This paper will consider how educational kinesiology
This paper will see how educational kinesiology techniques such as Brain Gym heighten the acquisition and accomplishment of school kids, with particular mention to the educational demands of dyslexic kids. Research surveies that examine the effectivity of educational kinesiology in heightening the academic accomplishment of secondary school students will be critically assessed. Novel and alternate therapies for the intervention of larning troubles have increased in popularity in recent old ages, but are associated with hapless quality research grounds to back up claims of advocates ( Bull, 2002 ) . Novel therapies possibly popular due to limited effectivity of traditional educational intercessions at redress of specific larning troubles ( Fawcett, 2001 ) or increasing learning potency ( Swanson, 1999 ) .
The Dennison Brain Gym theoretical account is a specific movement-based kinesiology system of intercession for school kids. It is based on research screening that specific organic structure motions excite peculiar facets of the encephalon ( Masgutova, 2001 ) . Furthermore, research has shown that certain organic structure motions can help in the decrease of emphasis and facilitate easiness of acquisition ( Irving, 1999 ) . Dennison and Dennison ( 1989 ) have argued that some kids try excessively difficult to larn and stop up exchanging off the brain-integration that is critical for effectual acquisition. In order to rectify this ‘failure syndrome’ , Brain Gym exercisings are claimed to advance whole encephalon acquisition and to enable kids to entree parts of their encephalon that were antecedently unavailable to them. It is hypothesised that obstructions in the nervous webs impede larning ability and that exercisings can convey the organic structure into an incorporate sensory province that leaves the kid unfastened to larning experiences. Brain Gym consists of a figure of perennial exercisings and motions that encourage coordination of eyes, ears, custodies and the organic structure. An illustration of the type of exercising encouraged by Brain Gym practicians is the cross crawl, an exercising that is alleged to assist organize the left and right encephalon hemisphere and convey about a province in the organic structure and encephalon that is helpful for larning to spell, reading, general comprehension, listening and composing activities. The cross crawl exercising involves standing and instead touching the left articulatio genus with the right manus and the right articulatio genus with the left manus in 10 to 15 repeats ( Maguire, 2000 ) . The exercisings are based on cognition of the primary physiological reaction system, and an recognition that there are single differences between students in their attack to acquisition, and that instructors should individualize their instruction methods harmonizing to the demands of their students ( Lewis, 2004 ) . In multiple intelligence theory, the encephalon is seen as comparatively distinct units of cognitive operation and has many analogues to the beliefs of advocates of educational kinesiology ( Gardner and Hatch, 1989 ) . Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory identifies rational operation as neither inactive nor remarkable in entity. Gardner proposes that there are eight separate intelligences such as spacial, interpersonal, lingual, musical and naturalist. His positions have been enthusiastically adopted by some educationists who identify that academic ability can be measured and expressed by students in a assortment of different ways. Alternatively of traditional one-off scrutinies, increasing accent is placed on coursework over clip, usage of rubric hiting systems to measure pupils work and an encouragement of self-reflection by students ( Witcher, 2001 ) .
Dunn ( 1998 ) has conducted a survey of the impact of encephalon gym exercises on the script of five Scots school kids identified as holding hapless script by learning staff. The students were required to follow a class of exercisings such as leaping on a line, throwing a ball into a bin, making cross crawl and other encephalon gym exercisings. The intercession was continued on a day-to-day footing for a period of one month and illustrations of the pupils’ script were obtained before and after the intercession. The kids besides completed a 3 minute text copying exercising before and after intervention and all kids had improved in this trial following the exercising programme. Furthermore, the script of two of the kids was rated as more legible by their instructors following the intercession. Dunn ( 1998 ) argued that normal schoolroom environments depend on activities that demand verbal and analytical intelligence, but when exercisings are implemented into the course of study it encourages the encephalon to utilize a assortment of intelligences including rhythmic and visual-spatial intelligence. This can be particularly of import in design, engineering, mathematics and scientific discipline topics were abstract logical thinking and job resolution are required for academic accomplishment. In another survey, Brown ( 2001 ) has reported on findings where encephalon gym techniques were taught to immature kids every hebdomad and their advancement in reading was monitored. Each take parting schoolroom did 15 proceedingss of Brain Gym exercises each twenty-four hours and the Brain Gym intervention group were observed to hold made twice every bit much advancement in reading as a matched control group. In the Brain Gym group the reading tonss on the Standford 9 trial rose from the 55Thursdaypercentile set to the 89Thursdaypercentile set. In contrast, the control group improved by 0 to 16 percentile points. Parents besides reported betterments in self-esteem, motive towards school assignment and more energy for larning for the kids that had been capable to the Brain Gym intercession. Improvements in reading comprehension and mathematics public presentation have besides been observed by Lewis ( 2004 ) . This survey included a control group of kids that did non have Brain Gym direction as portion of their educational programme. In a systematic reappraisal on enhanced acquisition schemes, Boyes ( 2004 ) notes that there are really few surveies of educational kinesiology within the UK school scene. However, one school based programme reported Brain Gym Sessionss as temper commanding ( Klein, 2000 ) . Furthermore, Wolfsont ( 2002 ) felt that Brain Gym increased participants ain self-awareness of their academic accomplishment while working towards certain marks. The Educational Kinesiology Foundation ( 2003 ) have produced a comprehensive literature reappraisal of Brain Gym surveies on grownups and kids in a assortment of different scenes. However, all the surveies featured in the study produce positive findings in favor of Brain Gym, and none of the surveies used a randomized, controlled test methodological analysis to measure the effectivity of the intervention while commanding for bias factors. Furthermore, research surveies frequently rely on pupil self-reported or teacher self-reported steps of betterment following the execution of Brain Gym methods in the schoolroom. This is unfortunate since merely standardized trials of educational accomplishment can objectively mensurate intervention effects. Lack of psychometric testing are besides failings in surveies by Morris, Sifft and Khalsa ( 1988 ) and Cammisa ( 1994 ) that have non substantiated their claims of Brain Gym-related betterments amongst school kids with dependable trial tonss.
