To what extent can dyslexia, specific language


To what extent can dyslexia, specific linguistic communication damage ( SLI ) and autism be considered to be distinguishable developmental upsets?

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There is a broad organic structure of grounds that suggests conditions such as Dyslexia, SLI and autism are upsets with a familial cause and a footing in the encephalon. However, to to the full grok how these upsets manifest an scrutiny of the cognitive and societal procedures involved is utile. The treatment below intends to dispute the inquiry of why larning peculiar accomplishments such as, societal communicating, larning to read and following instructions can be so hard, whilst at the same clip larning other, but merely as complex, accomplishments can look easy. First, though, an account of why these upsets are frequently mentioned together and how distinguishable developmental forms may adhere there association. Dyslexia is frequently associated with people who have trouble with reading, composing and spoken linguistic communication undertakings. It is felt that dyslexic persons have trouble encoding information efficaciously. This is frequently explained by the impression that the person has trouble change overing written linguistic communication into spoken signifier, or visa versa. Specific Language refers to a developmental hold in the production of the spoken linguistic communication. More specifically, a common mark of SLI is a hold or shortage in the usage of map morphemes ( e.g. , the, a, is ) and other grammatical morphology ( e.g. , plural -s, past tense -ed ) . Some research workers claim that SLI kids ‘s trouble with grammatical morphology is due to holds or trouble in geting a specific implicit in lingual mechanism – e.g. lingual regulations such as geting the regulation that verbs must be marked for tense and figure ( “ he walks ” , non “ he walk ” ; Rice, 1994 ) . In add-on Autism has besides been referred to as a upset exposing symptoms of linguistic communication troubles which interfere with the individual’s ability to socially interact with other efficaciously. The undermentioned essay will come on through a treatment of these three upsets and discourse to what extent can they be considered to be distinguishable developmental upsets?

Dyslexia is chiefly due to lingual shortages and a trouble processing linguistic communication. It has been described byLerner ( 2000 )as a specific language-based upset characterized by troubles in individual word decryption, normally reflecting deficient phonological processing. It has been shown to be clearly related to neurophysiologic differences in encephalon map. Dyslexic kids display trouble with the sound/symbol correspondences of our written codification because of these differences in encephalon map.( Barton, 1994 ).The theoretical history for normal word acknowledgment may assist to explicate how damages might happen. For illustration,Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins and Haller( 1993 )argue that a dual-route theoretical account exists, whereby there are separate ‘lexical’ and ‘non-lexical’ mechanisms for articulating words. The lexical setup involves knowledge associated with specific words and can non be used in the procedure of vocally showing fresh words. Surface dyslexia is thought to be caused by the implicit in harm to this lexical setup within the encephalon. Alternatively phonological dyslexia is thought to hold damage in the manner that the non-lexical setup plants. The non-lexical setup performs the cognition and ability to convey the regulations that govern the interactions between characters and phonemes ; therefore it can be accessible in the pronunciation of fresh words. This is why word acknowledgment troubles are the most dependable indexs of reading disablement in older kids and grownups. Slow, laboured, and inaccurate reading of existent and nonsensical words in isolation is a cardinal Tell tale mark of dyslexic jobs. This drawn-out procedure of reading individual words often hinders the person ‘s ability to grok what has been read, even though listening comprehension is equal. Some link the implicit in procedures of dyslexia to that of specific linguistic communication impairment – SLI( Bishop and Snowling ( 2004) . SLI is diagnosed when unwritten linguistic communication is behind other development for no evident ground. However, although behavioral similarities are noted between dyslexia and SLI, for illustration, literacy troubles, it must be taken into history that although similar on the behavioral degree, the two entities may hold clearly different beginnings and aetiology. For illustration in the research of dyslexia there has been overpowering accent on the phonological processing as a cause of reading troubles. Whereas research into SLI has focused more on semantic, syntax and discourse as job countries that may impact 1s understands of linguistic communication and how it is picked up. In SLI, these confusions may ensue without any phonological damage. Yet dyslexic research indicates that phonological damage is the trigger of trouble in understanding the characteristics of spoken word. In the instance of dyslexia, the above suggests that one may hear the words falsely, therefore so hold a deficiency of apprehension of them. However, the diagnosing of SLI comes from deficiency of reading and comprehension of what the word means – and non merely a instance of non hearing the word decently. Therefore, it would be just to reason that although different in aetiology dyslexia and SLI portion common characteristics that could be explained by developmental jobs associated with the acquition of linguistic communication and its comprehension.

