USE OF THE INDUSTRY GIANT II SIMULATION GAME

THE Use OF THE INDUSTRY GIANT II SIMULATION GAME

Table OF CONTENTS

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1.Introduction3

1a.Hypothesis4

2.Evaluation and Selection of the Game4

3.Research Method #

3a.Methodology #

3b.Literature Support #

3c.Statistical Analysis #

4.Results #

5.Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations #

Mentions #

List of Tables

Table 3c-1. Tonss Without and With Game by Letter Grades

Appendix One – Raw Test Score Data Sets

List of Figures

Figure 3c-2.Bell Curve – Students Without Game

Figure 3c-3.Bell Curve – Students With Game

Figure 3c-4.Bell Curve – Students With and Without Game

1.INTRODUCTION

Business and direction simulation games are going more outstanding in concern direction in the United States and abroad, with most concern schools utilizing at least one simulation exercising as portion of their criterion course of study ( Walters & A ; Coalter 1997, p. 170 ; Black 2001, p. 6 ) . Such simulations are most effectual when used to supplement talks and other direction methods. The cognition pupils gain from talks, reading, and other schoolroom acquisition affords them greater apprehension of the game’s deeper significances, while the game playing reinforces and provides real-world application for information from the regular schoolroom ( Doyle & A ; Brown 2000, p. 331 ) . “The usage of a concern game in a concern policy class gives pupils the chance to implement strategic constructs with some grade of realism” ( Walters & A ; Coalter 1997, p. 172 ) . Most games are used subsequently in students’ concern preparation, frequently as a finishing touch class, and this research seeks to analyze the benefit of both games as addendums in general and their effectivity in early concern instruction ( Black 2001, p. 6 ) .

This research survey examines the usage of one such game, Industry Giant II, in the fresher concern course of study at DeVry University in Washington, D.C. Some categories at the university received game clip with Industry Giant II ( produced by JoWood Productions, www.ig2.jowood.com ) as a auxiliary support to traditional schoolroom direction, while categories non take parting in the game playing served as a control group. Students were tested at the terminal of their initial concern class, Introduction to Business and Technology ( BUSN115 ) . Test inquiries were taken from the trial bank that accompanies the text edition used in all categories,Understanding Business( Nickels, McHugh & A ; McHugh 2004, Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin ) so as to guarantee all pupils had an chance to be exposed to prove stuffs during their regular schoolroom experience.

1a.Hypothesis

The research worker hypothesizes that the usage of the game will ensue in higher trial tonss among pupils who play as compared with pupils who do non have such auxiliary chance. This hypothesis is held to be likely due to the experiential acquisition and extra support of cognition the pupils who play the game experience. It is further awaited that research will uncover game addendum of traditional acquisition to be effectual in freshman concern direction, as it has been shown to be by old research in more advanced degrees of concern instruction.

2.EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF THE GAME

3.RESEARCH METHOD

3a.Methodology

This research examined the trial tonss, 1028 in all, of freshman ( first-year ) concern pupils enrolled in the same introductory concern class at a private concern university in Washington, D.C. A concern simulation game, Industry Giant II, was added to about one-fifth of students’ course of study as a addendum to the standard schoolroom and textbook-based direction. The staying four-fifths of pupils experienced merely the schoolroom and textbook-based direction typical of the normal presentation of the category. Students take parting in the game addendum were drawn from a assortment of professors to minimise any skewing caused by differences in teacher method or effectivity. Students take parting in the game were besides taken from a assortment of yearss and times of category meeting to minimise any grouping caused by such programming, such as younger, traditional twenty-four hours pupils versus older, non-traditional eventide pupils. This farther reduced the possibility of skewing of findings due to differences in old concern experience among pupil participants.

Standardized proving appraisals were prepared from a bank of trial inquiries provided to teachers with the text used in all categories,Understanding Businessby Nickels, McHugh & A ; McHugh. Identical proving state of affairss and trial stuffs were provided to all pupils, with a similar time-limit, place of proving in the semester, and waies besides provided to all pupils. This allowed the research worker to efficaciously, quantitatively, and with minimized prejudice compare the tonss of pupils take parting in the game addendum with pupils who did non take part.

