminal or MCU. It was originally developed for multimedia watercourses over a LAN and was widely accepted in this function.

H.323 Terminal:

Harmonizing to Collins, Daniel ( 2002 ) , it is an terminal user communicating device. This terminus is called an end point or node in the web that offer communicating of signals with other H.323 end point or node. This should be supported by at least one sound codec.


Cisco, gatekeepers are the terminal node in the H.323 web.

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