In recent old ages at that place have been a figure of different administrations recommending the used of educational kinesiology, based on primary automatic therapies, in the intervention of larning troubles of school kids. The exercising programs offered by these administrations vary by figure of exercisings, every bit good as continuance and strength of intervention. In the UK, the Primary motion administration, Birmingham and Institute of Neuro-Physiological Psychology, Chester offers information and preparation for parents and instructors in primary physiological reaction exercisings for the intervention of kids with larning troubles. It is suggested that kids with dyslexia retain primary physiological reactions that are motion forms that develop in the uterus to assist the baby to last upon birth and are present up to the age of one twelvemonth. As the cardinal nervous system develops in the normal kid, primary physiological reactions transform as portion of a general version procedure associated with natural development. Reflexs are nonvoluntary reactions and the developing encephalon should suppress or command these physiological reactions in the first twelvemonth of life to let for balance, position and motor accomplishments. Where the physiological reactions persist beyond babyhood, they prevent the kid from deriving complete control over voluntary motions ( Blythe and Hyland, 1988 ) . Blythe ( 2001 ) has studied the primary physiological reactions of 54 dyslexic kids utilizing a series of standardized neurological trials and trials for cerebellar disfunction, kinesiological operation, oculo-motor operation and visual-perceptual public presentation. Abnormal primary physiological reactions were detected in all the kids and Blythe concludes that this is grounds of underlying neurological disfunction that affects the motor and ocular systems of these kids in such a manner as to hinder advancement in reading, composing and learning activities. Over 70 primary physiological reactions have been documented and include the asymmetrical quinine water physiological reaction ( ATNR ) that is normally found amongst immature kids with neurological lesions. The ATNR physiological reaction has an of import function in hand/ oculus coordination. In add-on to kids with terrible neurological and physical upsets, it has been suggested that kids with dyslexia are besides affected by automatic damage ( McPhillips, Hepper and Mulhurn, 2000 ) .
In McPhillips et al’s ( 2000 ) double-blind, randomised controlled test of primary automatic exercising therapy for 60 dyslexic kids ; the advancement of a intervention group, placebo control group and no-treatment control group was monitored over a 12 month period. Children from the intervention group were taught a specific motion programme which replicates the motion of the primary physiological reaction system to find if this would cut down the continuity of primary physiological reactions. In entire, 98 kids were assessed for the presence of the ATNR primary physiological reaction. There was a statistically important diminution in the ATNR physiological reaction amongst kids in the intervention group whereas alterations in the placebo-group and the control group were non statistically important. The intervention group showed a statistically important lessening in their saccadic frequence that was non observed in the other groups. From the Neale reading trial and WORD literacy trial, all groups showed a statistically important betterment over clip in footings of their standardized reading tonss. However, there was a well greater addition in the reading tonss of the intervention group and a statistically important difference between groups where a class of primary automatic therapy had been completed. All groups made statistically important betterments in their spelling tonss over clip but the intervention group kids besides made statistically important betterments in calling velocity. There was no statistically important consequence for the spoonerisms trial for any group, but all groups appeared to hold improved over clip on this trial.
