Traditional File Systems Essay

The traditional filing system ( TFS ) is a method of hive awaying and set uping computing machine files and the information in the file ( informations ) . Basically it organizes these files into a database for the storage, organisation, use, and retrieval by the computing machine ‘s operating system.

( DBMS ) consists of package that operates databases, supplying storage, entree, security, backup and other installations. This system can be categorized harmonizing to the database theoretical account and the type of computing machine that they support such as a waiter bunch or a nomadic phone, the question linguistic communication ( s ) that entree the database, such as SQL or XQuery, public presentation tradeoffs, such as maximal graduated table or maximal velocity or others. Some DBMS cover more than one entry in these classs, e.g. , back uping multiple question linguistic communications.

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Meanwhile database direction systems are normally accessed in a client-server mode, where the database client and the waiter are located on different machines ( in a local country web ) .

Both systems trade with information direction.

File-based System

File-based systems were an early effort to computerise the manual filing system. File-based system is a aggregation of application plans that perform services for the end-users, such as updating, interpolation, omission adding new files to database etc. Each plan defines and manages its informations.

When a computing machine user wants to hive away informations electronically they must make so by puting informations in files. Files are stored in specific locations on the difficult disc ( directories ) . The user can make new files to put informations in, cancel a file that contains informations, rename the file, etc which is known as file direction ; a map provided by the Operating System ( OS ) .

Disadvantages of traditional file based system

No demand of external storage

Provides less security.

No demand of a extremely proficient individual to manage the database.

Redundancy is more.

Processing velocity is high as compared to DBMS

Less unity.

High complexness in updating of database.

Table 1.1.1

Database Management System

The betterment of the File-Based System ( FBS ) was the Database Management System ( DBMS ) which came up in the 60 ‘s.

The Database Management System removed the problem of manually turn uping informations, and holding to travel through it. The user could make a suited construction for the informations beforehand, to put the information in the database that the DBMS is pull offing. Hence, the physical organizing of files is done off with and provides the user with a logical position of the information input.

A database is a aggregation of interconnected information stored in a database waiter ; these informations will be stored in the signifier of tabular arraies. The primary purpose of database is to supply a manner to hive away and recover database information fast and in an efficient mode.

Advantages

Control of informations redundancy

Although the database attack does non take redundancy wholly, it controls the sum of redundancy in the database.

Data consistence

By taking or commanding redundancy, the database attack reduces the hazard of incompatibilities happening. It ensures all transcripts of the thought are kept consistent.

More information from the same sum of informations

With the merger of the operated information, it is possible to deduce extra information for the same information.

Sharing of informations

Database belongs to the full organisation and can be shared by all authorised users.

Improved informations unity

Database unity provides the cogency and consistence of stored informations. Integrity is normally expressed in footings of restraints, which are consistence regulations that the database is non permitted to go against.

Improved security

Provides protection of informations from unauthorised users. It will necessitate user names and watchwords to place user type and their entree right in the operation including retrieval, interpolation, updating and omission.

Enforcement of criterions

The integrating of the database enforces the necessary criterions including informations formats, calling conventions, certification criterions, update processs and entree regulations.

Economy of graduated table

Cost nest eggs can be obtained by uniting all organisation ‘s operational informations into one database with applications to work on one beginning of informations.

Balance of conflicting demands

By holding a structural design in the database, the struggles between users or sections can be resolved. Decisions will be based on the base usage of resources for the organisation as a whole instead than for an single individual.

Improved informations handiness and reactivity

By holding integrating in the database attack, informations accessing can traverse departmental boundaries. This characteristic provides more functionality and better services to the users.

Increased productiveness

The database attack provides all the low-level file-handling modus operandis. The proviso of these maps allow the coder to concentrate more on the specific functionality required by the users. The fourth-generation environment provided by the database can simplify the database application development.

Improved care

Provides informations independency. As a alteration of informations construction in the database will impact the application plan, it simplifies database application care.

Increased concurrence

Database can pull off coincident informations entree efficaciously. It ensures no intervention between users that would non ensue any loss of information or loss of unity.

Improved backup and recovery services

Modern database direction system provides installations to minimise the sum of processing that can be lost following a failure by utilizing the dealing attack.

Disadvantages

Complexity

A hard package. All users must be familiar with its functionality and take full advantage of it. Therefore, preparation for the decision makers, interior decorators and users is required.

