Theories and studies about reducing racial prejudice
Everyone has a race or cultural group that they see themselves as being portion of. On the other manus, non all people are exposed to biting words or physical injury from a prejudiced person because of the colour of their tegument. Harmonizing to the Bureau of Justice Statistics ( 2005 ) , there are about 210,000 hate offenses a twelvemonth ; racial bias is the motive for over half of them. This paper will discourse theories and surveies on ways to cut down racial bias.
Racial bias has been around since groups of people could separate themselves from one another ( Milner, 1983 ) . The 1920 ‘s were when bias started catching the attending of psychologists as a societal phenomenon that needed to be studied ( Duckitt, 1992 ) . Samelson ( 1978 ) talked about how trials between races were first meant to mensurate individualism but shortly the writers were printing empirical grounds that White persons were superior to Blacks ( as cited in Duckitt, 1992, p. 1185 ) . Milner ( 1983 ) states that bias occurs because people become defeated, necessitate a whipping boy, or because they are experiencing some anxiousness and necessitate a manner to let go of it.
One of the first texts on bias and cut downing bias was written by Gordon W. Allport. Encouraged by Robin Williams survey on conditions that further the decrease of racism, Allport wrote The Nature of Prejudice in which he discusses his contact hypothesis ( Utsey, Ponterotto, & A ; Porter, 2008 ) . Allport ( 1954 ) stated that “ bias may be reduced by equal position contact between bulk and minority groups in the chase of common ends ” ( p. 281 ) . Allport ( 1954 ) besides says there are eight different countries of contact, causal, residential, occupational, recreational, spiritual, civic and fraternal, political, and goodwill intergroup activities.
Allport ( 1954 ) says that both province and federal statute law can be used to go through antidiscrimination Torahs and have public bureaus enforce these Torahs. Harmonizing to Allport ( 1954 ) , there are six plans that can be used to cut down bias. They are formal educational methods, contact and familiarity plans, group retraining methods, mass media, exhortation, and single therapy. Allport ( 1954 ) feels that single therapy is the best 1, yet no survey has been converting of this.
Allport ( 1954 ) describes formal educational methods as learning about bias in the school scene. There are five types of formal educational methods. There is the informational attack, direct attack, indirect attack, the attack through vicarious experience, and the undertaking method. The following method is contact and familiarity plans which means that White people and Black people get together and acquire to cognize each other. The 3rd method is group retraining. In group retraining, the outgroup members and the clique members switch functions and seek to go empathic to each other. The 4th method is aggregate media in which messages are sent in the media distributing information on tolerance of others. The following method is exhortation which is like faith in which leaders spread the message of tolerance of other people. Finally, there is single therapy in which a individual meets with a healer to alter their manner of thought.
Blincoe and Harris ( 2009 ) talk about three major plans that cause a minimisation in racial bias. Cooperation is similar to Allport ‘s ( 1954 ) contact theory. This plan has been used in “ saber saw schoolrooms ” in which kids are broken up into racially varied group and so each kid is given a piece of information to learn to the others ( Aronson & A ; Bridgeman, 2007 ; Blincoe & A ; Harris, 2009 ) . Along with the kids larning information, they besides showed higher self-pride, liked school more, and for minorities, their school classs had improved ( Aronson & A ; Bridgeman, 2007 ) . The tolerance plan is synonymous with political tolerance and the regard plan is supposed to reenforce and promote diverseness ( Blincoe & A ; Harris, 2009 ) .
Crisp and Turner ( 2009 ) speculate that conceive ofing contact with an outgroup can hold a stopping point or same consequence on decreasing bias as existent contact with an outgroup. Turner, Crisp, and Lambert, ( 2007 ) found that participants who imagined an optimistic interaction with an outgroup member conveyed more positive attitudes and less bias than those who did non ( as cited in Crisp & A ; Turner, 2009 ) . Stathi and Crisp ( 2008 ) did a survey that showed that even though projection of positive ego traits is higher for cliques than outgroups ( Clement & A ; Krueger, 2002 ) , “ positive imagined contact leads to greater projection of positive traits to outgroups ” ( as cited in Crisp & A ; Turner, 2009, p. 234 ) .