3b.Literature Support

A broad assortment of old research indicates video games such as the one used in this survey are an effectual instruction tool and addendum to schoolroom and textbook-based direction. Business simulation games provide an experience of concern pattern in a controlled environment, where pupils can pattern and use what they have learned. This has been found to be peculiarly effectual when combined with traditional concern direction, where pupils frequently are presented with a huge sum of information and no topographic point to use it ( Haywood, McMullen & A ; Wygal 2004, p. 92 ) . With a simulation game addendum, the pupil can seek out the cognition gained from categories and books, every bit good as originate his or her ain acquisition from game drama, which so can further intensify schoolroom apprehension and treatment ( Doyle & A ; Brown 2000, p. 331 ) . “The usage of a concern game in a concern policy class gives pupils the chance to implement strategic constructs with some grade of realism” ( Walters & A ; Coalter 1997, p. 172 ) . Many concerns are farther utilizing games as preparation tools for staff being promoted, or to turn to new cognition demands caused by alterations in engineering and the concern environment ( Bray 2004, F1 ) . The usage of Industry Giant II will let the group of pupils take parting in the game greater exposure to, usage of, and pattern with concern constructs presented in their introductory class.

Many larning theoreticians and pedagogues recognize the importance of holding a context when larning new stuff. Gee ( 2004, p. 8 ) asserts that all existent acquisition is influenced by the past and current environment and experiences of scholars. For illustration, it will be hard to understand all the constructs involved in doing a purchasing determination from a concern point of view if a pupil has ne’er had to pull off money, store relatively, or had experiences in concern buying. For such a pupil, talks and casebook descriptions of purchasing methods and patterns become something that can be merely memorized for the test. The student’s yesteryear experiences, every bit good as his or her cultural and other background factors, supply a context in which the pupil can get down to understand and put the new cognition he or she is having ( Gee 2004, p. 180 ) . Students who have context in which to understand what they are larning become portion of the environment, besides called a sphere, in which that larning occurs ( Gee 2004, p. 29 ) . Subsequently, students’ apprehension and topographic point in that specific sphere in bend influences their actions and determinations within it, and these actions and determinations give them a farther and deeper apprehension of the sphere. The procedure continues, constructing on itself, as the pupil experiences a deeper and richer apprehension of events within the acquisition environment and how his or her actions and determinations influence this environment ( Gee 2004, p. 29 ) .

This procedure is frequently called experiential or active acquisition. Simulation games are a proved agencies of active acquisition, where pupils can experiment with assorted concern methods and build their ain apprehensions and decisions about the concern universe. Without some active learning constituent, many pupils merely memorise and reiterate back whatever they are being taught from their professor or text edition ( Barab et al 2002, p. 81 ) . This consequences in temporarily knowing pupils, who perform good on appraisals but do non retain this information for long after the tests are concluded ( Barab et al 2002, p. 81 ) . In add-on, pupils who merely memorise and reiterate back facts and patterns typically understand them, if at all, merely in the specific state of affairs or context in which they were originally presented, and are unable to accommodate their cognition to new state of affairss or challenges ( Anselmi & A ; Frankel 2004, p. 169 ) .

Even memorising is more effectual when done in context and reinforced through usage ( Pape, Bell and Yetkin 2003, p. 191 ) . Although frequently encouraging pupils to seek the one “right” reply when used entirely, memorisation so applied to larning experiences can be a powerful reinforcing stimulus and Godhead apprehension ( Pape, Bell and Yetkin 2003, p. 191 ) . In many larning contexts pupils are “provided straightforward theoretical accounts of work outing jobs instead than the complicated and strategic thinking” and as a consequence are “not able to come on toward solution when faced with adversity” ( Pape, Bell and Yetkin 2003, p. 191 ) . Clements and Sarama ( 2004, p. 34 ) likewise conclude that since “all important larning involves abstract thought, ” cognition must be used to be genuinely attained and allow pupils “to be able to do generalisations from concrete experiences.”