Size

Uses a significant sum of chief memory every bit good as big sum of disc infinite in order to do it run expeditiously.

Cost of DBMS

A multi-user database direction system may be really expensive. Even after the installing, there is a high regular one-year care cost on the package.

Cost of transition

When traveling from a file-base system to a database system, the company is required to hold extra disbursals on hardware acquisition and preparation cost.

Performance

As the database attack is to provide for many applications instead than entirely for a peculiar one, some applications may non run every bit fast as earlier.

Higher impact of a failure

Increases the exposure of the system due to the centralisation. As all users and applications reply on the database handiness, the failure of any constituent can convey operations to a arrest and impact the services to the client earnestly.

The difference between TFS and DBMS

Balajee B. ( 2005 ) , There are figure of features that differ from traditional file direction system to database direction system. In file system attack, each user implements the needed files for a specific application to run. ( Example: in a gross revenues section of an endeavor, one user will be keeping the inside informations of the figure of gross revenues forces in that section and their classs. These inside informations will be stored and maintained in a separate file. Another user will keep the salary inside informations of these gross revenues forces and the elaborate salary study will be stored and maintained in a separate file. Although both of the users need the information of the sales representatives, they will be holding their inside informations in separate files and they need different plans to run their files. ) When such informations is isolated in separate files, it is hard to entree informations that should be available for both users. This will take to wastage of infinite and redundancy or reproduction of informations, which may take to confusion, as sharing of informations among assorted users is non possible and informations incompatibility may happen. These files will non be holding any inter-relationship among the informations stored in these files. Therefore in traditional file processing every user will be specifying their ain restraints and implement the files harmonizing to their demands.

In database attack, a individual shop of informations is maintained that is defined one time and so accessed by many users, as database belongs to the full organisation and can be shared by all authorised users. The indispensable feature of database attack is that the database system non merely contains informations but it contains complete definition or description of the database construction and control. These definitions are stored in a system catalog, which contains the information about the construction and definitions of the database. The information stored in the catalog is called the metadata, it describes the primary database. Hence this attack will work on any type of database for illustration, insurance database, Airlines, banking database, Finance inside informations, and Enterprise information database. But in traditional file processing system the application is developed for a specific intent and they will entree specific database merely. But the processing velocity in TFS is high compared to DBMS.

The other chief feature of the database is that it will let multiple users to entree the database at the same clip and sharing of informations is possible. The database must include concurrence control package to guarantee that several users seeking to update the same information at the same clip, it should keep in a controlled mode. In file system approach many coders will be making files over a long period and assorted files have different format, in assorted application linguistic communications, where duplicate of informations can happen.

This redundancy in hive awaying same information multiple times leads to higher costs and wastage of infinite. This may ensue in informations incompatibility in the application ; this is because update is done to some of the files merely and non all of the files. Furthermore in database attack multiple positions can be created ;

External position – User/Application position,

Conceptual position – Logical position,

Internal position – Details about the construction of informations and physical storage of information.

View is a trim representation of information contained in one or more tabular arraies. View is besides called as “ Virtual tabular array ” because position does non incorporate physically stored records and will non busy any infinite.

A multi-user database whose users have assortment of applications must supply installations for specifying multiple positions. In traditional file system, if any alterations are made to the construction of the files it will impact all the plans. Therefore, alterations to the construction of a file will necessitate to alter all plans that entree the file and whereby informations dependance will be lost. But in the instance of database attack the construction of the database is stored individually in the system catalog from the entree of the application plans. This belongings is known as program-data independency.

Database can besides be used for uninterrupted storage for plan objects and informations constructions that resulted in object oriented database attack. Traditional systems suffered from electric resistance mismatch job and trouble in accessing the information, which is avoided in object oriented database system. Database can be used to stand for complex relationships among informations every bit good as to recover and update related informations easy and expeditiously. Hence DBMS does non automatically take redundancies, but assist to command redundancy.

It is possible to specify and implement unity restraints for the informations stored in the database. The database besides provides installations for retrieving hardware and package failures, as it has automatic and intelligent backup and recovery processs. It reduces the application development clip well when compared to the file system attack and handiness of up-to-date information of all the users. It besides provides security to the informations stored in the database system and maintains unity.

A extremely proficient individual will be required to manage the database, while for TFS, it is non so.

