TO CRITICALLY EVALUATE APPROACHES TO NEW TECHNOLOGIES
To critically measure attacks to new engineerings and their rightness when used in farther instruction
Section 1 – debut
This study is concerned with look intoing the effectivity of FE colleges’ schemes to encompass new engineerings and bring forth new concern and acquisition chances. To supply comprehensive and cohesive coverage of the issues under reappraisal – the analysis will see the undermentioned countries:
- Models of new engineering– this subdivision considers the new engineerings which have become available to FE colleges.
- Execution in work contexts– this subdivision investigates the assorted agencies by which the new engineerings can be successfully incorporated into FE colleges’ work and learning civilizations.
- Recommendations to stakeholders– this subdivision provides a reappraisal of how colleges can outdo travel frontward to encompass the new engineerings in order to bring forth new concern and acquisition chances.
- Decision– this subdivision summarises the chief findings of the study.
Section 2 – Model OF NEW TECHNOLOGY
2.1 Managed Learning Environments ( MLE ) AND Virtual Learning Environments ( VLE ) Defined
The term Managed Learning Environments ( MLE ) defines the whole scope of information systems and processes that exist within an FE college ( including its VLE – it has one ) that contribute straight or indirectly to larning and learning direction. The constituents of a college MLE and VLE are shown in the diagram below.
Beginning: Technology for E-Learning /ferl FIRST /www.ferl.becta.org
A major job that has confronted many FE colleges over the last 20 old ages is that the development of their direction information systems has occurred in many respects on a bit-by-bit footing. Whilst some of the duty for this state of affairs lies with the colleges – the deficiency of strategic thought and the deficiency of integrating between different systems – has been compounded by the alterations made by a assortment of authoritiess to review processs, funding mechanisms and many other countries.
A sustained period of stableness without dramatic alteration and secure support is the most of import demand if FE colleges are traveling to harvest the full wagess of the investing they have made in MLEs and VLEs. The pupils ( i.e. the clients ) must be the focal point of the strategic program for any college. If a college fails to fulfill the demands of its pupils – so it will wish any other concern which offers a hapless scope of merchandises and services – will lose income and will happen it really hard to retrieve if the diminution lasts for s sustained period of clip. Therefore, the pupils must be provided with a quality experience when they log on to the college computing machine system and utilize the VLE.
2.2 Features of a VLE
A VLE is a individual piece of package which provides an incorporate online larning environment, conveying together maps including content bringing, communications installations, appraisal, pupil trailing and links to other systems, including MIS, VLEs can be used in a assortment of ways e.g.
- To present full classs to distance learning pupils
- To supply extra content and support to complement face to face categories
- To supply support through the communicating installations to categories delivered wholly face to confront
VLEs are accessible via standard browsers – hence, they are available from the college intranet, and, if the college chooses via the Internet. This means that pupils can entree the VLE from anyplace in the universe with an Internet connexion. This provides pupils with significantly greater flexibleness in acquisition ; and besides has deductions for when and where staff supply pupil support.
The chief maps that the complete VLE needs to present are:
- Controlled, unafraid entree to the course of study
- Tracking pupil activity and accomplishment utilizing simple procedures for class disposal and pupil trailing
- Support of online acquisition, including entree to learning resources, appraisal and counsel
- Communication between the scholar, the coach and other larning support specializers to supply direct support and feedback for scholars, and peer group communications
- Linkss to other administrative systems, both in-house and externally
- VLEs should besides be customable
As VLEs better, and peculiarly as the links to MIS go more effectual and crystalline – they will go a common and cosmopolitan tool for presenting content and / or supplying support to both face to face and distance acquisition pupils. Most pupils and most lectors will at some point use a VLE. As more externally sourced content becomes available, and as it becomes easier for staff to set their ain content into the VLE model, they will go a everyday tool for lectors to utilize – in most instances, complementing other tools instead than replacing them.
The immediateness of content updating and support, and the remotion of geographical barriers to larning will intend that the form of attending of pupils – even those on conventional face to face classs – will alter significantly, with less classroom-based instruction, and far more activity in larning resource Centres from place or from work. The demand for physical attending will cut down, both from pupils and for staff. Where some of a lecturer’s work load is via a VLE, that work can be done from anyplace, including place.
