This is a critical review of Shahab, L


An probe about smoking behavior amongst Muslim work forces who live in the UK and how Islam views smoking behavior.

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Dissertation Submitted for the MSc in Health Psychology


Thames Valley University


( Insert name here )


Smoking poses a important wellness hazard globally, and represents a major drain on healthcare resources. Despite public wellness policies, alterations in the jurisprudence, and aggressive wellness publicity runs, smoking rates are worsening merely easy, and are really increasing in some sectors of UK society. This thesis explores smoking behavior and the effects of Islamic religion on smoking within a group of Muslim work forces populating in the UK. The stenosiss and Torahs of Islam reference issues related to smoking, such that in recent readings of Holy texts, smoke is viewed as haram ( out ) . However, the nature of Muslim men’s societal interactions mean that smoking signifiers portion of their societal and even personal individualities as males.

A qualitative research design, using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, was used to research the implicit in significances and significance of smoking behavior and spiritual religion in a purposive sample of five Mulsim work forces in the UK. Results indicate that such work forces struggle with feelings of guilt and shame, some of which are related to their religion and religionism, but that societal infinites support smoke behavior. Islamic instructions indicate that smoke may be against the religion due to the injury it does to persons, those around them, and to society. This may stand for a motivation factor to assist Muslim work forces stop smoke. The research besides supports positions already found in the literature that anti-smoking runs and smoking surcease programmes should be tailored to run into the specific demands of societal sub-groups.Table of Contentss




Literature Review7



Discussion and Conclusion.33.



Smoke is recognised as one of the most important wellness jobs confronting the planetary population [ 1 ] , [ 2 ] . Although frequently viewed as a job of developed states, smoke has spread across the full universe as a societal behavior which quickly becomes a physical dependence. Smoking airss important hazards to wellness, being linked to significantly increased hazard of developing cardiovascular disease, a broad scope of malignant neoplastic diseases, lung diseases and other upsets. Smoking during gestation affects foetal growing and development, and smoke in gestation and around kids appears to increase the incidence of a broad scope of childhood disease and to ongoing growing deceleration.

Developing effectual smoke surcease runs, and wellness publicity runs to cut down the incidence of smoke by forestalling people from taking up smoke, would lend to a important decrease in smoking-related disease, and would therefore greatly cut down the demands on wellness and societal attention resources, in the short term, and in the longer term. Such runs nevertheless need to be targeted specifically to turn to smoke behaviors in distinct societal groups, as these sorts of targeted intercessions, particularly those which use motive theories, have been shown to be among the most effectual attacks to smoking surcease and wellness publicity.

This thesis addresses smoking behavior and surcease in one such distinct societal group, that of Muslim work forces within the UK societal scene. The Muslim religion, or Islam, is a monotheistic faith based on the life and instructions of the Prophet Mohamed ( peace be upon him ) , and sets out a figure of guidelines for Muslim people to follow in footings of what is right and lawful and what is non allowed or tabu. However, because the faith emerged many 100s of old ages before smoke became prevailing as a accustomed behavior, there are no specific instructions in the two beginnings of sanctum writ, the Koran and the Hadith, which address smoking. There are, nevertheless, stenosiss and counsel which can be said to straight refer to smoking behavior, runing from those related to the fact that smoking causes unwellness and decease, to those associating to substances which produce bad smells. Some of these instructions will be explored during the thesis. Muslim work forces normally have a really strong personal and cultural individuality, and Arab societies are really societal and work forces socialise together most of the clip. Smoking as a societal wont is of some significance so, within such societal groups.

The intent of the essay is to look into smoking behavior in Muslim work forces in the UK, using a qualitative attack to derive penetration into the implicit in ‘reasons’ for smoking behavior, the factors which influenced them to get down smoke, and the constructs associated with the behavior and which might lend to motivation to discontinue. Because the mark group is specifically that of Muslim work forces, the thesis will besides research how Islam positions smoking. The sample is limited to Muslim work forces as the societal lives and functions of work forces and adult females in Islam are really different, and smoke behaviors are besides well distant. Therefore, this survey will concentrate on the male position. The purpose of this undertaking is to look into smoking behavior among Muslim work forces in UK and how Islam views smoke, in relation to motive amongst Muslim work forces to discontinue smoke. Surveies shows that smoke is high among Muslim work forces in comparing to other cultural groups in UK and the Western World [ 3 ] . Understanding these factors should assist to better program, design and implement smoke surcease and bar runs.

Literature Review

A literature reappraisal was carried out to contextualise the research and inform the research design and the treatment of findings, in line with the criterions expected of graduate student research [ 4 ] . This literature reappraisal can impact the quality of the survey, because it non merely helps the research worker to derive a better apprehension of the topic, the field and the context, but besides what are the most of import or topical issues within the field [ 5 ] . However, transporting out a literature reappraisal on this subject was really complex, as the literature was derived from the Fieldss of psychological science, wellness, societal scientific discipline, faith, civilization and others. Knopf [ 6 ] underlines the importance non merely of placing the theoretical context, but of guaranting the reappraisal of the literature is critical and comprehensive, proposing that a reappraisal should both “concisely sum up the findings or claims that have emerged from anterior research attempts on a subject” ; and “s reach a decision about how accurate and complete that cognition is” . This literature reappraisal attempts to take a critical stance on certain cardinal elements of the literature which inform the survey, such as certain surveies about motive and other factors which affect smoking behavior in Muslim work forces, whilst besides summarizing the theories which inform the survey.