The very building of simulation games like Industry Giant II move the pupil from being a inactive memoriser to merely such an active, experimenting scholar ( Barab et al 2002, p. 81 ) . Because they force pupils to do determinations and so cover with the consequences of their determinations, frequently in quickly altering state of affairss, pupils must prove both their apprehension and environment, develop relationships and apprehensions of state of affairss in their ain heads, and utilize this information to farther influence extra actions ( Haywood, McMullen & A ; Wygal 2004, p. 88 ) . Learning in this manner is extremely more powerful than merely being told about something ( Prensky 2000, p. 162 ) . Computer games besides allow pupils to set their apprehension in a context where they can anchor understanding and constructs in their ain experiences ( Barab et al 2002, p. 77 ) . Research workers such as Walters & A ; Coalter ( 1997, p. 172 ) and Prensky ( 2000, p. 55 ) find that concern games and simulations allow pupils to research strategic options to assorted concern state of affairss and see the effects of their geographic expedition.

Barab et Al ( 2002, p. 77 ) contends that since games provide a controlled environment where pupils can freely experiment, they are free to examine and measure the game sphere. Participating in these larning experiences so let pupils to construct their acquired experiences into systems of understanding, and to utilize these systems of understanding when doing determinations about future experiences ( Barab et al 2002, p. 77 ) . Hoffjan ( 2005, p. 63 ) likewise finds that concern games, unlike reading text editions or listening to talks, require pupils to go actively involved in their ain acquisition procedure, and this makes this learning procedure more effectual. Learning becomes a procedure of find in which pupils develop their ain apprehensions of concern constructs through their ain experiences ( Gee 2004, p. 91 ) .

In add-on to supplying experiential acquisition, surveies have further found that pupils find computing machine games to be extremely piquant, promoting them to do greater investings of clip and attempt in this method of larning. Students who have antecedently experienced active larning become bored and unmotivated when forced to larn entirely through inactive observation ( Prensky 2000, p. 55 ) . Students find such games merriment and challenging, and are hence more motivated to prosecute to the full in them as opposed to other methods of direction ( Anselmi & A ; Frankel 2004, p. 170 ) . Haywood, McMullen & A ; Wygal ( 2004, p. 98 ) study that simulation games require pupils to go active, critical minds, discourage rote memorisation, and pull the full group of participants into an active, engaged learning experience. The occupied pupil is more likely to put greater clip and energy in his or her activities, and hence more likely to see heightened acquisition ( Brawer 1997, p. 3 ) . In fact, many pupils find the more ambitious games even more piquant than 1s that are simple to play ( Gee 2004, p. 6 ) .

Games such as simulation games besides change each clip the pupil plays, supplying an of all time changing and later more interesting learning experience ( Prensky 2000, p. 147 ) . Student unhappy with the consequences of their determinations can frequently return to a old point in the game and drama from at that place, seeking different determinations and sing different effects. All games can besides be started over from the beginning ( Gee 2004, p. 62 ) . This ability to see and re-experience the same state of affairss from changing positions and with changing results has been found to to boot actuate pupils to experiment and develop complex apprehensions of the game’s sphere and content ( Gee 2004, p. 62 ) .

Researchers to boot report that larning in the game environment farther encourages pupils to put more in other larning chances ( Haywood, McMullen & A ; Wygal 2004, p. 90 ) . For illustration, a pupil playing Industry Giant II might look in his or her text edition to happen out why a peculiar concern determination was unsuccessful. Succeeding in a game environment has besides been noted to authorise pupils to more freely and fruitfully take part in schoolroom treatment and group work ( Hoffjan 2005, p. 63 ) . Students who knew they were traveling to take part in a game state of affairs in category were besides found to be more likely to go to category on that twenty-four hours, and much more likely to fix for the category activities ( Haywood, McMullen & A ; Wygal 2004, p.90 )