In mention to reading ability, there is a broad credence that the dyslexic encephalon is different from that of a “normal” reader. The difference implied is non the biological visual aspect of the encephalon, but an history of how the encephalon maps or does non work. These decisions have arisen from legion probes of the encephalon, including necropsies on the encephalons of asleep dyslexics, computerized axial imaging ( CAT ) scan, magnetic resonance ( MR ) imagination, functional magnetic resonance imagination ( functional magnetic resonance imaging ) , positron emanation imaging ( PET ) , and individual photon emanation computerized imaging ( SPECT ) . Using these scientific methods of probe implies that cause and consequence is being analysed. However, which of the two ; the different encephalon construction or the learning disablement, is the cause and which one is the consequence? If taking a biological fatalist point of position it is assumed that the functional differences in the encephalon must be the cause and the acquisition defect is the consequence. From the biological position it is predicted that that the encephalon develops in definite phases. These phases are referred to as “critical periods” in encephalon development. Therefore if an single hasn’t acquired the accomplishment by a certain age so they ne’er will. This is perceived to be the instance because as the encephalon develops, certain circuits are set up which can non be changed. For illustration, if we consider the ability to read, this is non merely an unconditioned ability. Reading is hence non automatic but must be learned. For illustration, the reader must develop a witting consciousness that the letters on the page represent the sounds of the spoken word. To read the word “ cat, ” the reader must section the word into its implicit in phonological elements ( i.e. its pronounaction ) . Once the word is in its phonological signifier, it can be identified and understood. However, it is assumed that in dyslexia, an inefficient phonological unit within the encephalon produces representations that are less clear and therefore more hard to convey to awarenessShaywitz ( 1996 ) .Therefore, this history assumes that it is the development of the encephalon construction that causes the trouble. However,Lerner ( 2000 )argues that these troubles are non the consequence of generalised developmental disablement. Alternatively one must oppugn how environmental influences can play a function. Lerner ( 2000 ) implies that it is the dyslexia that causes differences in encephalon operation and non that defects in the encephalon that consequences in dyslexia. Therefore, if the dyslexic individual is taught to read decently, it is predicted that the brain’s construction will alter to suit this (Plessis and Strydom,2000 ) . Furthermore, it has been suggested that Experience or larning can do physical alterations in the encephalon and impact the encephalon construction and its operation (Frostig and Maslow, 2001 ) . To better the reading abilities of people with dyslexic troubles, persons learn best with a multi-sensory bringing of linguistic communication content. For illustration, learning techniques that include seeing, hearing, touching, composing, and talking as methods of larning stuff. This adds support to the impression that while stimulation causes encephalon growing, the deficiency of stimulation can do a deficiency of encephalon growing. Therefore, this history ignores biological influences and the premise that linguistic communication is acquired through developmental phases. Rather, if an single finds it hard to change over written word in to speech, offering different formats to convey messages will better their overall societal abilities to show linguistic communication, irrespective of their biological devisings.