It has been suggested that baccy usage, in whatever signifier, can be seen as the primary preventable hazard to wellness globally, due to the important Numberss of persons who engage in this behavior [ 7 ] . “Between 80,000 and 100,000 kids start smoking every twenty-four hours, and grounds shows that about 50 % of those…will go on to smoke for 15 to 20 years” [ 8 ] .

While there are a scope of differences in different populations, societal groups and cultural groups, there is grounds that smoking rates are high among Muslim communities, and as a fifth of the world’s population is Muslim, this poses a signifant wellness hazard, particularly in Muslim work forces [ 9 ]

Cigarette smoke became mostly popular among work forces in the first half of the century in Western states. In the 1920s and 1930s coffin nail smoke was doubled and reached to 67 % in the 1940s and 1950s [ 10 ] . Wald et al [ 11 ] suggest that in 1940s-1950s coffin nail ingestion among males reached 80 % in Britain. Harmonizing to the World Health Organization [ 12 ] 47 % of them were males and 12 % were females. Additionally, in developed states smoking amongst males reached 42 % and 24 % amongst females. However the same beginning has estimated about 48 % of male and 7 % of female smoked in developing states [ 13 ] .Although the prevalence of smoking amongst males dropped from 70-90 % to 30-50 % in 1950s to 1990s, the decrease amongst females was merely approximately 20-40 % in 1990s [ 14 ] .

The consequence of smoking on wellness has been studied for over 100 old ages and the grounds shows that every individual organ in our organic structure is deleteriously influenced by smoking [ 15 ] . For illustration Doll and Hill [ 16 ] have linked smoke with malignant neoplastic disease and surveies show that the hazard of deceasing from lung malignant neoplastic disease is at least 22 times higher amongst work forces who smoke and 12 times higher between females in comparing to non-smoking adult females. Cigarette smoking putting to deaths about 440,000 people a twelvemonth in US and about 120.000 people in the UK, which means that about every 1 in 5 deceases is related to smoking [ 17 ]

In add-on Shahad, et al [ 18 ] suggested that smoking putting to deaths over 4.9 million people every twelvemonth across the universe and harmonizing to the World Health Organization [ 19 ] smoke is considered to be one of the highest factors impacting negatively on public wellness in today’s society.

The USA Public Health Service [ 20 ] showed that the population of people who were smoking and quit increased from 30 % in 1965 to 45 % in 1987. However, this advancement has been slowed down in the 1990s [ 21 ] . Furthermore, surveies have shown that less use/intake of nicotine due to surcease of smoke by regular tobacco users may make a figure of symptoms like crossness, deficiency of concentration, anxiousness, restless, depression, increased hungriness, and hungering for baccy. [ 22 ] This makes smoking surcease programmes inherently disputing and hard. However, these findings have helped in developing a figure of pharmacologic merchandises aimed to help smoking surcease and these techniques work by giving nicotine straight instead than through coffin nail smoke [ 23 ] . However, these merchandises are no cure-all and there are other factors which strongly affect smoke behavior which must be explored farther. One such issue is the of import issue of motive, either motive to get down or go on smoke, or, more significantly, motive to discontinue smoke. A figure of attacks show that increasing motive to discontinue smoke might positively heighten surcease behavior and care of a non-smoking life style [ 24 ] ,

Shahad et al [ 25 ] carried out a survey to measure the consequence of ocular individualized biomarker feedback on purpose to discontinue smoke and to measure possible underlying causal tracts. The writers used PMT ( protection motive theory ) in their survey to actuate smoke surcease, and hypothesised that demoing Cardiovascular Disease out patients images of their damaged arterias ( due to smoking ) would be probably to increase the menace perceptual experiences such as perceptual experiences of susceptibleness and badness, therefore supplying patients with information that creates a nexus between smoking and CVD increases response efficaciousness [ 26 ] .In add-on, demoing CVD out patients who smoke images of their damaged arterias increases the purpose to halt smoke, peculiarly tobacco users with high degree of self-efficacy, and demoing CVD out patients who smoke, images of their damaged arterias motivates them to prosecute in smoking surcease behavior [ 27 ] . This may so inform what is known about motive and healthy life style picks, although in the instance of smoking it is hard because of the chemical dependence associated with the wont, which earnestly augments the psychological dependence.

However, harmonizing to Rogers [ 28 ] who developed the PMT, protection motive theory has five constituents such as badness ( illness like malignant neoplastic disease ) , susceptibleness ( fright of holding a high hazard of acquiring malignant neoplastic disease ) , response effectivity ( better my diet would better my wellness ) , self-efficacy ( feeling confident about yourself that you can alter your diet ) and fright ( include any emotional response ) . All of these factors may be important in relation to motive to halt smoke. PMT theoreticians besides argue that there are two different types of information which influence these constituents ; one is environmental, such as verbal persuasion and observation acquisition which leads to an adaptative copying, and the other type is interpersonal, like anterior experience ( behaviour purpose ) or a maladaptive ( copying response ) such as turning away and denial [ 29 ] . This would propose that the behaviors of others within societal and peer groups could hold a important consequence on the smoke behavior of persons. Therefore, smoking and wellness publicity behaviors which dominate Muslim societal infinites would be probably to significantly impact how other males behave or how they believe they should act [ 30 ] .