File-based systems are really dependent upon the application coder. Any needed questions or studies have to be written by the application coder. Normally, a fixed format question or study can merely be entertained and no installation for ad-hoc questions if offered. DBMS has data independency. The manner information is stored and the manner information issued is independent of each other.

File-based systems besides give enormous force per unit area on informations treating staff, with users ‘ ailments on plans that are unequal or inefficient in run intoing their demands. Documentation may be limited and care of the system is hard. Provision for security, unity and recovery capableness is really limited. Whereas, DBMS has control over security as it provides tools such as usage of User Code, Password / Privileges and Roles to guarantee security of informations.

Data, Field, Record, and File are the chief constituents of Database environment. Briefly explain those.

Datas

Webopedia ( Anon. , n.d. ) , Distinct pieces of information normally formatted in a particular manner. All package is divided into two general classs: informations and plans. Plans are aggregations of instructions for pull stringsing informations. Datas can be in a assortment of signifiers — as Numberss or text on pieces of paper, as spots and bytes stored in electronic memory, or as facts stored in a individual ‘s head. Strictly talking, informations is the plural of data point, a individual piece of information. In pattern, nevertheless, people use informations as both the singular and plural signifier of the word. The term information is frequently used to separate binary machine-readable information from textual human-readable information. For illustration, some applications make a differentiation between informations files ( files that contain binary informations ) and text files ( files that contain ASCII informations ) . In database direction systems, informations files are the files that store the database information, whereas other files, such as index files and informations lexicons, store administrative information, known as metadata.

Field

Webopedia ( Anon. , n.d. ) , A infinite allocated for a peculiar point of information. A revenue enhancement signifier, for illustration, contains a figure of Fieldss: one for your name, one for your Social Security figure, one for your income, and so on. In database systems, Fieldss are the smallest units of information you can entree. In spreadsheets, Fieldss are called cells.

Most Fieldss have certain properties associated with them. For illustration, some Fieldss are numeral whereas others are textual ; some are long, while others are short. In add-on, every field has a name, called the field name.

In database direction systems, a field can be required, optional, or calculated. A needed field is one in which you must come in informations, while an optional field is one you may go forth space. A deliberate field is one whose value is derived from some expression affecting other Fieldss. You do non come in informations into a deliberate field ; the system automatically determines the right value.

A aggregation of Fieldss is called a record.

Record

Webopedia ( Anon. , n.d. ) , In database direction systems, a complete set of information. Records are composed of Fieldss, each of which contains one point of information. A set of records constitutes a file. For illustration, a forces file might incorporate records that have three Fieldss: a name field, an address field, and a phone figure field. In relational database direction systems, records are called tuples. Some scheduling linguistic communications allow you to specify a particular information construction called a record. Generally, a record is a combination of other informations objects. For illustration, a record might incorporate three whole numbers, a floating-point figure, and a character twine. In database direction systems, a complete set of information. Records are composed of Fieldss, each of which contains one point of information. A set of records constitutes a file. For illustration, a forces file might incorporate records that have three Fieldss: a name field, an address field, and a phone figure field.

Figure 1.2.1

Beginning Author Anon. ,

File

Webopedia ( Anon. , n.d. ) , A aggregation of informations or information that has a name, called the file name. Almost all information stored in a computing machine must be in a file. There are many different types of files: informations files, text files, plan files, directory files, and so on. Different types of files store different types of information. For illustration, plan files store plans, whereas text files store text.

What is the Importance of DBMS in a Defense Organization and in an Education Department?

Defence Organization

Benjamin ( n.d. ) , A Database Management System ( DBMS ) is a set of computing machine plans that controls the creative activity, care, and the usage of the database with computing machines of an organisation and its terminal users. It allows organisations to put control of organization-wide database development in the custodies of database decision makers ( DBAs ) and other specializers.

As organisations develop with clip, their acceptance to the latest engineerings in the computing machine field becomes a necessity. A Defence organisation is no different. In these disruptive times, when national security is more of import, supplying all Defence forces with entree to the latest engineering and instruction chances non merely straight contributes to Defence capableness but besides better the defense mechanism forces ‘ calling development.