In add-on to reach theory, there is the end based attack which consists of three ends that people need to make. These are comprehension ends, self-enhancement ends, and motive to avoid bias ( Kunda & A ; Spencer, 2003 ) . Kunda and Spencer ( 2003 ) say that comprehension ends include “ the demand to understand events, cut down the complexness of the environment, addition cognitive lucidity, and form rational feelings. Stereotypes serve these demands by enabling percipients to simplify and understand the immense sums of societal information that they confront and to do illations that go beyond available information ” ( p. 524 ) . They besides say that self-enhancement ends include the demand to protect and heighten self-esteem. Last, motive to avoid bias inhibits the activation of stereotypes. When people notice that they are handling others otherwise because of their tegument colour, they will experience the disagreements because they know it is non right. Therefore they feel guilty which makes them quash their prejudiced ideas.
Another portion of the goal-based theory is why there is bias in the first topographic point. Kenrick, Neugberg, and Cialdini ( 2009 ) feel that there are two things that bias does for people, it helps us derive economic resources and the features of the other groups bring our economic ends to our attending. The first manner to accomplish the ends of the goal-based theory is to try to alter the character of the prejudiced individual. The 2nd is to alter the state of affairs in which the prejudiced individual feels like they can know apart against others. Following is to give people a different manner to fulfill their ends and last is to trip ends incompatible with bias, stereotyping, and favoritism.
Part of the goal-based attack involves looking at the point of position of other people. Galinksy and Moskowitz ( 2000 ) say that when a individual looks at themselves, they have higher favourable responses to the clique. Turner ( 1987 ) says favouritism increases toward the in-group ( as cited in, Galinsky & A ; Moskowitz, 2000, p. 709 ) . Therefore, believing that you are portion of the outgroup will increase positive responses to them and diminish bias ideas about them ( Galinsky & A ; Moskowitz, 2000 ) .
In the judicial country, the goal-based attack has some significance. Analyzing about bias and cliques and outgroups can go really of import particularly for those who may be actioning another individual in civil tribunal for hurt that they could hold caused. Peoples tend to like others who are similar to them ( Kerr, Hymes, Anderson, & A ; Weathers, 1995 ) . If a juryman feels that they are non similar to the complainant in a malpractice instance that juryman might experience that the complainant should acquire a lower sum of money to counterbalance for the amendss or possibly believe they should non acquire any money at all. The same applies to the suspect. If the juryman feels they are similar to the suspect than they could be more indulgent on his penalty ( Green & A ; Bornstein, 2003 ) . However, Marques and Yzerbyt ( 1988 ) say that the opposite consequence can besides go on. That is, the jurymans are harsher on an ingroup member because they are portion of the clique and they pose a menace to the positive image of the clique members. They call it the black sheep consequence in which positively viewed ingroup members are viewed better than outgroup members but negatively viewed ingroup members are viewed as being worse than outgroup members ( as cited in, Green & A ; Bornstein 2003 ) .
Finally, there is the ignorance hypothesis. Peoples experience prejudiced ideas because they merely do non cognize any better ( Kenrick, Neugberg, & A ; Cialdini, 2009 ) . If everyone would interact with the other groups, they would n’t pigeonhole persons of other groups. However, Stephan and Stephan ( 1996 ) say research shows that this attack does small to cut down bias ( as cited in, Kenrick, Neuburg, & A ; Cialdini, 2009 ) .
Case ( 2007 ) did a survey in which college pupils were required to take a class on diverseness. The class was designed to rise acknowledgment of White privilege and racism, raise support for affirmatory action, and lessening bias, guilt, and fright of other races. The pupils took a study at the beginning of the class which measured White privilege, consciousness of racism, and the pupil ‘s degree of racism to different cultural groups. The same study was given at the terminal of the semester every bit good. Consequences showed white privilege, consciousness of racism and support for affirmatory action increased. However, pupils reported greater fright of other races. Students ‘ degrees of racism remained changeless except for racism against Latinos, which increased. Case explains this as perchance being by opportunity or that the class could hold really increased bias.