In contrast, Lerathal et al [ 31 ] argue that stating people that they are at hazard of developing an unwellness is largely sufficient to alter their behavior. Furthermore, other surveies have suggested that socioeconomic and educational differences in smoking apprehension are of import factors which influence smoking behavior, which is important for wellness publicity and intercessions to promote smoking surcease [ 32 ] . Any schemes or programmes aimed at specific socio-cultural groups would make good to turn to these issues every bit good, and any survey which explores smoking behaviors in a mark population should

In add-on, Etter [ 33 ] argues that most tobacco users are non ready for alteration because they are in pre-contemplation or contemplation phases and merely 20 % are in the readying phase. However, most of the smoke surcease programmes have been criticised for being orientated towards the 20 % which were in the readying phase. Therefore, most smoking surcease programmes would non aim successfully the other 80 % who are in earlier phases [ 34 ] . Shahad et al [ 35 ] found that feedback increased the cardiovascular out-patients’ consciousness of smoking related hazards and a higher susceptibleness was reported with patients who received individualized biomarker feedback visualizing the injury caused by smoking. This is related to motive theories [ 36 ] .

However, this survey besides found that patients ( participants ) in the intercession group scored a higher mean in purpose to discontinue smoke and were more involved in smoking surcease behavior ( stop smoke and reaching quit smoke service ) [ 37 ] . Harmonizing to Shahab et Al ( 2007 ) , tobacco users who had higher self-efficacy were more likely to discontinue smoke. The intercession had a important consequence on their purpose to halt smoke and this is supported by the survey reported Bishop et al [ 38 ] and the anticipation of EPPM which argued that menace perceptual experience additions when CVD patients are shown images of their ain arterias. This could be considered to be of some significance in relation to be aftering smoking surcease intercessions, but in peculiar, to aiming these intercessions to specific groups.

Other findings of this survey suggests that tobacco users with high self-efficacy bit by bit become involved in danger control processes and get down to hold with the wellness warnings by increasing their purpose to discontinue smoke, while participants with lower self-efficacy demonstrated a lower purpose to discontinue smoking [ 39 ]

However, in the original theory of self-efficacy developed by Bandura [ 40 ] , [ 41 ] he besides had differentiated between two types of outlook out comes, outlook result and self-efficacy. Outcome outlook is the belief that peculiar behavior will take to a certain result and self- efficaciousness is the belief that one can successfully execute these behaviors to bring forth the result. He besides suggested that self-efficacy outlook had more powerful consequence of behavior altering than the result outlooks and past public presentation [ 42 ] . Similarly, ( Schwarzer and Fuchs, 1995 ) suggested that a positive out come outlook increases the determination to alter behavior. Therefore, the outlooks of ability to quit are besides of import factors. Researching Muslim males’ outlooks and beliefs around smoke and smoke surcease might reenforce such findings, or might contradict them. This is one justification for the qualitative attack taken in this thesis, the ability to research the lingual symbols, markers and significances of the group under observation,

Although Shahab et Al ( 2007 ) show a good instance for their attack, there are some failings in this survey, such as little sample sizes. The consequence sizes are of import for possible effectivity of the intercession hence, larger survey samples are recommended for farther exploratory grounds in this country. Furthermore, abruptly follow up periods of 4 hebdomads may besides bespeak alteration in behavior towards smoke. For illustration, discontinuing smoking despite the fact that longer follow up periods may besides bespeak alterations in smoke position ( France et al, 2001 ) .

In add-on, the scan consequences showed two normal consequences for two participants in the intercession group and that may hold had an impact on the intercession consequence [ 43 ] . Furthermore, the demographic and baseline features of the samples indicate that the bulk of the outpatients were older with no formal instruction which may hold besides influenced their smoke behavior which is of import for wellness publicity and intercession to reenforce smoking surcease [ 44 ] . As mentioned before in this reappraisal [ 45 ] argues that socioeconomic and instruction differences in smoke can act upon smoking behavior.

The survey by Shahad et al [ 46 ] provided preliminary cogent evidence for the possible effectivity of individualized biomarker feedback to increase purpose to discontinue smoke. There are some failings as mentioned antecedently, such as little sample size, the short follow up period and the two outpatients in the intercession group which had normal scan consequences, along with the similar background of no formal instruction and their adulthood in age. All together, these factors may hold influenced the intercession consequences. Overall, the consequences from this survey have great potency in assisting future research which is needed in countries where smoking intercession demands to develop to affect processs that help to increase smokers’ self-efficacy degrees in order to make the optimum consequences required. Other surveies have identified self-esteem as an of import factor impacting baccy usage [ 47 ] , an issue which is closely related to self-efficacy.

It is of import to see non merely self efficaciousness but other factors impacting motive.

Research about intoxicant ingestion in immature work forces, for illustration, can cast visible radiation on these sorts of societal behaviors, and suggests that for immature work forces in peculiar, alcohol ingestion can be straight related to beliefs about maleness and behavior which support men’s masculine individualities [ 48 ] . One survey of a diverse cultural sample of work forces in London found a scope of associations between maleness, male individuality and intoxicant ingestion behaviors, with intoxicant ingestion sometimes counterbalancing for a deficiency of competency in other behavioral spheres [ 49 ] . While immature Muslim work forces are less likely to imbibe than those from other faiths and civilizations, they are more likely to imbibe intoxicant if their equals are making so [ 50 ] . The significance of maleness as impacting health-related behavior should non be overlooked, and it is argued that non adequate is known about how masculine political orientations affect work forces in different contexts [ 51 ] . Although De Visser’s [ 52 ] survey about intoxicant usage relates straight to the survey sample chosen for this research, intoxicant is a different issue for the Muslim person than smoke, because there is a clear prohibition against intoxicant ingestion within Muslim philosophy. However, it does offer of import information about societal contexts and wellness behavior, and other authors have drawn the analogues between baccy and intoxicant usage. There does look to be a complementary relationship between smoke and imbibing, which derives from psychological and societal degrees, and this relationship should be taken into history when sing smoking behavior [ 53 ] , [ 54 ] .