Therefore the importance of a DBMS in such an organisation like Defence is critical. Because Database decision makers could utilize this system to configure and operate databases as the package provides high degree, privileged database entree. But the direction should curtail usage of this package to authorized forces. One map of the database decision maker is to make peculiar positions of information stored in the database that are alone for each type of user. For illustration, one officer will hold a different position of information in the database than another, say Senior officer. The different user groups will besides hold different abilities to add, modify, or delete information. The database decision maker is responsible for supplying users with entree to the appropriate degree of information. The primary hazard associated with database disposal is that an decision maker can change sensitive informations without those alterations being detected.

A secondary hazard is that an decision maker can alter entree rights to information stored within the database every bit good as their ain entree rights.

Database security is the last line of defense mechanism. So it deserves greater focal point on the protection of private informations from both internal and external.

The sensitiveness and categorization of the information stored in the database organize the footing for set uping controls. A database that shops confidential information may necessitate a more important control environment than a database that shops non-sensitive information. Management should see the security and public presentation deductions of the security options available with modern database direction systems.

Database security professionals and information security and hazard direction professionals could follow a security scheme in DBMS to:

1 ) Align database security policies with information security policies ;

2 ) Ensure chiseled and formalistic database security processs ;

3 ) Enforce function separation ; and

4 ) Apply advanced security steps such as database auditing, monitoring, database encoding, informations cover, and exposure appraisal to all critical databases that store private informations.

The DBMS can supply long-run benefits for the Defence organisation cut downing duplicate of informations and doing it easier for HR to update forces records. If non for DBMS, each clip there was a personnel alteration, trainers would hold to travel through their full content to do the necessary alterations. Now, replacing Brigadier X ‘s image in the content library with Commodore Y ‘s image can be automatically replicated through all relevant plans. Thereby cut down its outgo on storage. But, initial preparation will be required for all coders and users. Even though database systems are complex, hard, and time-consuming to plan, there is greater informations unity and independency from applications plans and

Education Department

Sue Bushell ( 2004 ) , To better instruction and larning with the aid of modern information and communicating engineering eLearning is good to instruction, corporations and to all types of scholars. It is low-cost, saves clip, and produces mensurable consequences.

E-learning comprises all signifiers of electronically supported acquisition and instruction. The Information and communicating systems, whether networked or non, function as specific media to implement the acquisition procedure.

E-learning services have evolved since computing machines were foremost used in instruction. There is a tendency to travel towards blended acquisition services, where computer-based activities are integrated with practical or classroom-based state of affairss.

E-learning is basically the computing machine and network-enabled transportation of accomplishments and cognition. E-learning applications and procedures include Web-based acquisition, computer-based acquisition, practical schoolroom chances and digital coaction. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, sound or picture tape, satellite Television, and CD-ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the signifier of text, image, life, streaming picture and sound

The definition of e-learning varies depending on the organisation and how it is used but fundamentally it involves electronic agencies of communicating, instruction, and preparation.

Regardless of the definition you chose to utilize, interior decorators, developers, and implementers make or interrupt the instructional classs and tools. E-learning is merely a medium for presenting acquisition and like any other medium, it has its advantages and disadvantages. E-learning screens a broad array of activities from supported acquisition, to blended or intercrossed acquisition ( the combination of traditional and e-learning patterns ) , to larning that occurs 100 % online.

As per wikipedia.org, the world-wide e-learning industry is estimated to be deserving over $ 48 billion US harmonizing to conservative estimations. Developments in cyberspace and multimedia engineerings are the basic enabler of e-learning, with consulting, content, engineerings, services and support being identified as the five cardinal sectors of the e-learning industry.

E-learning is of course suited to distance acquisition and flexible acquisition, but can besides be used in concurrence with face-to-face instruction, in which instance the term Blended acquisition is normally used. E-Learning innovator Bernard Luskin argues that the “ E ” must be understood to hold wide significance if e-learning is to be effectual. Luskin says that the “ vitamin E ” should be interpreted to intend exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, first-class, and educational in add-on to “ electronic ” that is a traditional national reading. This broader reading allows for twenty-first century applications and brings larning and media psychological science into the equation.

E-Learning can besides mention to educational web sites such as those offering learning scenarios, worksheets and synergistic exercisings for kids. The term is besides used extensively in the concern sector where it by and large refers to cost-efficient online preparation

There are many advantages to online and computer-based acquisition when compared to traditional face-to-face classs and talks. There are a few disadvantages every bit good.

