Understanding consumers purchase intention of functional beverages
As wellness consciousness among consumers has risen, sellers anticipate turning chances in the functional drink market. To widen old surveies on purposes of consumer healthy nutrient pick, this research focuses on look intoing purchase purpose of functional drinks by using Ajzen ‘s ( 1991 ) the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Specifically, this survey will concentrate on the section of Taiwan ‘s drink market and consumers. The Theory of Planned Behaviour ( TPB ; Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 1991 ) is extended from its original model, the Theory of Reasoned Action ( TRA ; Ajzen & A ; Fishbein 1980 ; Fishbein & A ; Ajzen 1975 ) , which attempts to explicate single ‘s purpose and its influence on beahviour. These theoretical accounts have been widely applied non merely in the field of societal psychological science to explicate the behavioural purpose relationship ( e.g. drivers ‘ purpose: Parker, Manstead, Stradling, Reason & A ; Baxter, 1992 ; dishonest actions: Beck & A ; Ajzen, 1991 ) , but besides employed in assorted Fieldss ( e.g. vote: Fishbein & A ; Ajzen, 1981 ; travel mode Bamberg, Ajzen & A ; Schmidt, 2003 ) . Therefore, the intent of the present survey are ( a ) to analyze the pertinence of the TPB in functional drinks market ; ( B ) to understand what factors determine consumers ‘ purpose to functional drinks purchase ; ( degree Celsius ) to widen the bing surveies by adding two moderators – merchandise engagement and past behaviour- to the TPB theoretical accounts and look into their effects on the variables magnitude.
1.1 The TPB theoretical account
There are a figure of theoretical positions normally used to analyze human psychological behavior. For illustration, multi-attribute attitude theoretical accounts ( Rosenberg, 1956 ; Fishbein, 1963 ) are often used to measure consumers ‘ attitude. The transtheoretical theoretical account ( Prochaska & A ; DiClemente, 1982 ) and wellness belief theoretical account ( Becker, 1974 ) are applied in analyzing wellness behaviors such as smoke, drug pickings, and exerting. However, the present research focuses on look intoing consumer buying purpose. The above theoretical accounts are deficiency of full dimensions to measure this research. The TPB ( Ajzen, 1991 ) , instead, embraces different determiners to foretell buying purpose. It is besides the most widely adopted theory used to analyze single ‘s behavioral purpose in relation to buying merchandises.
The TPB had been proven successfully applied to different spheres with strong meta-analytic back uping its prognostic cogency of purpose and behavior ( Armitage & A ; Conner, 2001 ; Godin & A ; Kok, 1996 ) . Armitage & A ; Conner ( 2001 ) stated that the TPB accounted for 39 % of the discrepancy in purpose from 154 surveies, whereas 27 % of discrepancy is accounted in behavior across 63 researches. Therefore, the high discrepancy implies the high success in using the TPB in different spheres. Specifically, application of the TPB in food-related behaviors can be found in legion literatures. The research countries are varied including nutrient pick ( e.g. , Berg, Jonsson & A ; Conner, 2000 ; Dennision & A ; Shepherd, 1995 ) , dietetic beahviours ( Paisley & A ; Sparks, 1998 ; Povey, Conner, Sparks, James & A ; Shepherd, 2010 ; Schifter & A ; Ajzen, 1985 ) , and healthy feeding behaviors ( Ajzen & A ; Timko, 1986 ; Conner & A ; Sparks, 1996 ) . The consequence indicates that high cogency has been found in using the TPB to the consumer ‘s nutrient pick ( e.g. , Bredahl, Grunert & A ; Frewer, 1998 ; Conner, 1993 ; Spark & A ; Shepherd, 1992 ) . Additionally, as for health-related behavior, Godin and Kok ( 1996 ) have suggested that the TPB accounted for 41 % and 34 % of the discrepancy in purposes and behaviour severally in the meta-analysis. Based on the bing empirical grounds on the TPB ‘s pertinence, the undermentioned hypothesis is offered:
Hypothesis 1: The Theory of Planned Behaviour is valid in foretelling consumer purchase purpose of functional drinks.
Ajzen ( 1991 ) proposed that human behavior is goal-oriented and is controlled by purposes. The TRA/TPB suggests that attitude and capable norm are ancestors that influence person ‘s purpose, which, in bends, predicts and explains volitional behaviors.
Attitudes refer to behavioral beliefs that are based on a individual ‘s rating of an result after a behaviour is performed. Harmonizing to the TPB ( Ajzen, 1991 ) , a positive attitude towards a behavior will increase the purpose of executing the behavior. Armitage & A ; Conner ( 2001 ) in their meta-analysis of the TPB found that attitude and behavioral purpose have an mean correlativity of 0.49. Based on the positive correlativity between the two variables, the 2nd hypothesis is proposed:
Hypothesis 2: when the attitude the consumer held toward functional drinks is positive, the consumer is more likely to hold positive purposes of buying functional drinks.
1.3 Capable Norms:
Capable norms represent normative beliefs of sensed expectations/pressures from referents with respect to the behavior. The TPB together with empirical grounds ( Armitage & A ; Conner, 2001 ) show a positive correlativity between capable norm and behavioral purpose of 0.34. In line with Ajzen ‘s theory, it is sensible to assume that if the consumers consider their referents ‘ belief on executing the behavior is positive, the consumers ‘ purpose of set abouting the behavior will be higher. Therefore, the proposed hypothesis is as following:
Hypothesis 3: when the topic norm is positive toward functional drinks, the consumer will hold more purpose of buying functional drinks.