With specific mention to Muslim faith and cultural/social contexts, it is of import to include in this reappraisal smoke behavior which are culturally connected with immature Muslim work forces, peculiarly those of Middle-Eastern and North African beginning: smoking the H2O pipe [ 55 ] , [ 56 ] , [ 57 ] . This is a procedure of smoking baccy through a hookah, besides known as a hooka, hookah or hubbly bubbly [ 58 ] . This is a really popular societal activity for work forces in states which are preponderantly Arabic and/or Muslim, and makes people experience relaxed and sociable, and is believed non to hold any harmful effects [ 59 ] , [ 60 ] , [ 61 ] . There is grounds that H2O pipe smoke is increasing in popularity and that wherever Arabic work forces live or migrate to, the pattern of smoking the ‘hubbly bubbly’ follows [ 62 ] , [ 63 ] . There is besides research to propose that the societal activity of smoking the H2O pipe leads to work forces sharing it with their married womans, friends, and even kids [ 64 ] , [ 65 ] . The usage of this sort of smoke is besides associated with increased rates of coffin nail smoke, and coffin nail smoke may be viewed in a similar manner [ 66 ] .

The fact that smoking appears to be linked with Arabic societal behavior as an recognized norm is worrying for wellness publicity programmes, peculiarly as parents influence their children’s baccy usage behavior and to increase their incidence and rates of smoking [ 67 ] , [ 68 ]

This literature reappraisal demonstrates that in the current field of wellness psychological science, there is sufficient grounds that baccy usage amongst Muslim work forces is non merely a important wellness publicity issue, but that motive to discontinue smoke, or to non take up smoke in the first topographic point, is mediated by a figure of factors, including societal, cultural, personal, environmental and self-image factors. Masculinity, which is rather strongly differentiated within Muslim communities, may be linked to smoking behavior, but besides, the traditional pattern of sheesha smoke may be a strong influence on smoke behaviors and motive to discontinue.

The following chapter of this thesis addresses the chosen methodological analysis which underlies and frames this probe.


The pick of methodological attack was constrained by the restrictions in the resources available to the research worker. As a Masters’ research undertaking, the writer was cognizant that it would affect a limited timescale, and as the author’s country of greatest involvement was in the specific significances environing smoking behavior for Muslim work forces in the UK, a qualitative attack was decided upon. While a quantitative attack would be optimum in footings of supplying grounds to alter wellness publicity or psychological therapy patterns, the purpose of this research is to supply penetration into the implicit in significances which might impact motive to alter smoking behavior in the mark group. Quantitative attacks, based on scientific political orientations, could assist research workers place from big samples and survey populations how frequently certain behaviors, beliefs or associations occur, or to look at Numberss of responses to statistics-oriented inquiries [ 69 ] . A assorted methods attack might be utile, because such attacks can include the rich qualitative informations which allows the research worker to do a elaborate scrutiny of participants’ feelings, behaviors and motives ( for illustration ) , whilst besides taking advantage of the usage of statistical informations [ 70 ] , [ 71 ] . However, the restrictions of an academic survey such as this would non let for a sufficient sample size to follow a assorted methods attack. Experimental attacks would besides non be suited, non would action research, because this is non practice-based research [ 72 ] , [ 73 ] . This consideration of the pick of methodological analysis reflects the literature which shows that methodological pick is neither straightforward or easy [ 74 ] .

One of the considerations of methodological analysis which is more pertinent to this research is that of the comparative virtue of qualitative research when performed for a Maestro of Science. In the wider scientific field, descriptive and qualitative research is normally viewed as of less cogency, and comparatively hapless quality, than quantitative, scientific research [ 75 ] , [ 76 ] , [ 77 ] . Scientific research is viewed as being of the highest criterion for developing grounds for health care and psychological science pattern. However, despite this, there is a turning consciousness that within practician Fieldss, such as wellness psychological science, scientific attacks, whilst non ever being practical, besides can non reply all of the inquiries that are related to human behaviors and the implicit in significances of their actions, beliefs or motives [ 78 ] . The “positivist, measurement-oriented, and lawful from of scientific method is unsuitable for probes of the emergent and constructional facets of knowing human societal behaviour” [ 79 ]

Therefore, the pick of a qualitative attack was motivated by both practical issues, such as resources and direction of informations and enlisting of sample [ 80 ] , and by the research inquiry which required an exploratory, inductive attack [ 81 ] . However, this research worker believed, as do many research workers, that every bit long as a methodological attack was adhered to strictly, the qualitative attack would supply a survey of sufficiently high quality to be suited for purpose [ 82 ] .

IPA follows an inductive procedure, mirroring the inductive logical thinking which takes the informations and analyses this through geographic expedition or observation to develop theories and hypothesis pertinent to the research inquiry [ 83 ] , instead than proving hypotheses as scientific attacks do [ 84 ] . IPA besides mimics other types of qualitative research in that the procedures of aggregation, analysis and extrapolation of informations are more closely associated with each other [ 85 ] , [ 86 ] .