Such battle typically leads to a deeper and more complex apprehension of concern constructs, and better keeping of information and patterns. For one thing, the reproduction of existent concern state of affairss found in such games provide pupils with “sufficient penetration into the existent operations of a concern so that they can subsequently reassign the simulation theoretical account schemes into real-life situations” ( Brawer 1997, p. 3 ) . Games such as Industry Giant II provide alterations within the acquisition environment and experience caused by students’ actions and determinations, as their picks have effects and find both the patterned advance and finally the result of the game ( Prensky 2000, p. 147 ) . This combination of pupil engagement in the game environment, in this instance concern, underpinned by solid content and pattern, once more in this game a concern concept, supply a extremely effectual and motivational acquisition environment for the mean concern pupil ( Gee 2004, p. 62 ) . Students challenged in a non-threatening ways by such learning experiences will put clip and attempt in winning the game, and well increase their learning experience in the procedure ( Orbanes 2002, p. 8 ) .

Businesss and the authorities are besides utilizing games as preparation tools. The U.S. Military designs its ain synergistic simulation games to turn to the preparation demands of foot and other forces who are likely to prosecute in combat state of affairss ; some have been designed specifically for certain combat state of affairss, such as the struggles in Afghanistan and Iraq ( Bray 2004, p. F1 ) . It stands to ground that if profit-driven concerns and organisations with the possibility of loss of human life such as the armed forces are both turning to computer-based simulation games as a method of direction and direction support, that such activities must be turn outing effectual ( Bray 2004, p. F1 ) .

Most research has investigated the effectivity of scholars who are in intermediate to advanced concern direction, or who have experience in the concern sphere ( Black 2001, p. 6 ; Brawer 1997, p. 5 ) . The research available of surveies at the college degree in such literature typically examines concern simulations as a method of reenforcing complex concern constructs and fixing pupils merely before their entry into the concern universe ( Black 2001, p. 8 ) . This research survey anticipates literature findings will besides keep true for introductory concern pupils.

3c.Statistical Analysis

Averages, standard divergence, and bell swerve analysis were performed on informations ensuing from the students’ standardised trials. For the intents of such analysis, class degrees were divided utilizing a 10-point graduated table, with an “A” class runing from 90 to 100, a “B” class runing from 80 to 89, a “C” class runing from 70 to 79, a “D” class runing from 60 to 69, and an “F” class being any classs falling below 60 ( 0 to 59 ) .

The first information set, pupils without game experience, had a population of 801 tonss, runing from a high mark of 100 to a low mark of 15. As shown on Table 3C-1 below, 259 pupil tonss ( 32.33 % of the sum without game population ) were an “A” class on their appraisal. 222 pupil tonss ( 27.72 % of the sum without game population ) were a “B” , 127 pupil tonss ( 15.86 % of the sum without game population ) were a “C” , 90 pupil tonss ( 11.24 % of the sum without game population ) were a “D” , and 103 pupil tonss ( 12.86 % of the sum without game population ) were an “F” .

TABLE 3C-1.

Without Game

With Game

A ( 90-100 )

259

32.33 %

163

71.81 %

B ( 80-89 )

222

27.72 %

31

13.66 %

C ( 70-79 )

127

15.86 %

19

8.37 %

D ( 60-69 )

90

11.24 %

13

5.73 %

F ( 0-59 )

103

12.86 %

1

0.44 %

Sum

801

100.00 %

227

100.00 %

These tonss vary significantly from those of pupils who used the Industry Giant II game addendum. Of 227 pupil tonss reported for those who played the game in add-on to regular category work, 163 pupil tonss ( 71.81 % of the sum without game population ) were an “A” class on their appraisal. 31 pupil tonss ( 13.66 % of the sum without game population ) were a “B” , 19 pupil tonss ( 8.37 % of the sum without game population ) were a “C” , 13 pupil tonss ( 5.73 % of the sum without game population ) were a “D” , and merely 1 pupil mark ( 0.44 % of the sum without game population ) was an “F” .