Advantages of eLearning

( Anon. , n.d ) E-learning is good to instruction, corporations and to all types of scholars. It is low-cost, saves clip, and produces mensurable consequences.

Cost effectual

E-learning is more cost effectual than traditional acquisition because less clip and money is spent going. Since e-learning can be done in any geographic location and there are no travel disbursals, this type of acquisition is much less dearly-won than making larning at a traditional institute.A

Flexibility

Flexibility is a major benefit of e-learning. E-learning has the advantage of taking category anytime anyplace. Education is available when and where it is needed. E-learning can be done at the office, at place, on the route, 24 hours a twenty-four hours, and seven yearss a hebdomad.

Learners like e-learning because it accommodates different types of acquisition manners. They have the advantage of larning at their ain gait. Students can besides larn through a assortment of activities that apply to many different acquisition manners. Learners can suit e-learning into their busy agenda. If they hold a occupation, they can take part in eLearning right at their desk. If the scholar needs to make the acquisition at dark, so this option is available while in their pajama and make the acquisition if they desire.

Personalized acquisition

E-learning encourages pupils to peruse through information by utilizing hyperlinks and sites on the worldwide Web. Learners are able to happen information relevant to their personal state of affairss and involvement. E-learning allows choice of larning stuffs that meet their degree of cognition, involvement and what they need to cognize to execute more efficaciously in an activity.

E-learning is more focussed on the scholar and it is more interesting for the scholar because it is information that they want to larn. E-learning is flexible and can be customized to run into the single demands of the scholars.

Develops cognition

E-learning helps develop cognition of the Internet. This cognition will assist scholars throughout their callings. E-learning encourages pupils to take personal duty for their ain acquisition. When scholars win, it builds self-knowledge and assurance

Disadvantages of eLearning

Entree

One disadvantage of eLearning is that scholars need to hold entree to a computing machine every bit good as the Internet. They besides need to hold computing machine accomplishments with plans such as word processing, Internet browsers, and electronic mail. Without these accomplishments and package it is non possible for the scholar to win in eLearning.

E-learners need to be really comfy utilizing a computing machine. Slow Internet connexions or older computing machines may do accessing class stuffs hard. This may do the scholars to acquire defeated and give up.

Software and files

Another disadvantage of e-learning is pull offing computing machine files, package comfortability and larning new package, including e-learning. For scholars with beginner-level computing machine accomplishments it can sometimes look complex to maintain their computing machine files organized.A The lesson points you to download a file which the scholar does and subsequently can non happen the file. The file is downloaded to the booklet the computing machine automatically opens to instead than a folderA chosen by the scholar. This file may be lost or misplaced to the scholar without good computing machine organisational accomplishments.

High motive

E-learning besides requires clip to finish particularly those with assignments and synergistic coactions. This means that pupils have to be extremely motivated and responsible because all the work they do is on their ain. Learners with low motive or bad survey wonts may non finish faculties and may fall behind

Isolation

Another disadvantage of e-learning is that pupils may experience stray and unsupported while larning. Instruction manuals are non ever available to assist the scholar so scholars need to hold subject to work independently without aid. E-learners may besides go world-weary with no interaction with teachers or schoolmates.

Without the everyday constructions of a traditional category, pupils may acquire lost or confused about class activities and deadlines. Instructor may non ever be available when pupils are analyzing or necessitate aid

Decision

Today many engineerings can be, and are, used in e-learning, from web logs to collaborative package, E-Portfolios, and practical schoolrooms. Most e-learning state of affairss use combinations of these techniques.

Even though the hardware and package start-up are dearly-won, the advantages are ; reduced informations redundancy, cut downing updating mistakes and increased consistence, greater informations unity and independency from applications plans, improved informations entree to users through usage of host and question linguistic communications, improved informations security and handiness of facilitated development of new application plans and ability for intensive research are the benefits of DBMS.

Undertaking 2

Draw an Entity Relationship Data Model which describes the content and construction of the informations held by the Medi Check Hospital.

Produce the resulting tabular arraies of above Medi Check Hospital and clearly bespeaking the primary and foreign keys.