Within the qualitative paradigm, nevertheless, it is argued that there are plentifulness of schemes to guarantee research workers can cut down or forestall prejudice and increase the pertinence and quality of their research, through all phases of the research procedure [ 87 ] . These include utilizing structured attacks to reading of qualitative informations, which provides a form to the analysis procedure and besides allows for transparence and possible reproduction, and besides aid with auditability of the undertaking, which adds to rigour and quality [ 88 ] . The design ( discussed below ) aimed to let the research worker to research the existent and deep significances of the responses provided by the participants to identify unfastened inquiries [ 89 ] .


This undertaking was designed utilizing a qualitative attack using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis ( IPA ) , which seeks to understand life experiences and the significance that persons place on those experiences [ 90 ] . It is of import to observe that IPA does non prove a hypothesis but relies on participants being experts in their field [ 91 ] . In conformity with IPA guidelines [ 92 ] , research for this survey was conducted utilizing semi-structured interviews which were taped, transcribed and “subjected to detailed qualitative analysis” in order to arouse subjects, which besides lends itself to hermeneutics.

The sample was a purposive convenience sample, consistent with the research methodological analysis [ 93 ] . Most qualitative attacks support the usage of purposive samples, non merely because it means that the research worker can derive easier entree to the sample [ 94 ] , [ 95 ] , but besides, because it means that the research worker does non hold to try to place and enroll a sample of a size big plenty to stand for a survey population [ 96 ] . However, it is of import to give clear inclusion and exclusion standards and to adhere to these purely [ 97 ] , [ 98 ] . The key in research such as this is to guarantee a good tantrum between the research, its context, and the sample, so that the sample will supply the right sorts of informations for the survey [ 99 ] , [ 100 ] .

Five participants were interviewed by the research worker ; all the participants were male from Muslim community and background life in western society. These participants have different ages ( all participants would be above 18 old ages of age ) , have different instruction degrees, have different businesss, and have different matrimonial statues.

This survey included participants who were all present tobacco users and who smoke at least 15 to 20 coffin nails a hebdomad. The exclusion standard for this sample of this survey will be people who are non tobacco users, non males, non Muslims and who are under 18 old ages old.

The entree to these participants was through friends, neighbors, and relations. These participants were interviewed in a safe and healthy environment such as public topographic points ( coffee-shops ) . A clear account were given ( to participants ) that this survey is conducted as a demand for the thesis of the MSc in Health Psychology. An information sheet and consent signifier was provided and the participants were given clip to read and reexamine this information. Participants were told that their informations would be treated with full confidentiality, anonymised at point of aggregation, and stored firmly in line with the demands of the Data Protection Act. Written consent for engagement was obtained and participants were debriefed when was necessary, offering ample chance for treatment of any hard issues. Ethical blessing was gained through the researcher’s educational establishment moralss commission. Interviews were arranged at a locale convenient for the participants, and were arranged at times which suited them.


Materials used for the research survey included a printed press release of the inquiries for the research worker to guarantee the same inquiries were asked in the same order and in the same manner to each participant to forestall research worker prejudice [ 101 ] . Similarly, a tape recording equipment was used for each interview, with consent. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed by the research worker. Direct written text was carried out.


Following the initial choice of participants, assignments for face-to-face interviewers were apparatus between the research worker and each participant. Each participant was informed of the intent of the research survey and participant permission was obtained prior to each interview for taping. Interviews were subsequent transcribed. Following the written text, in conformity with IPA methodological analysis, explorative codifications and subjects were identified. Each participant was assured namelessness would be maintained.

Following the IPA ( interpretive Phenomenological Analysis )

design scheme, participants engaged in a 30-minute interview consisting of 10 open-ended inquiries.

1-How do you experience about being a tobacco user?

2-what is there about your smoke that other might see as grounds for concern?

3-Tell me what you know about the side effects that smoke has on you?

4-I admiration, how of import are these effects to you?

5-What is your biggest concern about your smoking behavior?

6-Tell me if you want to halt smoke, how would you travel about it?

7- What concerns do you hold about doing alterations ( halt smoke ) ?

8- Are there any facets of your place life that make it hard for you to smoke?

9- Some Muslims think that they should non smoke because of their spiritual belief ; what do you believe?

As Muslims how do you believe the undermentioned statements might associate to smoking?

A-The Quran says “Nor putting to death or destroy yourselves for verily God hath been to you most merciful.” ( 4:29 ) .

B-“Do non do your ain destruction” ( Al-Baqarah: 195 ) .

C- The prophesier Mohammed ( peace be upon him ) has said “nor be hurt or injure others.” ( Hadith ) .

10-If you decided to halt smoke, what do you believe would work for you?

The design varied somewhat from authoritative IPA ( interpretive Phenomenological Analysis construction. Harmonizing to Finaly ( n.d. ) research workers are to inquire the most outstanding, open-ended inquiry associating to the subject foremost. In this instance background information was obtained before diging into the issue of smoking. It was believed that, given the sensitive, emotional and extremely personal nature of the capable affair and the deficiency of this researcher’s anterior personal cognition or experience with each participant, several background inquiries might profit the participants by supplying an chance to ease into the subject. Interviews were conducted in a friendly and safe environment [ 102 ] , [ 103 ] .


Following the procedure of IPA, the following subjects emerged from the interviews:experiencing guilty, feeling shame, self efficaciousness, self esteem, motive, anxiousness, and fright.Each of these subjects will be discussed below.