All told, 93.83 % of pupils who played Industry Giant II received a “C” class or better on the appraisal, as compared to 75.91 % of pupils who did non play the game. Students who participated in the game simulation were 222.07 % more likely to have an “A” class, and 128 of the 227 tonss reported being a perfect 100 on the appraisal, as compared to 47 of 801 tonss for pupils who did non play the game having a perfect mark of 100 on the appraisal.

The standard divergence of the population of trial tonss by numeral class, utilizing the natural mark method of computation, is 16.16 for pupils without game supplementation and 11.7 for pupils with game supplementation. Considered as one population, the standard divergence for the full population of pupil tonss is 16.11. Sing the tonss as a sample consequences in a similar consequence, changing merely by a few hundredths of a denary point, due to the big population.

The standard divergence may besides be calculated by missive class. Again utilizing the natural mark method of computation, this standard divergence is 67.65 for pupils without game engagement and 59.59 for pupils with game engagement. Using these standard divergences to further compare the existent informations set consequences to a “normal” bell curve, considered a typical representation of trial tonss in a typical appraisal state of affairs, both the tonss for pupils with game engagement and those without are to a great extent skewed towards the upper terminal of the scaling curve, with far more receiving “A” and “B” classs than would typically be predicted. This may be due to rate rising prices, or merely overall proficiency of the course of study and pupils in appraisal.

In a normal bell curve less student receive “A” and “F” classs, with the highest class concentration being in the “C” missive class. However, both curves of pupil tonss in this survey more closely resemble hills inclining to the right than a bell form.

Figure 3C-2

As shown in Figure 3C-2, there is an approximative right half of the bell form, but a strongly higher per centum of pupils scored in the “A” and “B” scope, forestalling the curve from its normal downward curve on the upward terminal of the rating graduated table. As this is the control group, grounds for a non-standard class distribution among pupil tonss must be addressed. There is some dissension in current educational research whether class rising prices is a job in higher instruction ( Boretz 2004, p. 52 ) . Questions originating from such research will non be addressed here. However, given the skew toward A-B classs in the control group of tonss from pupils who did non take part in the game addendum, a similar skew in the group take parting in the game can non be considered statistically important. While a higher skew towards A-B classs, which did happen in the game-playing group, was anticipated, the sum of A-B classs in the game-playing group is statistically plenty improved over the control group to be considered.

As shown below, the game-playing group besides had a important per centum of A-B classs. This is even more marked in the curve stand foring pupils who participated in the game than those who did non, as indicated in Figure 3C-3, below. Barely more than one standard divergence of pupil tonss were a “C” or below in this information set, with merely over one standard divergence being a “B” class. Overall, merely under two and one-half standard divergences of pupil tonss, out of the full 227 pupil mark population, did non have an “A” class.

Figure 3C-3.

Sing the two informations sets on one comparative chart ( Figure 3C-4, below ) , it is clear that while they have a similar overall curvature, bespeaking a similarity in tried populations, the per centum of “A” classs as compared to other classs is significantly more marked in the information set stand foring pupils who used the Industry Giant II simulation.

Figure 3C-4.

4.RESULTS

The most marked consequences of this research are foremost, that they strongly support the hypothesis originally presented. The research worker anticipated that usage of Industry Giant II as a addendum to classroom direction would do higher appraisal tonss for pupils having such supplementation as opposed to pupils who did non have such extra support. This was so the instance, with about 20 per centum more student tonss of classs “C” or above in the supplemented group ( 93.84 % of pupil tonss compared to 75.91 % of pupil tonss in the group without game addendum ) .

Two other statistically relevant consequences emerged from informations analysis. First, the tonss of pupils who played Industry Giant II were extremely more likely to be 100, the perfect mark on the appraisal, demoing an highly high command of the stuff presented in the text edition and later, in the schoolroom. In entire, 128 pupils tonss of the game-playing group were 100, of a entire mark population of 227, or a sum of 53.39 % . The tonss from pupils who did non profit from playing Industry Giant II numbered merely 47 at the 100, or perfect mark, grade. Given the entire population of this mark set was 801, 5.87 % of pupil tonss were 100, the highest degree of command. This shows a enormous betterment in highly high command in the group who participated in playing Industry Giant II. The difference between the two per centums, 50.52 % , is extremely statistically relevant and surely great plenty to do definite decisions sing the results of this research.

