This paper will discuss the strengths and weaknesses
Increasingly, national policy on societal work pattern is based on “the best grounds of what works” ( Department of Health, 1998 ) . This paper will critically discourse the strengths and failings of questionnaire studies as a research methodological analysis that can be used with societal services to measure client demand, measure service proviso and alteration professional pattern. Recent research surveies that use questionnaire studies to measure facets of mental wellness and kid protection societal work pattern and professional development will be considered. Specific undertakings have late developed within the UK, such as the ‘What works for kids? ’ programme based at City University, and the ‘Research In Practice’ enterprise that explicitly address the practical relevancy of research surveies for societal work pattern ( Stevens et al, 2005 ) . Evidence based societal work pattern has been to a great extent promoted in recent old ages, with peculiar accent on authorising service-users by sharing research information on specific populations, and incorporating clients and practicians knowledge and attitudes towards the development of effectual societal services appraisal and intercessions ( Sheldon, 2001 ) . However, the grounds based theoretical account of societal work pattern has besides been viewed with some unfavorable judgment for being ‘top down’ in its attack with the research worker ‘pushing’ information onto the practician, with the practician being so expected to construe and happen practical applications of this research cognition ( Stevens, Liabo, Frost and Roberts, 2005 ) . There is an increasing sense that research findings are non readily available to practicians, or delivered in a practical format. For illustration, Weyts, Morpeth and Bullock ( 2000 ) conducted a questionnaire study of 600 professionals working in kid protection to estimate the degree of consciousness, usage and sentiments about the Government sponsored ‘Child Protection: Messages from Research’ papers. Overall, 78 % of respondents had heard about the book and the bulk of respondents felt the book was helpful for geting cognition of child protection issues. However, merely 65 % of respondents had really read some portion of the book and some respondents felt that they could non entree the book due to clip and resource limitations within societal services sections. Furthermore, less than one tierce of respondents reported that the book had changed their manner of believing about kid protection, and about all respondents were able to propose ways that bringing of the research messages in the book could hold been improved.
There is an increasing sense that research surveies have been developed by research workers without practician accomplishments and without equal audience with practicians ( Sheldon and Chilvers, 2000 ) . On the footing of their experience of supplying an information service for societal work practicians, Stevens et Al ( 2005 ) argue that there is a demand for better rating of current services and better airing of the consequences ( Stevens et al, 2005 ) . It is in the rating of services from the position of the practician and the position of the client that questionnaire research methods can turn out utile. Action research methods have been advocated for usage within wellness attention and societal work scenes ( Meyer, 2000 ) . This incorporates three elements of research engagement, democratic orientation and its part to societal alteration every bit good as academic cognition. Action research is about bring forthing solutions to existent jobs and authorising practicians to accomplish positive alteration by affecting them in the research procedure ( Meyer, 2000 ) .
“Questionnaire surveies can be used in the systematic aggregation of information and may assist to specify the incidence of disease, place aetiological factors and investigate quality of life, every bit good as predict some facets of behaviour” ( Eaden, Mayberry and Mayberry, 1999, p 397 ) . Questionnaires are a “cheap and speedy research tool” for obtaining specific research consequences without the immense capital investing of intercession tests or qualitative research methods such as semi-structured interviews ( Eaden, Mayberry and Mayberry, 1999 ) . There is considerable concern about the cogency and dependability of questionnaires ( Andrews, 1994 ) and their appropriate application in societal scientific discipline research. As Boynton and Greenhalgh ( 2004 ) suggest, “A valid questionnaire measures what it claims to mensurate. In world, many fail to make this….Reliable questionnaires yield consistent consequences from repeated samples and different research workers over clip. Differences in consequences come from differences between participants, non from incompatibilities in how the points are understood or how different perceivers interpret the responses” ( p 1313 ) . Questionnaires are appropriate where there is a good defined hypothesis, but there can be troubles with non-response rate, point non-response and response quality. A systematic reappraisal of questionnaire research methods showed that a higher response rate is associated with shorter questionnaires, follow up of the sample population and merely appraising interested and motivated populations, as opposed to randomly trying the general population. However, hapless response rate affects the representativeness of research findings, and can present prejudice to the research survey ( Edwards, Roberts, Clarke, DiGuiseppi et Al, 2002 ) .