However, a VLE is non a Panacea – it will better flexibleness and entree to a broad scope of content and support. It will non automatically better instruction and acquisition. There are many other factors involved and of class some learning programmes are non suited for bringing via a VLE. Plus some pupils require a considerable sum of face-to-face support because they lack assurance and they may be technophobes.
2.3 Intranet Or VLE?
In order to reply this inquiry it is ever of import to get down from the instruction and acquisition demands, and advancement from at that place to the tools that are required to run into those demands. The undermentioned inquiries should be asked:
- Who are the scholars? / Where they are located? / How will they analyze?
- Will they have on-line content, or merely online support? / Will they work in groups or separately?
- Will they be organised in practical categories? / Who will be seting the content together?
- Who will be seting the content on the system? / Who will ease the acquisition ( if anyone ) ? / Who will administrate the system?
Reasons For Using An Intranet
- When staff want to do rapidly available points such as strategies of work, appraisals, talk notes and so on. This is frequently more easy and handily done through shared booklets on an intranet, instead than a VLE.
- Depending on how the intranet is organised, it can be easier for staff to set up content on an intranet than it is on a VLE, particularly if they are utilizing shared booklets entirely.
- If a lector merely has little sums of information to topographic point online, it might be simpler to make this on the intranet instead than travel to the problem of puting up practical categories on a VLE.
- If a lector wants to mainly support pupils who are go toing conventional face to face categories ( as opposed to supplying support and content ) this may be more easy done through utilizing intranet-based electronic mail and treatment groups, or even dedicated conferencing systems.
- On the whole an single lector is likely to utilize the college intranet where they wanted to present merely a little sum of content. As their on-line work additions, a VLE would be better suited to their demands.
2.4Misconceptions About The New Technologies
The transition of a category based class into a practical acquisition experience is non an easy one. To get down with whilst it is a comparatively simple process to do category based notes available via an intranet or a VLE. They will non be suited for pupils who have enrolled onto a distance larning version of a class. This is because when a lector uses a press release in a category which may be one or two sides of A4 – he or she may good pass 15 to 30 proceedingss explicating about the contents. Of class in a face-to-face acquisition state of affairs pupils can inquire inquiries and seek elucidation. Bipartisan communicating is instantaneous – it is really easy for the lector to look into the students’ apprehension of the stuffs.
However, in a practical acquisition environment the pupil merely has the notes – yes – they will hold entree to the lector via electronic mail or an electronic notice board. However, a lector does non hold the clip to continuously explicate the content of every press release that the pupils are utilizing. Therefore, a two page press release that is used in the category room is likely to be at least five times longer when it used to back up distance acquisition pupils. This deduction means that the transition of category based classs into distance larning programmes must be meticulously planned over a suited timescale. An upfront investing in new learning stuffs is likely to be necessary. This has immense resource deductions for any FE college.
2.5 Why Distance Learning?
Given the rapid development of information engineering it is really easy regardless of which field you operate in e.g. instruction, concern etc – to go blinded by the scorching white visible radiation that is being blazed by new technological inventions. Too frequently information engineering and its myriad of related developments – becomes an terminal in itself. It is all excessively easy to go blinded to the restrictions of IT and on occasions its wrongness to the demands of certain scholars.
Distance instruction was defined by the educational theoretician – Michael Moore – as“the household of instructional methods in which the instruction behaviors are executed from the larning behaviours….so that the communicating between the scholar and the instructor must be facilitated by print, electronic, mechanical, or other devices”
Today, distance instruction calls upon an impressive scope of engineerings to enable instructors and pupils who are separated by distance to pass on with each other either in existent clip ( synchronal ) or delayed clip ( asynchronous ) . Distance larning epitomises the move off from institute based acquisition to a more direct, student-centred attack. As a construct, distance acquisition has existed for over a century, notably in the signifier of paper based correspondence classs.
Student centred learning attacks are characterised by the scholar going cardinal to the procedure of larning. What does pupil centred larning entail? Basically, the scholar takes duty for his or her ain acquisition and the instructor becomes a resource in the procedure. Learners should be able to larn at their ain gait, and in a mode which they feel comfy with.
Distance larning engineerings ( VLEs etc ) and methods can supply many of these properties. Students with entree to the appropriate engineerings can analyze at their ain gait and in a topographic point ( possibly at place or work ) that suits their life styles and the demands on their clip. The diverseness of engineerings now available to the distance pedagogue besides guarantee that several different manners of larning are possible, providing for the cognitive manners and attacks to analyze of a diverse scope of pupils.