Feeling Guilty and Feeling Shame

These two subjects were merged together, as the content was found to be really similar and the two constructs were frequently linked within the informations. Guilt was linked to a figure of issues, such as the guilt for the injury they might do, to themselves, and to those around them.

“I hatred smoke. It is really expensive, really bad for my organic structure, effects others around me who should non be subjected to such a wellness jeopardy. It is an dependence. I know It’s non good for me” ( 5 ) .

“When I am with people I ever seek to travel out to smoke because I feel I may upset them as most people presents do non like smoking. Most of the people are cognizant of the side consequence of smoking on their wellness therefore I do non desire to do any uncomfortableness for any one because of my enjoyment. When I am in other people’s house I ever ask before I smoke and do out of the house. I understand that smoke is bad and non tobacco users avoid inactive smoking.” ( 1 ) .

“I am non proud of being a smoker” ( 4 )

“I know It’s non good for me, but I have non truly thought about discontinuing. I have cut down at times, and returned to smoking my normal, one a battalion a twenty-four hours. It makes my breath odor, and I am really clean as individual, so when my fabrics or mouth start to odor of it, I truly don’t like” ( 5 ) .

“Firstly, it is a tabu for immature adult male to smoke in my community, so this is a concealed factor, secondly, it is a bad dependence, thirdly it causes sterility, malignant neoplastic disease, skin aging and many other negative side effects every bit good as being really expensive” .( 5 ) .

“This transition is really strong and makes me truly think about the issue of smoking. It makes me experience like I am being thankless to my Godhead because I am non appreciating what he has given me. It makes me experience bad about smoking” ( 5 ) .

There is besides some indicant that intoxicant usage and smoke are associated behaviors, and there is built-in shame in some of the statements about this:

I was non smoking when I was in my state Afghanistan but when I came to this state in 1992, I started smoking. My friends were smoking so I started to smoke with them, I smoke merely when I drink intoxicant. I drink a few times a hebdomad and I smoke 7 to8 coffin nails each clip I drink intoxicant. I ever blame one of my best friends for seting me on smoke ; I am non really lament on smoking unless I am imbibing alcohol.” ( 2 ) .

“Every clip I drink intoxicant and fume coffin nails I feel really bad and I ever blame my ego for making it. I feel shame of myself because each clip I promise myself non to make, but every bit shortly as I start imbibing intoxicant I start smoking coffin nail with it” ( 2 )

I am non a rigorous Muslim and likely that is why I do imbibing intoxicant every bit good as I smoke coffin nail. I do experience guilty and guilty towards my God and Prophet ; I know I am non making what I supposed to do.” ( 2 ) .


Issues of self-efficacy appear to be of import for these participants.

“Self finding, strength and belief in the positive effects and advantages of quitting.” ( 5 ) .

“I am a really determined and strong individual, if I rally and genuinely wanted to halt smoke I could make it. But I do non desire to.” ( 4 ) .

“I think if I want to halt I could make it myself without anybody’s help.” ( 1 ) .

However, the antonym is besides an issue, in that a deficiency of self-efficacy may be set uping participants’ positions on smoking surcease:

“It is really hard to halt ; specially I drink and smoke in the same clip I feel it is even harder to discontinue smoking coffin nail or intoxicant. I understand what I am making is impacting my wellness and body.” ( 2 ) .

“It is traveling to really hard for me to halt smoke coffin nail because I smoke and drink intoxicant in the same clip. I ne’er tried to discontinue smoke before but I feel I am non addicted and if I take it earnestly I could be able to discontinue smoking coffin nail with out any problems” ( 2 ) .


“Most significantly a wholly different mentality on myself, on life and on how God, or Islam perceives smoking.” ( 5 ) .

It might be that self-esteem and in peculiar, the spiritual elements of self-concept and regard may be important in relation to these men’s smoking wonts. Maleness for these work forces is associated with these issues.

“I am the adult male in the house and I am the 1 who is responsible hence I do non hold any one that interfering in to what I do.” ( 2 ) .

Negative self-prides besides may be associated with smoke:

“I have other concern about smoking coffin nail such as the consequence on my sexual activity, holding bad breath, xanthous dentition, xanthous fingers and I truly detest when people smell bad because of smoke coffin nails, they truly put me off no affair how attractive they look.” ( 1 ) .


Wagess based motive seems to be something that participants believed would assist them to win in halting smoke:

“But I think instead than believing about my concerns when I take that measure, as alteration is something worlds ne’er like, we like stableness and acquire usage to routine, I would believe about the positive facet of discontinuing and all the good things that will come out of it.” ( 5 ) .

“I am non certain because I ne’er thought of halting smoking coffin nail, likely beliefs, motive, and to be truly convinces that smoking coffin nail is damaging you may work with me.” ( 3 ) .

However, contrary to some of the literature cited in the literature reappraisal above, non all participants cited an consciousness of the hazards and effects of smoking as something that would actuate them to halt:

“I have considered these effects but when I want to smoke, I don’t truly think about it so. I suppose I have accepted smoke as one of bad wonts. I know that the enjoyment of smoke is impermanent which may do me to confront major effects at a ulterior phase in life.” ( 4 )

“I know smoking coffin nail is bad for wellness and may do tonss of diseases. Peoples may acquire malignant neoplastic disease from smoking coffin nail and bosom onslaughts. It gives bad odor, coughing, take a breathing jobs, and makes some unwellnesss even worse such as asthma, malignant neoplastic disease, and diabetes. Smoking coffin nail is bad for tegument and do our dentitions yellow. Smoking coffin nail is shortening our unrecorded span.” ( 3 ) .