On the other terminal, the figure of neglecting tonss in the two groups is besides a relevant statistical comparing. There was merely one pupil mark from the group that played Industry Giant in the “F” scope, and it was a 58, merely two points off from being a “D” . Given the population of this information set of 227, this consequences in a failing per centum, bespeaking pupils who had small or no apprehension of the stuffs presented in the schoolroom or text edition, of 0.44 % . In blunt contrast, the group that did non take part in playing Industry Giant II recorded a sum of 103 “F” classs, bespeaking a much larger part of this group had small or non understanding of the stuffs presented in the schoolroom or text edition. The mean “F” class of the neglecting class informations set for pupils non playing the game was 48, with 50 pupils having a class of 50 or below. The “F” classs in this information set of pupils tonss ranged from a depression of 15 to 59, and comprised a sum of 12.86 % of the entire 801 mark population. This indicates strongly that pupils who did non take part in playing Industry Giant II as a addendum to classroom direction and text edition stuffs were extremely less likely to achieve even a basic proficiency in the class content.

Overall, consequences from this research indicate that playing Industry Giant II as a addendum to the schoolroom direction and text edition stuffs available to freshers concern pupils significantly improved their command of the capable affair of a beginning concern course of study.

5.SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In drumhead, a research survey was undertaken at DeVry University in Washington D.C. to analyze the effectivity of adding a simulation game as a addendum to an Introduction to Business and Technology class. This is important because such simulations are typically used at a ulterior point in students’ concern survey.

Approximately one-fifth of pupils participated in the game playing, drawn indiscriminately across classs and teachers. This group of pupils produced tonss significantly higher than the tonss produced by the control group, bespeaking they developed a more thorough cognition and apprehension of the introductory concern facts, patterns, and constructs covered in the category and text edition. The usage of the simulation game Industry Giant II can hence be considered an appropriate and effectual larning tool as a addendum for get downing concern direction, back uping the initial hypothesis that such games would be effectual for introductory supplementation, as they have been shown to be for more advanced direction.

Decisions and recommendations based on this research are foremost, that concern simulation games are effectual acquisition tools for college pupils, peculiarly when used to augment traditional concern direction. Such games assist pupils in using, practicing, and finally developing greater apprehension of the concern environment. In add-on, decisions from this research include that such games can be used efficaciously at the introductory degree of concern direction, when many pupils have small anterior concern cognition, experience, or context.

Obviously, such a dramatic addition in student apprehension of introductory concern stuffs as is concluded from this research lends itself to the recommendation that simulation games such as Industry Giant II should be included as supplementation acquisition and instruction tools in most countries of concern course of study, get downing with introductory concern direction. It is besides recommended that publishing houses and pedagogues consider the creative activity of such concern simulations as a needful constituent of text edition and course of study development, with more publishing houses supplying game simulations as concomitants to college class texts. It is further recommended that college professors, should attach toing simulations non be available from the text edition publishing houses, see adding a simulation game to their class stuff demands and course of study to greater heighten pupil acquisition and appreciation of class information and constructs. In classs where no such proviso is made, it is recommended pupils seek out such game addendum on their ain.

Truly effectual acquisition tools, that both educate and prosecute the pupils such as was demonstrated by the usage of Industry Giant II in this research survey, should be employed by more pedagogues in their class constructions. Students, professors, universities, and finally concerns would all profit from a better-trained and educated alumnus.

Mentions

Anselmi, K. & A ; R. Frankel, 2004.Modular Experiential Learning for Business-to-Business Marketing Courses. Journal of Education for Business, January/February 2004, 169-175.

Barab et Al, 2002.Using Activity Theory to Understand the Systemic Tensions Qualifying a Technology-Rich Introductory Astronomy Course. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 9 ( 2 ) 76–107.

