This essay explores the relationship of motivation
‘Poor motive is one of the main subscribers to low accomplishment among striplings at secondary school, and low-achieving pupils at all class degrees are often the beginning of enormous jobs in schoolroom management.’
( Krause, Bochner & A ; Duchesne, 2003 ; p.218 )
This essay argues that, in understanding with the above quotation mark, motive can strongly affect academic accomplishment. It examines motive theories and how they can be applied. It besides aims to interpret empirical grounds into practical footings. The impact and cogency of many aspects of educational psychological science are acknowledged. However, infinite prohibits more than casual references of most. Many of the cardinal motive issues, such as pupil self-esteem and self-concept, are included but it is appreciated that they deserve more.
First, a simple definition of footings is required. Intrinsic motive can be defined as the internal thrust to accomplish a end. Extrinsic motive is reward or ensue orientated behavior. Clearly, within these two parametric quantities lies a broad scope of internal and external motivational forces. Each may impact persons larning otherwise. These can include background factors such as societal, cultural, moral, economic or spiritual ( see Chui, Dweck, Tong & A ; Fu, 1997 ) . Temporal constructs of past and hereafter ( Ross, 1996 ) are besides relevant and harmonizing to some, ( Seijts, 1998 ) seminal. These elements affect and are affected by the pupils ain self-esteem and self-concept. Together they can move to specify what the pupil believes they can accomplish and how.
The school state of affairs adds another dimension. Manheim Teel and DeBruin-Parecki ( 2001 ) in their chapter on actuating diverse scholars assert that ‘…the key to academic dignity is students’ perceptual experiences of their ain ability in school, particularly in comparing with others.’ ( Teel & A ; Parecki 2001 ; p.16 ) . Likewise Alderman ( 1999 ; p.77 ) points out ‘Self-efficacy, self-worth motivation, and end orientation are strongly influenced by the standards that pupils use to measure their ain performance.’
Poor dignity may be associated with fright of failure, equal opinion, embarrassment and non-comprehension. These emotions do non bring forth a ‘safe’ larning environment and hence do non run into one of Maslow’s basic human demands ( see Figure 1. )
Teel and Parecki advocate a ‘non-competitive schoolroom construction with attempt based grading’ ( 1998 ; p.19 ) Others, such as Jensen ( 1998 ) , regard the publicity of intrinsic motive as indispensable. He emphasises Emotional Intelligence ( EQ ) and the remotion ofmenace( 1998 ; p.52 ) and competition from the schoolroom environment. However, Jensen acknowledges that competition and emphasis can be positive signifiers of achievement motive for some pupils.
Added to this Vygotskian socio-cultural [ 1 ] attack are the constructs of cognitive age and developmental phase ( Piaget 1896-1980 in Krauseet Al,2003 ; pp.40-59 ) . Hidi and Harackiewicz ( 2000 ; p.1510 ) argue that pupils loose academic motive as they age. Bandura ( 1986 cited in Krause 2003 ; P.225 ) asserted that most early primary kids are per se motivated to research the universe around them and towards get the hanging their undertakings. However, even at this early phase Dweck ( in Heckhausen & A ; Dweck, 1998 ) argues that the ‘helpless pattern’ ( p.257 ) is applicable to immature kids and is related to self-conceptions instead than intelligence.
Extrinsic motive, such as accomplishment awards, teacher response and recognized successes, tend to be used to impart pupil focal point and behavior. Negative experiences, such as incorrect replies or hapless consequences, may function to deter some whilst it may promote others. Whatever the provoker, the consequence can run from pupil high anxiousness to student involvement and watchfulness. At its best, pupils are motivated to larn and accomplish ends. These ends have been categorised harmonizing ascommand,public presentationandsocietal( Whittonet Al, 2004 ; p.177 ) and harmonizing to Heckhausen and Schulz ( 1998 in Heckhausen & A ; Dweck ; p.51 ) have their beginnings in control. [ 2 ] To a grade this conforms to Weiner’s ( 1986 ) ascription theory ( in Marsh, 2004 ; p.41 ) [ 3 ] in that pupils try to explicate their success or failure in order to take control of the consequence. At its worst it can go erudite weakness, school phobic disorder and disabling public presentation anxiousness.
Having briefly outlined the complexness of issues environing motive it is clearly of import to recognize how these affect the category. It may be easy for the instructor to place motivated pupils. Behaviors can include ‘…energetic battle in a undertaking or watchfulness and focused attention…’ ( Whittonet Al,2004 ; P.177 ) . Lack of involvement, woolgathering and riotous behavior are merely a few illustrations of hapless motive. For the instructor, the first measure is be aftering to put the pupils up for success through appropriate staging for different acquisition manners ( Jonassen & A ; Grabowski, 1993 ) . Therefore whilst supplying suited challenges to good motivated pupils, the instructor needs to recognize lacks in self-esteem and develop schemes to heighten pupil assurance. As mentioned antecedently, this requires a safe and non-judgemental acquisition environment where pupils are made to experience valued and capable of at least trying a undertaking.