The DDAT ( Dyslexia, Dyspraxia and Attention Deficit Therapy ) is different from the attack by McPhillips and co-workers in that it involves exercisings for the whole organic structure instead than merely the caput, weaponries and cervix. Reynolds, Nicolson and Hambly ( 2002 ) investigated the effectivity of the DDAT therapy through a controlled test with 106 kids. All the kids were go toing the DDAT clinic for larning troubles and were re-tested after six months of intervention on a comprehensive battery of educational and physical-motor trials. Between 60 % and 80 % of the kids were showing cerebellar/ vestibular physiological reaction abnormalcies at the start of the test utilizing the appraisal battery and 70 % of kids were diagnosed as attention-deficit by DSM criterions. There was a considerable lessening in the incidence of cerebellar/ vestibular abnormalcies through the balance, tracking and dyslexia showing trials and these betterments were statistically important. The consequence sizes on the vestibular and cerebellar trials were medium to big and there were besides little to moderate betterments in trials of phonemics, working memory and semantic eloquence amongst the kids. The consequence size for the literacy trials were little, but at that place was a big betterment in the tonss obtained on the dyslexia testing trial. Of the clients utilizing DDAT as portion of the test, 71 % reported a pronounced betterment in concentration degrees, 69 % reported betterments in self-esteem, 69 % reported writing betterments, 51 % reported betterments in spelling and 71 % reported that they found reading easier. Following six months of intervention, there were betterments in the kids in footings of vestibular map and ocular trailing. Despite the encouraging consequences, there were a figure of methodological failings in the survey. In entire, 39 kids were supplied with fatty acerb addendums along with the exercisings so specific intervention effects associated with the exercisings were impossible to decode. Furthermore, some of the kids had been advised to make the exercisings one time per twenty-four hours instead than twice per twenty-four hours so there was deficiency of uniformity in the intervention protocol. Furthermore, there was no control group of comparable kids so non-specific intervention effects could non be monitored.
Although there have been several surveies that have examined the possible function of educational kinesiology in developing the larning potency of kids, there are a figure of serious methodological troubles with the research grounds. Most surveies are published in the Brain Gym Journal that is circulated by advocates of the method, or are merely available through the gray literature. Few educational kinesiology surveies are published in peer-reviewed diaries, and hence research quality can non be guaranteed. Furthermore, most of the research surveies on Brain Gym include comparatively little, unrepresentative kid populations. The deficiency of a control group in many surveies, low statistical power through little sample sizes, deficiency of coverage of consequence sizes and deficiency of randomization or equal psychometric appraisal of kids are major defects in the research grounds to day of the month. However, similar methodological troubles have been identified in conventional educational scheme research surveies ( Swanson, 1999 ) . Peer ( 2004 ) has warned that any rating of fresh therapies must take into consideration the possibility of betterments being the consequence of non-specific intervention effects. Improvements in educational public presentation could be the consequence of outlook of alteration ( the placebo consequence ) , instructors being led to believe that kids will better and therefore looking for betterments ( the Pygmalion consequence ) and the attending factors associated with take parting in research surveies ( The Hawthorne consequence ) . Recently, Fawcett ( 2002 ) has argued that the causes of alteration in non-educational therapies have non been considered, and that the research surveies have non been of sufficient methodological quality to measure the effectivity of specific interventions on larning results. Her remarks are extremely relevant to the survey of Brain Gym educational kinesiology since there is no consensus as to how, if at all, this intercession could work on kids. It has been claimed that Brain Gym is simply psychological conditioning of kids to execute a ritual physical behavior prior to larning and bring forthing a placebo consequence ( Hanaford, 1993 ) . Furthermore, it is possible that any intervention effects are the consequence of increased blood flow from making the exercisings, as opposed to encephalon hemisphere integrating ( Hanaford, 1993 ) . Sylwester ( 2000 ) has besides been critical of the claims about encephalon exercisings incorporating hemispheres and equilibrating the encephalon, but remains unfastened to the possibility that exerting might hold a general positive consequence on kids in larning state of affairss.
In decision, educational kinesiology possibly an effectual technique to heighten student acquisition and accomplishment, peculiarly in course of study topics necessitating all right motor control. Effective instruction schemes in the schoolroom are dependent on grounds based educational research ( Sousa, 1998 ) . However, most of the research surveies on Brain Gym and similar educational kinesiology therapies have suffered from methodological troubles, and have been published or sponsored by the advocates of the method. Most surveies involve primary school kids, and have measured betterments in basic accomplishments such as literacy or numeracy as a effect of utilizing fresh intercessions, as opposed to curriculum-subject based results. A few research surveies of educational kinesiology methods based on primary automatic theories have been published in peer-reviewed diaries. These surveies have been of higher methodological quality, and have besides been associated with betterments in the reading and larning results of kids with larning troubles. This would propose that educational kinesiology could be a utile tool within the schoolroom. However, farther research is required to research how educational kinesiology promotes betterments in kids, and to except non-specific intervention effects through randomised controlled tests of the methods.
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