Barab, S.A. , M. Barnett & A ; K. Squire, 2002.Developing an Empirical History of a Community of Practice: Qualifying the Essential Tensions. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 11 ( 4 ) 489–542.

Black, W. , 2001.Benefits of Including a Capstone Simulation Course in Community College Business Curricula. ERIC 455854, accessed through www.ebscohost.com on June 22, 2005, 1-13.

Brawer, F. , 1997.Simulation as a Vehicle in Entrepreneurship Education.Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership, ERIC, accessed through www.ebscohost.com on June 22, 2005.

Bray, H. , 2004.Entertainment with a Learning Curve. The Boston Globe, April 28, 2004, F1.

Clements, D.H. & A ; J. Sarama, 2004.Building Abstract Thinking Through Math.March 1, 2004, 18 ( 5 ) 34-40.

Doyle, D. & A ; F.W. Brown, 2000.Using a concern simulation to learn applied accomplishments – the benefits and the challenges of utilizing student squads from multiple states.Journal of European Industrial Training, 24 ( 6 ) 330-336.

Gee, J.P. , 2004.What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy.New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Haywood, M.E. , D.A. McMullen, & A ; D.E. Wygal, 2004.Using Games to Enhance Student Understanding of Professional and Ethical Duties. Issues in Accounting Education, 19 ( 1 ) , February 2004, 85-99.

Hoffjan, A. , 2005.Calvados – A Business Game for Your Cost Accounting Course. Issues in Accounting Education, 20 ( 1 ) , February 2005, 63-80.

IG2 2005.Industry Giant II. JoWood Productions, www.jg2.jowood.com, accessed 16 June 2005.

Orbanes, P. , 2002.Everything I Know About Business I Learned from Monopoly. Harvard Business Review, March 2002, reissue R0203C, 3-8.

Pape, S. , C. Bell & A ; I. Yetkin, 2003.Developing Mathematical Thinking and Self-Regulated Learning: A Teaching Experiment in a Seventh-Grade Mathematicss Classroom. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 53 179–202.

Prensky, M. , 2000.Digital Game-Based Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Squire, K. & A ; C. Steinkuehler, 2005.Meet the Gamers. Library Journal, April 15, 2005, 38-42.

Bruno walters, B.A. & A ; T.M. Coalter, 1997.Simulation Games in Business Policy Courses: Is There Value for Students?Journal of Education for Business, January 1, 1997, 72 ( 3 ) 170-174.

APPENDIX ONE – RAW TEST SCORE DATA SETS

Student SCORES WITHOUT GAME

Mark

# of Tonss

Mark

# of Tonss

Mark

# of Tonss

Mark

# of Tonss

100

47

89

12

79

7

69

10

98

34

88

18

78

13

68

7

97

6

87

49

77

7

67

18

96

28

86

22

76

11

66

4

95

16

85

28

75

13

65

9

94

18

84

16

74

8

64

7

93

30

83

9

73

24

63

9

92

15

82

15

72

5

62

5

91

13

81

13

71

14

61

2

90

52

80

40

70

25

60

19

Mark

# of Tonss

Mark

# of Tonss

Mark

# of Tonss

59

1

49

3

38

2

58

9

48

3

36

1

57

1

47

1

27

1

56

6

46

1

23

1

55

15

45

1

22

3

54

3

44

0

20

2

53

8

43

3

17

1

52

7

42

3

15

1

51

3

41

1

50

15

40

7

Student SCORES WITH GAME

Mark

# of Tonss

Mark

# of Tonss

Mark

# of Tonss

Mark

# of Tonss

Mark

# of Tonss

100

128

89

0

79

0

69

3

58

1

98

0

88

1

78

0

68

1

97

0

87

1

77

1

67

2

96

1

86

1

76

0

66

0

95

4

85

5

75

3

65

1

94

0

84

2

74

1

64

0

93

3

83

0

73

2

63

0

92

1

82

0

72

0

62

0

91

1

81

0

71

0

61

0

90

25

80

21

70

12

60

6

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