Generic get downing points include schoolroom atmosphere and environment. A positive, aesthetically delighting ( but non over-stimulating ) environment may assist both pupil and instructor. As Whittonet Al( 2004 ) point out ‘…student belonging, self esteem, motive and behavior are positively enhanced when students’ work is displayed.’ ( P180 ) . However, the instructor besides needs to happen a balance between outlooks and the reaction ( including anxiousness ) this may do, and pupil attempt.
As the end is to advance acquisition, a combination of command ends and public presentation ends should be provided but the accent could be adapted harmonizing to the desired result. For illustration, a pupil who is non motivated due to a past deficiency of success may be re-inspired through proviso of different stuffs in a different format. The acquisition may be the same but the tools for accomplishing it can be adapted. Likewise cognitive attacks can concentrate on command ends instead than public presentation in order to heighten self-esteem ( Krauseet Al, 2003 ; p.227 ) . Other methods of schoolroom motive can include behavioral re-enforcements. These may be used to promote alternate behavior eg wagess for pupil achievement/effort. Social acquisition besides has to be considered as pupils will judge themselves against their equals. Aspects of humanitarianism may besides be included in developing a positive and supportive attack. Classroom observation shows that ‘star’ instructors are interested in the person and persistent in the application of motivational techniques ( Haberman, 1995 ) .
In decision, in seeking to accomplishoptimal motive( Nicholls 1979 in Alderman,1999 ; p.9 ) , a instructor has to understand a pupils ‘ position. Self-esteem, venue of control, duty for acquisition, catching the involvement … all these have their topographic point. There is no infinite here to set motive in the wider context of, for illustration, schools as units of societal reproduction ( Bourdieu 1930-2002 in Webbet Al,2002 ) . Suffice it to state that motive and academic accomplishment are per se linked.
Merely by covering with the multidimensional nature of motivational forces will we be able to assist our academically unmotivated kids.
( Hidi & A ; Harackiewicz, 2000 ; p.151 )
Mentions and farther reading.
Alderman, M K. ( 1999 )Motivation for Accomplishment: Possibilities for learning and acquisition.London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
Chiu, C. , Dweck, C S. , Tong, J Y. & A ; Fu, J H. ( 1997 ) ‘Implicit Theories and Conceptions of Morality’ inJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1997. Vol. 73, No. 5, pp.923-940
Dinkmeyer, D. & A ; Dreikurs, R. ( 1963 )Promoting Children to Learn.New York, USA: Hawthorn Books.
Dweck, C S. ( 1999 ) .Self theories: Their function in Motivation, Personality and Development.Philadelphia, USA: Psychology Press.
Gaudry, E. & A ; Spielberger, C D. ( 1971 )Anxiety and Educational Achievement.London, UK: John Wiley & A ; Sons
Gollwitzer, P. & A ; Brandstatter, V. ( 1997 ) ‘Implementation Purposes and Effective Goal Pursuit’ inJournal of Personality and Social Psychology1997. Vol 73. No.1. Pp. 185-199
Haberman, M ( 1995 )Star Teachers of Children in Poverty.Bloomington, IN: Kappa Delta Pi.
Heckhausen, J. & A ; Dweck, C S. ( Eds. ) ( 1998 )Motivation and Self-Regulation across the Life Span.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hidi, S. & A ; Harackiewicz, J M. ( 2000 ) ‘Motivating the Academically Unmotivated: A Critical Issue for the 21st Century’ in Review of Educational Research, Vol. 70, No. 2 ( Summer, 2000 ) , pp. 151-179
Jensen, E. ( 1998 ) Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Virginia, USA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Karniol, R. & A ; Ross, M. ( 1996 ) ‘The motivational impact of temporal focal point: thought about the Future and the Past.’ Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 47: 593-620, 1996. ( doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.47.1.593 )
Krause, K. , Bochner, S. & A ; Duchesne, S. ( 2003 )Educational Psychology for Teaching and Learning.Southbank, Victoria: Thomson
Long, M. ( 2000 ) .The Psychology of Education.London, UK: RouledgeFalmer.
Manheim Teel, K. & A ; DeBruin-Pareki, A. ( 2001 )Making School Count: Promoting urban pupil motive and success.London, UK: RoutledgeFalmer
Marsh, C. ( 2004 )Becoming a Teacher.( 3rd Edition ) . Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Education Australia.
McClelland, D C. ( 1985 )Human Motivation.London. United kingdom: Scott, Foresman & A ; Co.
McCormick, C. B. , & A ; Pressley, M. ( 1997 ) .Educational Psychology: Learning, Instruction & A ; Assessment.New York, USA: Longman
Seijts, G H. ( 1998 ) ‘The importance of Future Time Perspective in Theories of Work Motivation’ inJournal of Psychology, Vol. 132, 1998. Pp. 154-169. On hypertext transfer protocol: //www.questia.com/PM.qst? a=o & A ; d=76934344
Webb, J. , Schirato, T. & A ; Danaher, G. ( 2002 )Understanding Bourdieu. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & A ; Unwin
Whitton, D. , Sinclair, C. , Barker, K. , Nanlogy, P. & A ; Nowsorthy, M. ( 2004 )larning for Teaching Teaching for Learning.Southbank, Victoria: Thomson Social Science Press
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