Therefore, the societal deductions of dyslexia could be similar to that of autism, if un-diagnosed and non attended to. Autism interferes with the normal development of the encephalon in the countries of logical thinking, societal interaction and communicating accomplishments. It is hence regarded as a development upset with a biological footing. Autism is the most widely researched upset under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders ( PDD ) – as classified in the DMS-IV. The definition of autism is based on the diagnostic standards provided in the American Psychiatric Association ‘s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition ( DSM – IV. ) It has three major feature: qualitative damage in societal interaction, qualitative damage in communicating, and restricted, insistent and stereotyped forms of behavior, involvements, and activities. To run into DSM-IV diagnostic standards for autism, kids will expose damage in societal interaction in at least two ways, damage in communicating in at least one manner, and restricted, insistent and stereotyped forms of behavior, involvements and activities in at least one manner. However, many kids do non run into these standards, yet show some of the characteristics of autism. The nucleus syndrome of autism blends into other milder signifiers of upset in which linguistic communication or non-verbal behavior may be disproportionately impaired. For illustration, those who display damage in linguistic communication tend to be classed as instances of developmental dysphasia ( or specific linguistic communication damage ) or dyslexia ( discussed supra ) .

Therefore, it seems apparent that autism, dyslexia and SLI portion some common symptoms environing linguistic communication defects. The ground why these syndromes have been suggested as development upsets lies in the impaired ability of linguistic communication accomplishments. As suggested by Paiget and Vygotsky – linguistic communication is acquired through phases of development. Although Vygosky and Paiget differ in their histories of this acquisition both theorist maintain that a path of developmental behavior follows through to bring forth optimum linguistic communication and thought procedures. Vygosky argues that linguistic communication and thought develop individually and so unify together ; in contrast to Paiget who argues that linguistic communication development is a effect of mind and develops as the kid mind matures. Paiget believes that these phases of development are cosmopolitan and that linguistic communication ability is unconditioned. However, this perceptual experience of linguistic communication development has been criticised for its deficiency of consideration of societal interactions. In contrast, Vygosky believe that linguistic communication is besides influenced by civilization and saw development happening through interactions. Therefore the accomplishments of linguistic communication acquisition are a move from interpersonal procedures ( e.g. egocentricism ) to intrapersonal advancement ( e.g. societal interactions ) . For illustration, in the action of pointing, the kid reaches out arm, the grownup perceives this action as a point, and the kid so learns to reiterate this fool when they want something. In clip the kid learns to modulate his or her ain behavior by larning the societal signifiers of behavior and using them to him/herself. However, it is thought that with autistic kids, the kid does non suitably larn the societal signifiers of behavior and fails to be able to use them to him/herself for the societal scene they are in. Does this demonstrate that a developmental defect has occurred, whereby the ability to construe one’s motivations and actions has non been acquired? If so, how can this are related to signifiers of autism, dyslexia or SLI? In mention to autism, lacks in verbal and non-verbal communicating and societal interactions are frequently displayed, which makes it difficult for them to pass on with others and associate to the outside universe. They may exhibit perennial organic structure motions ( manus flutter, swaying ) , unusual responses to people or fond regards to objects and defy any alterations in modus operandi. Therefore, are these behavioral features a show of the autistic person seeking to work out appropriate fools and ways to socially interact with other people? Jesters and motions that their organic structure has failed to develop and grok the significances of decently.

Some theoretician, believe that autism occurs due to a deficiency of development in the theory of head. Theory of head – refers to the ability to be able to take into consideration other positions on any given state of affairs. Theory of head besides relates to facets of linguistic communication acquisition, in the look of egoistic address. However, there is some argument over the usage and reading of this address. Paiget believes that egoistic address is an look of one’s ain ideas. These personal murmurs are non a signifier of societal communicating to get down with, but are easy socialised into societal address – i.e. I think that … . However, Vygosky believes that egoistic address is a power medium in the development and apprehension of linguistic communication and one’s societal state of affairs. Vygotsky argues that these personal murmurs are a type of private address, whereby the kid is executing job work outing behavior. Therefore, in Vygotsky sentiment, egoistic address is indispensable for the ordinance of behavior and accomplishment. Therefore it can be suggested that the deficiency of egoistic address ( or verbal vocalizations to work out job stuff or rightness in societal state of affairss ) will ensue in dysfunctional societal behavior. Paiget argues that this signifier of linguistic communication is a developmental procedure which is worked through, in contrast to Vygotsky, who argues that this sort of address continues into maturity. However, both positions can take to the decision that egoistic address is an of import mechanism in the procedure of apprehension and groking stuff around them. However, if an person fails to recognize this, it may take to troubles with linguistic communication and societal interaction. Therefore, in a universe filled with societal stimulation, it may be just to reason that those who do neglect to execute these abilities do so, due to a biological underpinning defect within the operation of their encephalon.