Research has shown that between 3 % and 8 % of points on any questionnaire will non be completed by the respondent ( Craig and McCann, 1978 ) . In peculiar, the usage of inquiries that seek an sentiment can take to a hapless response rate, and answering motive will be an of import portion of the research response rate. While research is non act uponing societal work pattern in a additive manner, there is increasing involvement in practitioner-orientated research that identifies and responds to their information demands, and physiques on the cognition base in an synergistic manner ( Stevens et al, 2005 ) . Furthermore, there is a turning sense that research findings on specific societal attention intercessions do non bring forth alterations in societal services pattern, but there are possible benefits in research surveies that seek to place barriers to the execution of intercessions and in estimating staff and client attitudes ( Gira, Kessler and Poertner, 2004 ) . These types of surveies are peculiarly conformable to questionnaire research methods. Questionnaires can include closed or open-ended inquiries. While open-ended inquiries can be user-friendly in the sense that they allow the respondent to construe and reply the inquiry in their ain words, such qualitative responses can be hard to analyze if there is an tremendous diverseness in the answers. In contrast, closed inquiries that require ‘yes’ or ‘no’ type responses, or attitude gauged on a Likert graduated table, can be debatable in that they possibly an over-simplification of the implicit in concept. However, dichotomous inquiries are associated with a higher dependability rate. Validity and dependability of questionnaires can be enhanced through the usage of pilot surveies on the mark population to place any troubles with the step ( Lydeard, 1991 ) .
One of the restrictions of questionnaire research is its leaning to demarcate the research worker and the researched ‘subject’ ( Meyer, 2000 ) . The research worker will enforce the research docket on participants in a comparatively structured question-answer communicative attack that limits the ability of the research respondent to lend to the research design and results in a manner that is meaningful to them every bit much as the research worker ( Meyer, 2000 ) . Other research methodological analysiss such as focal point groups and qualitative interviews provide more range for research participants to show their ain positions, utilizing their ain linguistic communication and apprehension of the research topic. Furthermore, questionnaire studies tend to be circulated through written stuff which has deductions for equality of entree to research surveies for persons with literacy troubles, or communicating disablements. One attack to get the better ofing methodological troubles associated with questionnaire studies is to prosecute in pre-survey cognitive interviewing with the mark group ( Drennan, 2003 ) . This allows research workers to prove the cogency of their inquiries, and to inquire the pilot respondents to ‘think out loud’ as they fill in the questionnaire so that a position on answering comprehension and reading of the questionnaire can be obtained, and highlight ‘potential problems’ that can be adjusted to better cogency and response rates in the chief study ( Drennan, 2003 ) .
Cleaver and Walker ( 2004 ) have undertaken a research survey that investigates the execution of the new kids in demand appraisals, under the Working Together model. Components of the new system are referral and determination to move, initial appraisal and nucleus appraisal of a kid. Most societal services sections have standardised kid in need appraisal signifiers that resemble a questionnaire. These are completed by the assigned societal worker based on web cheques, interviews with the household, and on the footing of other relevant information obtained about the fortunes of the kid. Cleaver and Walker ( 2004 ) investigated the impact of the new Children in Need appraisal model on the on the job pattern of societal workers within 24 societal services sections within the United Kingdom. They used a mixed-methodology that involved an audit of 100 referrals from each societal services section, a postal questionnaire returned by societal workers ( n=216 ) , societal work directors ( n=93 ) and allied professionals ( n=153 ) , a qualitative interview survey of 52 investigated instances ( where 50 parents took portion ) and a clip record for 24 societal workers to place if appraisals were undertaken within the statutory guidelines. This survey serves as an illustration of how questionnaire methods can be integrated with other research methods towards an apprehension of societal work client appraisal processs and procedures. The Assessment Framework is based on the premiss that ‘working together’ with households to place strengths and failings is the best manner to consequence alteration amongst households in crisis. The questionnaire study revealed that three quarters of societal work directors felt that more households were involved in the appraisal procedure, and a greater degree of engagement, as a consequence of the new legislative model, but merely 42 % of societal workers reported an addition in the engagement of kids and households as a consequence of the new statute law. Social workers felt that the new system was bureaucratic and hampered their engagement with households. Furthermore, the construction of the appraisal record did non let societal workers to enter the nature and extent of household troubles, and required a new manner of record-keeping and information keeping for the practicians. Semi-structured interviews with parents found that the bulk ( 75 % ) reported really positive experiences of the new legislative model and felt consulted and involved in all facets of the appraisal procedure. This survey showed how different research methodological analysiss could be used with different groups to arouse comparative informations. It would be non hold been practical to carry on in-depth interviews with over 200 societal workers, and hence a questionnaire methodological analysis was a suited attack to measuring societal services staff positions on the new Children In Need appraisal model. However, the interviews with 52 societal workers and 50 parents provided an chance to obtain insight into parental positions on the benefits and drawbacks of the new attack to child societal services appraisals, and it highlighted a spread between societal workers perceptual experiences of the benefits for households associated with the new system, and parents’ existent experience of the new system. This reinforces the demand to place questionnaires as one of many research methodological analysiss that can be used within societal work.