The most popular methods today are electronic mail, computing machine mediated communications ( CMC ) , bulletin board systems ( BBS ) and of class the telephone. The Internet and World Wide Web are progressively being used to present a scope of multi-media stuffs, and as bandwidths are broadened and engineerings improve in public presentation, more will be done. Presently, the University of Plymouth is presenting classs to a broad scope of scholars – nurses, accoucheuses, physicians, sawboness, probation officers, the military and concern users.
However, there are many jobs associated with distance acquisition. For illustration, distance acquisition pupils are separated from their coachs and their equals. For some this can be a peculiar job. With distance acquisition there is a deficiency of societal interaction – – the sharing of thoughts, finds, successes and failures and general societal support, are all to a certain extent losing from the distance acquisition environment. Students may therefore feel stray, get down to lose motive, experience defeat or choler, and a host of other unwelcome emotions. How, these issues can be resolved will be given farther consideration in due class.
Section 3 –Execution IN WORK CONTEXTS
3.1 Culture Change
The rapid development of new engineerings will hold a major impact on how learning programmes are delivered for a considerable clip to come. However, it is interesting to pull a analogue between the impact of new engineerings on FE colleges and how concern administrations cope with the execution of new accounting systems. Small, medium and big companies have spent one million millions of lbs on new computing machine hardware and accounting package plans. However, there is considerable grounds to propose that really few administrations make full usage of their new accounting systems.
On most occasions this has really small to make with the new systems and more to make with bing jobs within the administration. For illustration, the execution of a new accounting system will non better the efficiency of a ill motivated and inefficaciously managed work force. Often new IT systems merely compound the bing jobs faced within the administration. A parallel can be drawn with the acceptance of the new engineerings in FE colleges. If a class-based class is ill managed, ill attended and produces apathetic consequences – so change overing it to a distance larning programme will non decide these issues.
Since the beginning of the early 1990s FE colleges have been capable to significant alterations. For illustration, there was incorporation – this entailed colleges going independent administrations freed from local authorization control. Since the election of the Labour Government in 1997 there has been a policy which has sought to rationalize the FE sector through the amalgamation of colleges and the creative activity of local partnerships. This subject of rationalization of proviso is carried on through a figure of Government paperss associating to FE and the Learning Skills Council ( LSC ) .
These paperss ( DfEE 1999, DfEE 2000a, DfEE 2000b ) suggest that rationalization will be achieved through aiming resources towards specific specialisms within each establishment instead than leting institutes to make anything and everything. Besides in 2005 there was a monolithic re-direction of resources off from grownup larning to increasing the proviso for 14 to 19 old ages within FE colleges. There are presently 120,000 pupils within this age scope go toing some signifier of proviso within FE colleges.
Puting against this background of changeless alteration – FE colleges are required to integrate the new engineerings into their long-run bringing schemes. Each administration has its ain typical civilization. It is a combination of past leading, current leading, past crises and internal and external challenges. If FE colleges merely dealt with full-cost classs – it would be comparatively consecutive frontward to place its nucleus scholars and develop proviso to run into the demands of the relevant market section.
3.2 THE VAGARIES OF GOVERNMENT FUNDING
However, the huge bulk of FE colleges still depend to a great extent on authorities support ( distributed through the LSC ) for over 90 % of their income. This has major deductions on how colleges develop their practical acquisition proviso. For illustration, since 2000 Newcastle College has offered a assortment of paper based distance acquisition classs ( notably life coaching and concern coaching ) . The natural patterned advance has been to change over this paper based format into a practical acquisition environment.
However, the creative activity of practical acquisition classs are resource hungry in footings of the money, attempt and clip that is required to put up, trial and implement this proviso. Again the job is non so much with the engineering but instead with the bureaucratic nature of FE colleges and the vagaries of authorities support. On a broader point administrations that are good led, proactive in footings of alteration direction and have designed a seamless client / client interface – are those administrations, which are best equipt to take advantage of new technological inventions.
On the whole FE colleges do non fall into this class of administrations. On the whole they are bureaucratic in nature, reactive to alter in the external environment and be given non to hold a strong focal point on the demands and demands of their patronage. Colleges are non entirely to fault for the current state of affairs that has engulfed them. Since the early 1990s FE colleges, along with every other public sector administration, have been capable to greater authorities examination in footings of accomplishing marks and accounting for its actions.