Interpreting autism, dyslexia and SLI as development upsets is a deterministic manner of categorizing dysfunctional characteristics of the encephalon. This perspective histories biological grounds for the errors and defects an person may show in their acquisition, reading and public presentation of linguistic communication. Therefore, does this imply that no intercessions can be taken to forestall or promote acquisition or societal interactions? As suggested above, multi-sensory larning stuff for Dyslexic pupils is an effectual technique to assistance acquisition. Dyslexics tend to be good at understanding 3-dimensional objects, spacial logical thinking, and things they can see in images. Therefore, alternatively of concentrating on the written representations of words, measure by measure, consecutive idea instructions in maths, learning AIDSs would be good to supply a hands-on attack. For illustration, in numbering or making the times table, a pictural representation or usage of counters may turn out utile and more socially prosecuting than paper and pen techniques. With autism, positive support and the impression of ABC acquisition is critical to making a safe and productive acquisition environment. For illustration, the instructor working with an austic kid demands to supply an environment that can motivate behavior and upon its bringing wages it – so that the kid becomes cognizant that they have performed the undertaking right. Therefore, these techniques illustrate that it is non merely our biological science that can impact the manner we learn and perceive our environment, but with stimulating chances for societal interactions and feedback, this can supply a mechanism to assist patterned advance with linguistic communication and acquisition.

To measure the extend to which dyslexia, SLI and Autism are distinguishable development upsets is hard. Largely due to the effects of overlapping symptoms that are evident in the three upsets. The above treatment has tended to generalize the three upsets into conditions that present linguistic communication defects. However, this premise is unsafe, as although the three upsets do look to hold linguistic communication defects on the surface – analyse of how and why these defects appear is indispensable in the apprehension of each single status. To separate between the three – dyslexia is frequently characterised by non being able to change over written linguistic communication into spoken, whereas SLI is frequently interpreted as the deficiency of comprehension that a certain word or words mean. Autism on the other manus seems to expose both of these characteristics, which result in troubles in societal interaction. The three upsets have links and convergences and from the grounds discussed above, seem to be produced by defects in encephalon operation. However, although this implies that a developmental disfunction is relevant, there is besides grounds that one’s environment can assist the advancement of a kid whose development has been delayed.



Lerner, J. ( 2000 ) . Learning disablements: Theories, diagnosing, and learning schemes ( 8th Ed. ) . Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Strydom J. and Plessis S. ( 2000 ) . The right to Read: Beating Dyslexia and Other Learning Disabilities. Remedium CC, Pretoria, South Africa.


Bishop, D.V.M. , and Snowling, M.J. , ( 2004 ) . Developmental dyslexia and specific linguistic communication damage. Same or Different.Psychological Bulletin. Vol 130. No.6. 858 – 886

Coltheart, M. , Curtis, B. , Atkins, P and Haller, M. ( 1993 ) . Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing attacks.Psychological Review, 100 ( 4 ) , 589 – 608.

Shaywitz, S. ( 1996 ) Dyslexia, Scientific American, November pp98-104


Barton, S ( 1994 ) . What we know now. NIH Research Project. Bright Solutions for Dyslexia, LLC cited on hypertext transfer protocol: //

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