Other household members may actuate participants to discontinue:

When I am surrounded by people I feel really comfy that I don’t need to smoke hence I truly think when my bride-to-be come I will be able to halt for ever.” ( 1 )

However, for others, societal lives and household lives had the opposite consequence, and most decidedly did non actuate them to desire to halt smoke:

I know smoking is bad for wellness, but my girlfriend and I both smoke to a great extent. We live together so we truly do non hold a job with smoke at place Nice and peacefully. However most of my friends smoking excessively and when we gather together we do non hold issue about smoking cigarette.” ( 3 ) .

Religion besides appears to be a motivative factor, because despite the ambiguity and on-going argument about Islam’s stance on smoke, there is a strong statement that it would be forbidden.

“although the Quran has non specifically stated that Smoking is HARAM prohibited, if one interprets these poetries inline with the disadvantages of smoke, so it should be forbidden to smoke in Islam” ( 5 ) .

Faith surely seems linked to increasing motivational factors sufficiently to convey about behaviour alteration:

“I have to hold stronger belief of my faith to assist me halt smoke coffin nail and imbibing alcohol.” ( 2 )

Ramadan, the Islamic holy month during which a daytime fast is observed ( which includes turning away of sexual intercourse and smoke ) , appears to offer a strong motivation influence for smoking surcease:

Therefore, speaking about it in such deepness has been the first measure to realization, and I am inexorable that when the Holy month of Ramadan begins I shall ne’er smoke a existent coffin nail again.” ( 5 ) .

To me it means that God has given us the gift of life and wellness, so we truly should make our best to look after ourselves.” ( 4 ) .

As Muslim I do belief that we should non smoke because we are non allowed to smoke. Our faith says that we as Muslim should non imbibe intoxicant every bit good as smoking coffin nail and drugs. I understand that there are non direct grounds in Quran to state no to smoking but I have been to so many Islamic talks after the Friday supplications when they explained how Islam non leting smoking coffin nail. However there is non doubt what of all time says in Quran is for a good grounds and it is for the benefit of human being” ( 2 ) .

However, for others, they found no struggle between their Muslim religion and beliefs, and their smoke wont:

“I do non truly belief that smoking coffin nail is against my faith ( Islam ) .” ( 1 ) .

“I belief God is great and I will be all right, ” ( 3 )

As Muslim I ne’er heard that smoking coffin nail is no allowed in Islam, I do non belief that Islam says no to smoking.” ( 3 ) .

Anxiety and Fear.

Some anxiousnesss around smoking are related to the effects of backdown.

“I will go less patient, more temperamental, I will likely desire to eat more so I am disquieted about seting on weight” ( 5 )

“When I am under tonss of force per unit area I feel smoking is the lone solution for my jobs and smoke helps me to loosen up. I feel smoking coffin nail will minimise the force per unit area and assist me to screen out my jobs ; I know I am incorrect but that is what I feel. I tried to halt smoke coffin nail more that three times for months but when I see people smoking around me I started again” ( 1 ) .

Other anxiousnesss centre around whether the individual would be able to keep their healthy life style.

“Even after giving up, I may get down smoking again.” ( 4 )

However, some participants displayed unusually small existent apprehension of or fright of the wellness effects of smoke:

By and large talking I feel lucky so fare that I do non endure from anything that smoking coffin nail can do such as bosom diseases or malignant neoplastic disease. I am ever seeking to cut down the figure of coffin nails that I smoke and I feel I am in control of my smoke frequenter. At present I don’t experience the side consequence of the smoke on my wellness and when I am with people or busy with work I don’t feel smoke. I don’t cognize what is traveling to go on in the hereafter but I should be all right because I watch my smoke by non leting smoking more than 8 coffin nails a twenty-four hours or less” ( 1 ) .

Others were really cognizant of the hazards associated with the disease and displayed a some fright of the future effects of their current wont:

“I know smoking can dramatically diminish your opportunities of life thirster, smoking coffin nail can damage your organic structure, increase your blood force per unit area, addition opportunity of holding bosom onslaught, effects your sense of gustatory sensation and odor, will consequence your external respiration, effects your circulation, and opportunities of holding lung malignant neoplastic disease and bosom attack.” ( 2 ) .

“My existent concern is my wellness, my male parent has died from malignant neoplastic disease so I am so frightened of acquiring malignant neoplastic disease or dice from it. I witnessed how my male parent was enduring from the hurting of malignant neoplastic disease and what malignant neoplastic disease can do and make to people.” ( 2 ) .

Discussion and Decision

It is obvious from the informations that cultural, racial and spiritual heritage has some bearing on the smoke beliefs, self-esteem, self-efficacy and other associations which surround smoke behavior for the survey sample. This is nil new, in fact, the links between these constructs and thoughts such as maleness and coevalss besides have some significance [ 104 ] . Few of the participants made mention to older coevalss, but there was some consciousness of a difference between how they viewed themselves and their behaviors and motives and how possibly older members of the Muslim communities might see them [ 105 ] . Motivation, in peculiar, is potentially specific for these sorts of work forces [ 106 ] , [ 107 ] .

Maleness appears within the informations, but non needfully as a cardinal shaping factor, and it is inexplicit in what the respondents say instead than explicit in their linguistic communication. One inexplicit connexion is that of strong societal force per unit areas within male Muslim societal infinites [ 108 ] . The literature suggests that the populace, media and societal images of maleness which many Muslim work forces are most normally exposed to are related to a butch image of smoking [ 109 ] . The same is non true for adult females [ 110 ] .