Whilst greater answerability sing the usage of public financess is ever extremely desirable – the mechanisms for supervising how FE colleges perform and pass their money are really bureaucratic. This has increased the strain on college direction information systems and has placed greater force per unit area on both learning and non-teaching staff. Possibly the greatest barrier which is forestalling colleges from taking full advantage of the new engineerings is the vagaries in authorities support. This is best illustrated by sing the illustration of Newcastle College.
Case Study –NewcastleCollege
In 1999 Newcastle College launched a series of life coaching and concern coaching classs. The bulk of these classs were free to pupils. Plus they were all paper based. All of the relevant acquisition stuffs were despatched to the pupils at the beginning of the programme. By 2003 the college had something like 15,000 pupils from throughout England and Wales on their distance acquisition programmes. Each class lasts 6 months and in order to stay active on the programme – a scholar is required to subject an assignment every 4 hebdomads. This is a demand of the LSC.
The success of the distance larning programmes at the college over this 4-year period highlighted some cardinal factors about such proviso demands to be developed, managed and controlled. To get down with – big graduated table distance larning programmes merely work if they are administered by a dedicated support squad. The college employs Learning Support Officers which maintain regular telephone and electronic mail contact with pupils to guarantee that they comply with the class demands and submit assignments on clip. The care of pupils and the trailing of their advancement is the duty of a dedicated disposal squad.
The completed assignments are marked by a squad of parttime assessors. They have no direct contract with the pupils. This is controlled by the support and disposal squads. The aforesaid information provides an first-class illustration of the substructure colleges must make if big graduated table distance larning proviso is traveling to be cost effectual. The illustration of Newcastle College besides demonstrates that is necessary to make a market foremost for distance acquisition. Clearly if the college had enrolled less than 5,000 pupils – so the cost effectivity of the whole operation would hold been brought into inquiry.
A monolithic investing in VLEs does non do economic sense – if they are merely traveling to be used to back up categories which are traveling to stay class-based. Besides non all classs are suited for transition to distance learning proviso. This is particularly true of basic accomplishments and entry degree classs. Peoples on these classs frequently lack self-confidence and may be returning to larning after many old ages of inaction. Such pupils need to be taught in a schoolroom with tonss of face-to-face support.
By 2003 Newcastle College were offering some of their paper based distance acquisition classs via a VLE. There are many benefits. Less paperwork is generated. Students’ assignments can be marked much more rapidly and so on. In 2005 Newcastle College were pitching up for the big scale transition of their paper based classs into an electronic format. By the summer of 2005 Newcastle College were bring forthing income of ?8.5 million per twelvemonth in duty units from the Learning Skills Council. The distance larning proviso had proved to be really successful.
However, at this clip there was a important displacement in the government’s educational policy. The authorities decided that it wanted to better the quality of the learning proviso for 14 to 19-year olds. This was achieved by deviating financess from grownup instruction proviso. Thus the LSC support for the college’s distance larning proviso was cut to ?2.5 million. A important figure of pupils on the college’s distance larning programmes had to end their surveies because the support had been withdrawn. This instance survey provides an first-class illustration of the major troubles colleges face when the authorities changes the support regulations.
Section 4 –RECOMMENDATIONS TO STAKEHOLDERS
4.1 WHICH COURSES ARE SUITABLE FOR CONVERSION TO DISTANCE LEARNING PROVISON?
Case Study – The Open University
In the 1960s the Labour Government approved the puting up of the Open University, which is based in Milton Keynes. The OU was originally set up to offer degree surveies through tellurian broadcasts ( Television and Radio ) in partnership with the BBC, but paper based stuffs and subsequently computing machine mediated communicating, have besides become critical ingredients in distance bringing of under alumnus taught programmes. The OU now boasts over 200,000 pupils enrolled at any peculiar clip, and is in the largest “top ten” universities worldwide now known as “Mega Universities” . It awards a figure of makings including BA and BSc grades, MA, MBA, MPhil and PhD, and more late, Post Graduate Certificates in Education.