Blanchard, Lilly, and Vaughn ( 1991 ) hypothesized that hearing another individual express strong antiracist sentiments would hold more of an consequence than hearing another individual express equal sentiments or sentiments that were more accepting of racism. They besides speculated that when a individual hears another individual express strong support of racism, the first individual showed less support of antiracism. They did two surveies in which they interviewed college pupils in a group with a Confederate who either openly expressed strong antiracist positions or strong racialist positions when asked about a false state of affairs in what should go on to another pupil who wrote racialist notes. There was a impersonal status in which the participant answered the inquiries foremost and in the other status the Confederate answered foremost. The writers ‘ hypotheses were confirmed in both of the experiments.
In 2007, four surveies were done by Turner, Hewstone, and Loci that investigated “ self-disclosure as a go-between of the consequence of cross-group friendly relationship and vicarious experiences of such friendly relationship ” ( p. 371 ) . The topics for surveies one were kids between the ages of eight and twelve. The ages of the kids for topics two and three were 12 through 16. The last survey included undergraduate pupils. In Study One, pupils were foremost given undertakings that required them to categorise exposure of faces every bit negative or positive and White or Asian. The last undertakings were to categorise White/Positive or Asian/Negative and White/Negative or Asian/Positive. In Study Two, the pupils were given questionnaires on their ideas on the other cultural group. The 3rd survey was the same as the 2nd survey except the experimenters used a larger group. In Study Four, White participants were given a questionnaire that measured forecaster variables, go-between variables, and expressed outgroup attitude. Some of inquiries were, “ How frequently do you discourse confidant or personal issues with people who are Asiatic? ” ( p. 380 ) and “ How rewarding are the interactions you have with Asiatic people? ” ( p. 380 ) . All four surveies found that self-disclosure positively predicted expressed outgroup attitude.
Vrij, Akehurst, and Smith ( 2003 ) conducted a survey where people were shown cue cards and so were given studies to mensurate bias. They focused on seven rules, that they say decrease bias when used in public runs. The seven rules are “ ( 1 ) an accent on similarities ; ( 2 ) positive similarities in a positive context ; ( 3 ) many representative members ; ( 4 ) proviso of expressed information ; ( 5 ) employ a believable beginning ; ( 6 ) province illegality ; ( 7 ) cardinal and peripheral paths to persuasion ” ( p. 285 ) . Each of the cue cards had one of the seven rules or the antonym of it. For illustration, province illegality was shown on one cue card as one White adult male and one Black adult male about the same age with give voicing above them that said “ These two work forces applied for a occupation as an Accounts Manager. The adult male on the left was turned down because he is Black ” ( p. 291 ) ; the other card was the same as the first 1 but had the diction “ IT IS ILLEGAL TO DISCRIMINATE ON THE GROUNDS OF RACE ( RACE RELATIONS ACT, 1976 ) ” ( p. 291 ) . Subjects were so given a study that measured their bias. Vrij, Akehurst, and Smith found that if the topic viewed a card that did non hold one of the seven rules, their bias had increased versus if they had seen one of the rules. The two rules that had the most consequence were accent of similarities and similarities in a positive context.
Carpenter, ZaA?rate, and Garza ‘s survey that was done in 2007, focused on utilizing differences and individualism to cut down bias in groups that are African American, White American, Mexican American, and Mexican National. In Experiment One, the African American and White American participants were foremost primed with narratives that had an accent on the personal ego or others. Then, they filled out questionnaires while looking at images of African Americans and White Americans. The White Americans, who were primed to hold an accent on others, had reduced bias. However, the African Americans showed no difference in bias degrees. In Experiment Two, White Americans, Mexican Americans, and Mexican Nationals took self-esteem trials and so answered inquiries on all three groups. Carpenter, ZaA?rate, and Garza ( 2007 ) found that self-pride did non hold any consequence on bias and that looking at ways that your ain cultural group is different from other groups can decrease bias.