1.4 Perceived Behavior Control:
The sensed behaviour control ( PBC ) is subsequently introduced in the TPB to broaden the theoretical construct of the TRA as considerable sums of bookmans had suggested that the anticipation of the TRA is merely valid if using to governable purpose ( de Vries, Dijkstra & A ; Kuhlman, 1988 ; Sheppard, Hartwick & A ; Warshaw, 1988 ) . Therefore, PBC is needed in sing the grade of an person ‘s existent control over the behaviors based the construct of self-efficacy proposed by Bandura ( 1986 ) . The PBC represents the grade of easiness and trouble of executing the bahaviour. It is driven by internal control factors ( e.g. , emotions, accomplishments, personal abilities ) and external control factors ( e.g. , handiness, chances, clip ) . Simply put, PBC means one ‘s sensed capableness of over executing the behavior and is acted as an extra driver of purpose and nonvolitional behavior every bit good. Armitage & A ; Conner ( 2001 ) have found the correlativity of the PBC and behavioural purpose has an norm of 0.43. In line with the TPB and the empirical consequence, a hypothesis is formulated as follow:
Hypothesis 4: When the consumer indentifies less trouble in obtaining functional drinks, connoting a high sensed behavioural control, the consumer will hold more purpose of buying functional drinks.
Although bing literatures have presented a broad scope of successful applications of the TPB, one of the important concerns has arisen over its absence of analyzing the moderator effects ( Conner & A ; Sparks, 1996 ; Conner & A ; Armitage, 1998 ) . As moderators act as variables that influence the strength of relationships within the TPB variables ( Conner & A ; Sparks, 1996 ) , it is argued that probe of the moderator effects is indispensable.
1.5 Product Engagement:
Product Involvement is defined as a individual ‘s perceived relevancy and importance of the merchandise harmonizing to personal factors such as values and involvements ( Solomon, Bamossy & A ; Askegaard, 2010 ) . Several researches show that higher merchandise engagement will beef up attitude-intention dealingss because better amplification of relevant information may consequences in greater certainty of the attitude ( Haugtvedt & A ; Petty, 1995 ; Lavine, Borgida & A ; Sullivan, 2000 ) . However, Cooke and Sheeran ( 2004 ) argued that higher engagement merely contributes to greater consistence of attitude-intention relation but non the magnitude. Hence, the dissensions among bookmans along with the deficiency of surveies of merchandise engagement done in the sphere of wellness nutrient intake lead to the hypothesis of:
Hypothesis 5: the relationship between attitude and purpose toward functional drinks will be strengthened if high merchandise engagement is present.
1.6 Past Behavior:
Similarly, past behavior besides plays a function in chairing variables within the TPB. Based on empirical findings, some research workers have argued that past behavior would act upon both the purpose and behaviors due to the higher PBC obtained by executing the behavior often ( Sutton, 1994 ; Bagozzi & A ; Kimmel, 1995 ) . On the other manus, others have found that past behavior has merely limited influence on other TPB variables ( Ajzen, 1991 ; Conner, Warren, Close & A ; Sparks, 1999 ; Conner and Armitage, 1998 ) . Consequently, the undermentioned hypothesis is proposed in an effort to analyze the moderator function that the past behavior dramas on the TPB variables.
Hypothesis 6: The relationships among the TPB variables and purpose will be strengthened after adding by behavior as the moderator.
Functional drink market is chosen to be tested based on its turning demand and popularity in Taiwan. A functional drink is a non-alcoholic drink merchandise that provides possible wellness and nutrition benefits. The classs of functional drink in Taiwan include sports/energy drinks, addendum ( e.g. vitamins, collagen, minerals, Ca ) added drinks, juices, tea, and yogurt drinks etc. These merchandises appeal to consumers who demand enhance in wellness, health and pleasance with great convenience. In Taiwan, non-sugar added tea drinks are particularly popular among all functional drinks for its possible wellness and diet benefits. Harmonizing to the 2009 information from Taiwan ‘s Food Industry Research and Development Institute, tea drinks market had accounted for NTD 15-20 billion gross revenues gross from the entire drink industry gross revenues of NTD 50 billion.
A quantitative study will be employed to prove the proposed hypotheses. The TPB variables ( attitude, capable norm, perceived behavior control, purpose ) and one moderator ( past behavior ) will be measured by utilizing the graduated table questionnaires constructed by Ajzen but with some alterations made to suit in the research intent. Product Involvement will be measured by utilizing the selected combination of Zaichkowsky ‘s ( 1994 ) and Malar, Krohmer, Hoyer & A ; Nyffenegger ( 2011 ) ‘s questionnaires. Convenience sampling will be used in this survey. Participants are drawn from college/university pupils in Taiwan since they are viewed as the chief mark consumer for functional drink merchandises, and presents they besides obtain more purchasing power. The information will so be collected and analysed by SPSS and the hierarchical arrested development analysis.
The consequence will perchance explicate the grade of factors act uponing consumers ‘ purpose of buying functional drinks. In add-on, the consequence could bespeak the possible effects of the two moderators on the magnitude of the TPB variables and purpose. After cognizing the grade of impacts of each determiner on consumers ‘ behaviorual purpose, sellers can supply more effectual selling schemes to successfully aim the functional drinks market.