Peoples enrolled on an OU class are non subsidised by the authorities. These are full-cost classs. The fees for an MBA class will be in the part of ?7,500. These fees will either be paid by the pupil, their employer or a sponsoring administration. Having 200,000 distance learning pupils provides the OU to profit from immense economic systems of graduated table. Plus the OU is wholly independent of authorities instruction support mechanisms. This means that the OU can research and develop new larning proviso without fright of break. This is something FE colleges do non hold.
The Way Forward
In order to avoid the state of affairs that resulted in Newcastle College holding its distance larning funding cut from ?8.5 million to ?2.5 million in 2005 – colleges need to develop new markets for distance acquisition proviso, which do non trust on authorities support. These new markets will hold to bring forth a considerable figure of pupils in order to bring forth the economic systems of graduated table the OU benefits from. Besides it is apparent that merely certain types of classs are suited for transition to a distance larning format. Besides merely pupils that are self-assured, self-restraining and extremely motivated can get by with the cogencies that distance larning topographic points on the person. In order to be successful – colleges will hold to follow a new mentality. One that is less bureaucratic and more entrepreneurial.
4.2 THE CREATION OF STRATEGIC LEARNING PARTNERSHIPS
FE colleges need to make strategic larning partnerships in order to portion cognition, expertness and resources. There are a broad scope of possible spouses – local governments, infirmary trusts, universities, and private preparation suppliers, national and local employers and so on. In order to make a more knowing, adept and productive work force – employers need to put in preparation and development. Distance larning proviso in an electronic format provides a cost efficient method of accomplishing these ends for employers. Provided such proviso is supported by on the occupation preparation, work-based coaching and a purposeful assessment system.
NVQs foremost became available in the early 1990s. Newcastle College is presently in the procedure of puting up systems which will let pupils to finish an NVQ in IT via distance larning proviso. This development would be given a monolithic if the college could organize a strategic partnership with a major regional employer ( e.g. Northern Rock plc ) to develop and develop the IT skills and cognition of its work force. Whilst such a development would still depend on some authorities funding – holding a major employer on board would guarantee the success of the undertaking. A private sector administration is non traveling to take part in a big graduated table preparation enterprise that is traveling to neglect. Establishing a successful partnership with a high profile administration would give the college a batch of praise. In other words success strains success. This in bend creates new concern chances.
4.3 Thinking OUTSIDE THE BOX
Senior college direction demand to radically change their thought and must put a good illustration to the other degrees within the administration sing the benefits and chances that to the full encompassing new engineerings can supply. The leaders of publically funded educational and preparation establishments must play a major function in driving the ICT and e-learning docket frontward and how ICT is being used to back up the efficient direction and administration of effectual instruction and acquisition within these establishments.
It is widely inferred that the strategic thought of administrations should include a function for engineering, since the outlook is that merely by the appropriate usage of engineering can the authorities marks for growing, widening engagement, work force development, grownup and community acquisition and basic accomplishments be met. Indeed many of the cardinal beginning paperss, such as review studies, “Success For All” , “Get on With IT” and the “DELG Report” show that the successful colleges are those that are encompassing e-learning and ICT.
If a college is successful in making strategic larning partnerships, as antecedently described, this would show to the other stakeholders ( i.e. other direction classs, learning staff, non-teaching staff, pupils etc ) that were proactive in footings of to the full using the new engineerings to make new concern and employment chances. Such a development would move as a accelerator and would promote the other stakeholders to to the full encompass the new engineerings in order to better their professionalism and the quality of their work end product. This would be achieved through the successful execution of the college’s ILT scheme.
4.5 IMPLEMENTING THE ILT STRATEGY
A repeating subject that has been established throughout this study is the impression that the new engineerings do non sit in isolation. To gain the concern aims that have been set – it is of import that a college to the full integrates new engineerings into all facets of the college’s policies and processs. The ILT scheme must be crystalline ; the other stakeholders must be able to see that it really maps, produces consequences and makes their on the job lives more productive.
Any FE college can pass big amounts of money on new engineerings and make province of the art larning environments. They may claim to be the cutting border of the new acquisition revolution within their vicinity. However, if many of the installations VLEs etc offer ballad dormant and under utilized due to staff inactiveness, opposition to alter, fright of redundancy etc – so the fiscal investing in new hardware and package will non bring forth the benefits senior direction aspires to.
To win – everybody must be onboard, onside and singing from the same anthem book.