Pettigrew and Tropp ( 2006 ) did a meta-analysis of over 500 surveies and 713 independent samples that tested the intergroup contact theory. Their findings showed that intergroup contact does diminish intergroup bias. Pettigrew and Tropp go on to state that the conditions are non independent but entwined with each other. They besides feel that intergroup contact can be utilized to stop bias against other underrepresented groups.
Racism non merely exists among single people but besides in authorities signifiers. Billingsley and Giovannoni ( 1972 ) have been making surveies that show that African American kids have been systematically counted out from services provided by kid public assistance constitutions, they believe this is due to racism that exists in these establishments ( as cited in, Miller & A ; Ward, 2008 ) . Miller and Ward ( 2008 ) say there has been overrepresentation of African Americans in the public assistance system for a long clip. They so go on to speak about the Breakthrough Series Collaborative ( BSC ) methodological analysis was used to analyse the public assistance systems ‘ racism and so place schemes to cut down the racial disproportions. The BSC theory of alteration has six countries which are “ ( 1 ) increase the consciousness and apprehension of the issue, ( 2 ) identify challenges and trial schemes for betterment, ( 3 ) implement site-level policy and pattern betterments, ( 4 ) spread the betterments throughout the larger system, ( 5 ) prolong system-wide betterments, and ( 6 ) better kid and household results ” ( p. 227 ) . Many participants of the plan reported being able to accomplish a to the full functional plan in their location. However, the participants said they had trouble distributing alterations from their location to a larger system. More work still needs to be done to halt the racial bias that occurs in the public assistance system.
There are besides racial disagreements in the wellness attention system. For illustration, harmonizing to the Centers for Disease Control, in 2006, the age-adjusted decease rate for White Americans of both sexes, was 764.4 and for African Americans of both sexes, it was 982.0 ( Heron, Hoyert, Murphy, Xu, Kochanek, & A ; Tejada-Vera, 2009 ) . In 2002, Dovidio et Al. conducted a survey of racism that occurs during an exigency. White topics were half as likely to assist a Black individual as they were to assist a White individual. While the participants opposed that the thought they were racialist, it was the lone difference in the fancied exigency ( as cited in Carlson & A ; Chamberlain, 2004, p. 375 ) . Carlson and Chamberlain ( 2004 ) say that to cut down the wellness disparities between White Americans and African Americans, there must be a alteration in the research countries that combine societal conditions with the physiological tracts to wellness and disease and that we need to fall in together on emotional degrees to understand each other to alter racial attitudes.
In add-on to healthcare and welfare, racism has even showed up in our food market shops. In a survey that was done in 2003, Topolski, Boyd-Bowman, and Ferguson found differences in the quality of fruits in food market shops that were portion of the same concatenation but were located in different parts of the metropolis. They collected fruit samples from shops that were located in vicinities that had high socio-economic position and low socio-economic position. More minorities lived in the lower income vicinities. The quality of the fruit in the high SES vicinity was better than the fruit that came from the other vicinity, as judged by pupils who examined, ate the fruit and so rated them.
As you can see, there is hope for extinguishing racial bias. On the other manus, a batch of the surveies that I presented in this paper were done with kids and college pupils. It still leaves out a bulk of the population. Yet, I think we have come a long manner from old coevalss in accepting others, particularly in the instance of race and ethnicity. If we eliminate or even cut down racial bias, so minority kids will make better in school, they will hold better economic and calling chances, and will see lower rates of offense against them. With the current research on racial bias, we could besides use these theories to sexism, homophobia, and agism. Hopefully, in clip, Andy Warhol ‘s “ I think everybody should wish everybody ” quotation mark will eventually be true.