Datas Tables

Doctor

DoctorID ( primary )

Lname

Fname

Address

Telephone

Beeper

Forte

Location

Handiness

Patient

PatientNo ( primary )

PatientFirstName

PatientLastName

PatientAddress

PatientTelNo

PatientDob

PatientMaritalStatus

PatientDateRegistered

Appointment

AppointmentNo ( primary )

PatientName

Date/Time

PatientTelNo

Symptom

SymptomCode ( primary ) ,

SymptomName

Description

Treatment

TreatmentTitle ( primary )

TreatmentType

Duration

Status

TreatmentCost

Medicine

MedicationNo ( primary )

MedicationType

SideEffect

Dose

Frequency

Badness

MedicationBrandName

MedicationManufactureName

MedicationManufactureAddress

MedicationManufactureTel

Normalize these tabular arraies to guarantee that are all in BCNF. Show the stairss you have taken in normalising the tabular arraies.

UNF

Medication ( DoctorID, Lname, Fname, Address, Phone, Pager, Specialty, Location,

Availability, PatientNo, PatientFirstName, PatientLastName,

PatientAddress, PatientTelNo, PatientDob, PatientMaritalStatus,

PatientDateRegistered, AppoinmentNo, PatientName, Date/Time,

PatientTelNo, SymptomCode, SymptomName, Description,

TreatmentTitle, TreatmentType, Duration, Status, TreatmentCost,

MedicationNo, MedicationType, SideEffect, Dosage, Frequency,

Severity, MedicationBrandName, MedicationManufactureName,

MedicationManufactureAddress, MedicationManufactureTel )

1NF

Doctor Details ( DoctorID, Lname, Fname, Address, Phone, Pager, Specialty,

Location, Availability )

Patient Details ( PatientNo, PatientFirstName, PatientLastName, PatientAddress,

PatientTelNo, PatientDob, PatientMaritalStatus,

PatientDateRegistered, AppoinmentNo, PatientName, Date/Time,

PatientTelNo, SymptomCode, SymptomName, Description,

TreatmentTitle, TreatmentType, Duration, Status, TreatmentCost,

MedicationNo, MedicationType, SideEffect, Dosage, Frequency,

Severity, MedicationBrandName, MedicationManufactureName,

MedicationManufactureAddress, MedicationManufactureTel,

DoctorID )

2NF

Doctor Details ( DoctorID, Lname, Fname, Address, Phone, Pager, Specialty,

Location, Availability )

Patient Details ( PatientNo, PatientFirstName, PatientLastName, PatientAddress,

PatientTelNo, PatientDob, PatientMaritalStatus,

PatientDateRegistered )

Medicine Details ( MedicationNo, MedicationType, SideEffect, Dosage,

Frequency, Severity, MedicationBrandName,

MedicationManufactureName,

MedicationManufactureAddress, MedicationManufactureTel,

AppointmentNo, PatientName, Date/Time, PatientTelNo,

SymptomCode, SymptomName, Description, TreatmentTitle,

TreatmentType, Duration, Status, TreatmentCost, )

3NF

Doctor Details ( DoctorID, Lname, Fname, Address, Phone, Pager, Specialty,

Location, Availability )

Patient Details ( PatientNo, PatientFirstName, PatientLastName, PatientAddress,

PatientTelNo, PatientDob, PatientMaritalStatus,

PatientDateRegistered )

Medicine Details ( MedicationNo, MedicationType, SideEffect, Dosage,

Frequency, Severity, MedicationBrandName,

MedicationManufactureName,

MedicationManufactureAddress, MedicationManufactureTel )

Appointment Details ( AppointmentNo, PatientName, Date/Time, PatientTelNo,

SymptomCode, SymptomName, Description, TreatmentTitle,

TreatmentType, Duration, Status, TreatmentCost, )

BCNF

Doctor Details ( DoctorID, Lname, Fname, Address, Phone, Pager, Specialty,

Location, Availability )

Patient Details ( PatientNo, PatientFirstName, PatientLastName, PatientAddress,

PatientTelNo, PatientDob, PatientMaritalStatus,

PatientDateRegistered )

Medicine Details ( MedicationNo, MedicationType, MedicationBrandName,

MedicationManufactureName, MedicationManufactureAddress,

MedicationManufactureTel )

SideEffect ( SideEffectCode, Dosage, Frequency, Severity )

Appointment Details ( AppointmentNo, PatientName, Date/Time, PatientTelNo )

Symptom ( SymptomCode, SymptomName, Description )

Treatment ( TreatmentTitle, TreatmentType, Duration, Status,

TreatmentCost, )

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