However, despite these masculine societal behaviors, Islam does look to be a strong motivation and extenuating factor in relation to smoking surcease or to feelings of smoking associated with shame and guilt. The literature describes Islam as a religious and legal political orientation which affects how Moslem people think and strongly defines societal imposts [ 111 ] . In Islam, these political orientations aim to understate the hazard of injury to society and its emmbers, and to besides do most of any chances for community or single well-being [ 112 ] . Most of the participants were able to place some struggle between Islamic beliefs which set down Torahs aimed at the care of life, the protection of belief and religion, the protection and care of mind, the saving of honor and unity and the protection of belongings, and the wont of smoking baccy [ 113 ] . Harmonizing to these beliefs, which are based on the Koran, which is the direct word of Allah ( God ) , the Sunna, narratives of the prophesier Mohamed ( peace be upon him ) , and Itjihad, the jurisprudence of deductive logic, smoke, while non explicitly condemned, is condemned because its negative wellness and societal effects would travel counter to core Islamic instructions [ 114 ] . As such, smoking would either be mukrooh ( discouraged ) or haram ( prohibited ) , both of which are against spiritual jurisprudence [ 115 ] . Recent Muslim instructions reflect this, and some surveies of Muslim religionism besides back up these constructs [ 116 ] [ 117 ] .

These instructions might stand for a motivational factor which would get the better of resisting forces and possibly bring on Muslim work forces to avoid taking up smoke, or to alter their life style and halt smoke [ 118 ] . However, the information in this survey bespeak some ambivalency about this, and show that non all those who identify as Muslim adhere to the stenosiss of spiritual jurisprudence. This shows that wellness psychologists must non generalize about what would move as motivative factors, but alternatively plan wellness publicity and instruction schemes that could be more relevant to persons. Some argue for the demand for policies which are, for illustration, gender-specific [ 119 ] . These policies and the stuffs used to implement them should besides be civilization specific and linguistically suited [ 120 ] . Another factor which must be addressed is that of societal credence of smoke, and schemes need to be developed that mark immature people as early on as possible, but it is still of import that these are gender-oriented [ 121 ] . The survey informations indicated that equal group credence of smoke is a important characteristic for continuance of smoking behavior.

This is reflected in the literature, with societal influence behavior having extremely in wellness related behaviors and lifestyle determinations [ 122 ] . However, none of the participants referred to media influences on smoking behavior, which is surprising, as these do characteristic as a hazard factor in literature about Arab people and smoking behavior [ 123 ] .

It is of import to retrieve that this survey has been carried out within UK context, with Muslim work forces occupant in Britain, and so their responses may be capable to the influences of that context. This context is affected by modern ideals of individuality and pluralism, and may lend to the personal individualities and moral selfhood of the participants [ 124 ] . There does look to be some struggle and, curiously, co-mixing of the two ideological orientations within this survey.

Another characteristic of this survey which may be of significance for the development of smoking bar and esthesis programmes is the prevalence of baccy usage amongst equals and spouses, and this may be linked to ongoing smoke behaviors in the work forces in this survey. Similar findings in the literature showed that when a man’s married woman uses baccy, the hubby is likely to make so every bit good [ 125 ] . Therefore, wellness publicity activities, policies and programmes should probably integrate community-oriented programmes which address the behavior of all members of the Muslim community, non merely the work forces [ 126 ] [ 127 ] .

The comparative deficiency of concern displayed by some of the survey participants for the known effects of coffin nail smoke, or an evident belief that they might be lucky or that God might save them from any sick effects, is really distressing and suggests that there is a really existent and pressing demand to develop appropriate and effectual schemes to cut down baccy usage, peculiarly in these communities [ 128 ] , [ 129 ] . Some beginnings suggest that unless proactive steps are instigated, which include spiritual considerations, smoking related diseases will go epidemic across the Earth [ 130 ] . There is a turning consciousness of the influence of faith and spiritualty on wellness behavior [ 131 ] , but more usage could be made of this cognition [ 132 ] .

This survey has demonstrated that a qualitative attack utilizing IPA can cast considerable visible radiation on the beliefs and motives of Muslim work forces populating within the UK context who are tobacco users. The literature shows a scope of issues impacting motive to alter behavior, wellness belief, self-efficacy and self-pride, similar to some findings in the literature [ 133 ] , [ 134 ] . The information from this survey nevertheless does non reflect the dominant theories in entireness, but does correlate with bing cognition for the most portion. The work forces in this survey did non discourse the usage of H2O pipes as a societal activity, which does non correlate with bing research, but do show a mixture of responses to the survey inquiry bespeaking the complexness of their beliefs and apprehensions, and their relationship with their Muslim faith.. The classs identified here, and the connexions with the Muslim faith, suggest that there is great range to construct upon the single beliefs of Muslim work forces, along with tackling the resources of their religion, to develop efficacious schemes for cut downing smoke rates. Despite the restrictions of this survey, which include the little sample size, the limited scope of participants, and the built-in potency to develop more elaborate analyses from the informations if a different signifier of qualitative analysis were adopted, this survey has a batch to offer other research workers developing larger, possibly hypothesis-testing surveies based on similar inquiries. A more practical attack, with research that has more application in the field of Health Psychology, would besides hold enhanced this survey, but it shows that turn toing the specific instructions of Islam along with single apprehensions of psychological affecting factors could lend significantly to the development of more utile wellness publicity schemes.


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