For the ILT execution scheme to work – the undermentioned countries must be given full consideration.
Organizing And Communicating Efficaciously
- The Senior Management Team needs to find the most appropriate organizational construction for deploying ILT across their administration.
- Whilst this can change from one establishment to another – the positive and negative experiences of other larning suppliers can be really enlightening.
- Besides full consideration demands to be given how the other stakeholders within the administration can be integrated into the execution procedure.
- Failure to consult with the other stakeholders will do bitterness and in the longer term will make opposition to alter.
- Consultation and integrating can be facilitated in a assortment of ways.
- For illustration, through the scene of cross-college groups, the puting up of undertaking squads, departmental treatment groups etc.
- However, audience and integrating is achieved – it must be coordinated and marks for ILT development must be completed within the declared clip bounds.
- Otherwise the ILT execution scheme will stagger and will lose impulse.
Developing Staff Skills
- To guarantee that learning and non-teaching employees gain assurance, go skilled in the new engineerings and are prepared to do usage of the new ICT installations – a college would necessitate to carry on a preparation needs analysis ( TNA ) .
- The TNA would necessitate to turn to the undermentioned issues:
- What skills do workers necessitate to be able to take part to the full in ILT?
- Do they merely necessitate IT skills? At what degree?
- What else do they necessitate to be able to heighten the manner in which they teach?
- Do all of the employees need to make the same degree of accomplishment? Or even the same accomplishments?
- There are a battalion of inquiries environing this country, and a assortment of replies depending on how your scheme envisages the rollout of ILT.
- But the common denominators are that staff development must be appropriate and timely and that entree to resources is every bit of import if employees are to stay motivated and to retain and construct on new accomplishments.
- There is small point in puting in dearly-won and clip devouring preparation if the hardware and package instruction and non-teaching demand are seldom available.
Making Best Use Of ILT Champions
- What is go oning to guarantee that ILT Champions have an effectual function to play, instead than being a “lone voice in the wilderness” ?
- FE colleges must guarantee that ILT Champions play a taking in circulating the benefits of the new engineerings to stakeholders throughout the administration.
- Internally, what is go oning to guarantee that the whole administration is cognizant of good pattern, and how others can go active participants in the ILT procedure?
- Is the college doing the most of bing assets, such as the support of specialist consultative organic structures, disposal and library staff?
- What chances are at that place for external support?
- What are the pros and cons of obtaining this type of support?
- Alternatively, what are ILT Directors making to construct a instance for internal financess?
- How are they be aftering to do the most of their hard-won budgets this coming twelvemonth?
Pull offing And Marketing The Passage To ILT
- Admissions and counsel, on-course communicating, periodic studies, the web site – what are administrations making to inform pupils, their parents, counsel co-workers and other instruction suppliers of their place on ILT?
Pull offing Change
- One of the most common troubles that colleges have to cover with is opposition to alter.
- How are administrations get bying with this?
- What is being done to promote staff to work with others?
- What is being done to place and work with those in all countries of the administration who are acute to be involved?
Section 5 – CONCLUSION
This study has provided a comprehensive reappraisal of the new engineerings that are now available to FE colleges. However, we have learnt that these engineerings do non be in isolation. In order to win colleges must follow a different mentality and go proactive in footings of bring forthing strategic scholar partnerships with other public sector and private sector administrations.
The successful development of such partnerships will move as a accelerator and should bring forth a cultural alteration in attitudes with respect to all stakeholders coming to gain that new engineerings when efficaciously implemented into the on the job civilization of a college can present a huge array of benefits and new chances.
VLE Definition /Technology for E-Learning/ferl FIRST /www.ferl.becta.org
Features of a VLE /Technology for E-Learning/ferl FIRST /www.ferl.becta.org
Intranet or VLE /Technology for E-Learning/ferl FIRST /www.ferl.becta.org
Culture Change /Policies and Schemes/ferl FIRST /www.ferl.becta.org
Implementing the ILT Strategy /Policies and Schemes/ferl FIRST /www.ferl.becta.org
The possible policy effects on FE colleges inEnglandunder the LSC /www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00003132.htm
Why Distance Learning? /Distance Education / www2.plymouth.ac.uk/distancelearning/vidconfl.html
DfEE ( 1998 ) Lifelong Learning Green Paper /www.lifelonglearning.co.uk/greenpaper