Gray, Higgs and Pringle ( 1997 ) have used questionnaire research methods to estimate sentiment on the handiness of specializer services for subsisters of sexual maltreatment from societal work bureaus, and besides from clients with experience of maltreatment. They claim that their pick of a questionnaire methodological analysis was led by the want to “have some consequence on pattern of agencies” ( p 49 ) . They farther illustrate the flexibleness of the questionnaire research method in that it is possible to unite qualitative and quantitative informations aggregation for different research aims ; “We knew from old experience that, in seeking to hold an impact on local bureaus, quantitative instead than qualitative research findings seemed to be accorded with greater cogency. At the same clip, we besides felt that quantitative informations about the side of services and of demands would be truly valid as a research tool in uncovering of import issues” ( p 50 ) . The research workers distributed 31 questionnaires to societal services sections and received a response rate of 13 societal services sections. The consequences showed that societal services sections focussed on child appraisals of maltreatment, as opposed to developing curative services for big subsisters. Facilities for the intervention of maltreaters who are of child-age are really limited, with group work being the most common attack used by societal services sections. However, there were well more services available for non-abusing parents. Unfortunately the research workers did non plan the questionnaire in such a manner as to place if proviso for parents was separate to proviso for kids, and if the parents and kids had different cardinal workers. This was too bad as research shows that joint working agreements are of import to the long-run recovery of maltreatment subsisters ( Hooper, 1982 ) . Several societal services sections suggested that grownup subsisters would merely have aid and aid where they were parents themselves, and their kids were considered to be ‘at risk’ of maltreatment. The questionnaire study identified that specializer services were rare, and there was an about entire deficiency of services aimed at minority abused groups such as cultural minority kids, or grownups that had been abused as kids. Questionnaires were returned by 32 of 52 grownup subsisters of sexual maltreatment. This was a really little sample size with hapless statistical power for carry oning statistical analysis on the variables that were under measuring in the survey. Furthermore, the representativeness of the sample is unsure given that merely six respondents were male, and merely two respondents were from cultural minority groups. Respondents indicated that they would obtain emotional support from household and friends, as opposed to formal medical and societal work services. Merely a minority of respondents ( 19 % ) indicated that they would have specializer professional services to assist them to retrieve from maltreatment, and at that place was a consentaneous declaration that such services should be provided by professionals with experience of sexual maltreatment themselves. About all the respondents believed that therapy should be available to persons, but it should be capable to single differences in demands. The questionnaire study highlighted a mismatch in service proviso by societal work bureaus, with user demands. Most of the respondents reported that they would wish single therapy, whereas most of the societal work sections reported that available proviso was family-centred group work. The bulk of maltreatment subsisters reported a strong penchant for voluntary sector services over statutory proviso, because they perceived that they had more personal control over the curative procedure and there was greater flexibleness in this type of proviso. This survey revealed how there were important spreads in current societal services proviso for abused persons in demand of support. However, the questionnaire study had restrictions both in footings of the inquiries that were asked, and the response rate. It can be regarded as a first measure towards understanding the demands of clients in the development of specialist societal work services, and this possibly achieved through qualitative semi-structured interview research methodological analysiss.
Parry-Jones, Grant, McGrath, Caldock et Al ( 1998 ) have considered occupational emphasis and occupation satisfaction amongst societal workers, compared to community nurses and community psychiatric nurses utilizing a questionnaire methodological analysis. The questionnaire combined quantitative methods in the signifier of Likert graduated tables on emphasis, satisfaction and accommodation to new management/ appraisal patterns, with qualitative methods in the signifier of open-ended inquiries that were considered utilizing content analysis. A response rate of 30.8 % was achieved in this survey, which is typical for questionnaire studies, and a greater response rate was achieved from societal workers, compared to other professionals. The bulk of societal workers and nurses reported greater duty and work load as a consequence of legislative alterations in the 1990’s. There was much consensus that the increased work load could be attributed to greater disposal duties, that left less clip for contact with clients. Over half of respondents felt ‘less valued’ as employees, and about half besides felt that their sense of personal accomplishment had declined. Furthermore, 45 % reported that the quality of service they provided to clients had decreased in recent old ages, while one 3rd felt it had increased. Workload was positively correlated with emphasis for all the groups, and the extra administrative load was positively correlated with sensed emphasis for societal workers and community nurses, but non psychiatric nurses. Job satisfaction and get bying with work undertakings, along with occupation morale amongst co-workers, and sum of clip for client contact and a sense of personal accomplishment from work undertakings were all significantly and negatively correlated with emphasis for all three professional groups. The sense of being a valued employee, the perceptual experience of quality of attention provided, assurance in community attention in the hereafter and quality of communicating with direction were significantly and negatively correlated for societal workers, and nurses but non psychiatric nurses. Parry-Jones et Al ( 1998 ) argue that, “The differences noted here between CPN’s [ Community Psychiatric Nurses ] and the other two professional groups may be partially interpretable in footings of differences in working conditions, every bit good as the limited impact of the alteration to care direction amongst CPN’s” ( p 279 ) . However, there possibly a more simple account for the different consequence findings. The bulk of study respondents were societal workers ( n=276 ) , and this compared to a smaller figure of community nurses ( n=65 ) and psychiatric nurses ( n=62 ) . As a consequence, it would hold been easier to obtain statistically important consequences in the larger societal work sample, than amongst the nursing profession. The writers besides did non see the consequence sizes associated with the relationships between emphasis, occupation satisfaction and the workplace variables under survey in the questionnaire. Furthermore, the cogency and dependability of the emphasis and occupation satisfaction steps is unsure because the writers developed the questionnaire themselves. If they had employed standardised psychometrically robust steps of occupational emphasis and occupation satisfaction, it would hold been possible to guarantee that the research workers were mensurating what they intended to in their survey. However, their usage of qualitative open-ended inquiries within their questionnaire proved utile for lucubrating on the specific issues for the professional groups in their ain words. Three subjects emerged from a content analysis of the responses that showed three constituents to professional occupation satisfaction of accomplishing positive results for clients and carers, attention direction procedure factors and the work civilization. “The value of the qualitative information is evident here in that it was able to uncover greater comprehensiveness of information in respect to beginnings of satisfaction than the quantitative data” ( p 280 ) . Through qualitative responses, the research workers were able to determine that societal workers, and other professionals, disliked carry oning complex demands appraisals and set abouting demands appraisals for which they felt they lacked preparation. It was concluded that legislative alterations has been “double-edged: on the one manus it provides practicians with a path to working straight with people with high dependence demands, yet it besides forces them to set about undertakings which non merely take them off from that work but which, through deficiency of resources, deficient clip and struggles of involvement between needs-led appraisal and de facto service rationing, undermine their capacity for originative work with service users and families” ( p 283 ) . This survey revealed that there was a demand for farther preparation of societal workers in the country of carry oning appraisals.
A farther cross-sectional questionnaire based study of registered British societal workers, working with mentally sick clients, has attempted to place preparation, communicating and information demands ( Fakhoury and Wright, 2004 ) . In entire, 200 mental wellness squads were indiscriminately contacted inquiring the societal worker within the squad to finish the questionnaire. There was a 56 % response rate for the survey which may hold reflected the methodological analysis employed which involved directing the questionnaire to the mental wellness squad director and inquiring them to direct the societal worker to finish and return the signifier. The questionnaire obtained demographic information about the societal worker, and their client instance burden, along with their attitudes towards working with other professionals and cognition of the current statutory legislative model for mental wellness societal work appraisals and inter-agency working agreements. In entire, 94 % of respondents defined their cultural position as ‘white’ which may hold limited the representativeness of the findings. The bulk of respondents ( 76 % ) reported that they had information demands with respects to mental unwellness, and the bulk of respondents ( 85 % ) besides reported trouble accessing information that they needed to carry on full appraisals of their clients demands. Furthermore, a bulk ( 70 % ) of respondents felt that they lacked preparation and accomplishments to cover with clients that suffered from terrible mental wellness troubles. Statistical analysis was attempted to research relationships between the variables measured on the questionnaire. For illustration, “Those who said they did non hold the necessary training/ accomplishments were statistically significantly more likely than those who said they did hold the training/ accomplishments to hold wanted information on symptoms, statutory and voluntary services, NHS private infirmaries and mental wellness law” ( p 670 ) . However, because this was a cross-sectional questionnaire study, it is non possible to pull causal illations between variables. Furthermore, the representativeness of the study is unsure because background inside informations on non-respondents were non obtained as portion of the survey.
In decision, questionnaires are an nonsubjective, comparatively economical and rapid method of obtaining information on client and professional attitude, cognition and behavior within societal services. However, as the research surveies included in this paper have shown, there are a figure of methodological troubles associated with questionnaire based studies. In peculiar, response rate can be low which has deductions for the representativeness of research consequences. Furthermore, few societal work questionnaire studies incorporate standardised steps with established cogency and dependability, and the huge bulk of surveies are cross-sectional so causal relationships between variables can non be assessed. Ultimately, questionnaires are one of many research methodological analysiss that can be used within societal services, and mixed-methodology research programmes such as that undertaken by Cleaver and Walker ( 2004 ) present the best option for garnering a holistic and in-depth position of complex societal procedures such as kid protection appraisals.
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