The writers personal theory of psychotherapy
The intent of this paper is to discourse the author ‘s personal theory of psychotherapeutics, which was developed from the merger of facets of several by and large recognized theories. The application of this theory will be done utilizing the instance of Stan. Harmonizing to Prochaska & A ; Norcross ( 2003 ) , “ psychotherapeutics is the informed and knowing application of clinical methods and interpersonal stances derived from established psychological rules for the intent of helping people modify their behaviors, knowledges, emotions and or other personal features in waies that the participants deem desirable ” ( p. 4 ) .
In psychotherapeutics, established psychological rules used by healer are derived mostly from established psychological theories. Norcross ( cited in Prochaska & A ; Norcross 2003 ) , defines theory as a consistent position on human behavior, abnormal psychology, and the mechanism of curative alteration ” ( p.5 ) . Harmonizing to Boy and Pine ( cited in Gladding 2009 ) psychological theories are used by the psychologist to develop integrity and relatedness among diverse being ; develop operational guidelines of how to carry on their work ; finding the relevant informations and indexs, which will be the focal point of attending and assist clients to efficaciously modify their behaviour. In other words, it acts as a guiding design for how psychologists perform their work.
All theories should hold some degree of empiricalism, nevertheless my sentiment is that most of the by and large recognized theories are to a great extent influenced by the historical period within which the theoreticians lived, their household constructions, experiences, beliefs and values. It can be said that for a batch of them their experiences were hypotheses that they sought to prove and turn out in their plants.
My theory of psychotherapeutics was developed on the footing that no 1 theory wholly explains human behaviour, abnormal psychology or curative attack. My psychological temperament is influenced by my experiences, beliefs and values. I consider myself a practical individual, who believes in the power of the head to either authorise us or keep us back. In my experience, the yesteryear is of import in determining who you are today, nevertheless I do non believe it is the lone factor. Worlds have the capacity to alter, and do so invariably, as we adapt to altering state of affairss in our day-to-day lives.
Our societal interactions are besides an of import portion of who we are, as we are societal existences. My beliefs make me appreciative of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy ( CBT ) as I portion the position that our knowledge does impact our emotions and accordingly our behavior. Its related curative attack is besides practically based, as it gives clients work to make that will better operation in therapy and outside for long term consequence ( Corey, 2005 ) . CBT attack is really present centered, with really small attending to the yesteryear, except for exceeding cases such as deficiency of alteration or where the healer believes an apprehension of the yesteryear is indispensable to therapy.
This accent on the present in the theory presents a spread and this is where I believe Alderian theory become of import in make fulling that spread. Alderian theory focal points on how a individual ‘s perceptual experience of the yesteryear and their reading of early events continue to hold a permanent influence. The inside informations of my personal theory will be presented in three subdivisions personality, abnormal psychology and curative attack.
Theory of Personality
The theory of personality is centered on the belief that human existences by their ego determined nature, are the merchandise of biological science, societal environment including interpersonal relationships and their single construct of the ideal ego ( Prochaska & A ; Norcross, 2003 ) . The ideal ego represents the image of the perfect ego that each individual creates and strives to go throughout their live.
Our endeavoring for perfection/superiority is a reaction to our unconditioned feeling of lower status which consequences from organ, psychological or societal failing. These feelings of lower status drive us to endeavor for competency and command so we can cover more efficaciously with the universe ( Corey, 2005 ) . To experience inferior is normal, as it makes us cognizant of our restrictions yet drives us to get the better of obstructions. Individuality is characterized by individual ‘s alone methods of endeavoring for competency ( Corey, 2005, p.97 ) . Behavior is driven by our alone life style, which is a cognitive building of the ideal ego that we are endeavoring to go. Our lifestyle consist of our values, perceptual experience of ego, others and life and histories for consistence in our actions ( Corey, 2005, p.97 ) .
Persons begin to build their life style by the age of six out of their childhood experiences. Significant influences during childhood include one ‘s birth order. The oldest kid ab initio receives a batch of attending when they are the lone kid. This perchance gives manner to resentment and sibling competition when other kids are added to the household. With the add-on of younger kids the older kid normally has to take on more duty and so tends to be responsible and hardworking as an grownup. The 2nd kid from birth has the experience of sharing the love and fondness of parents with another sibling. This consequences in that kid inclination to be competitory ( Corey, 2005 ) .
The in-between kid frequently feels squeezed out and convinced that life is unjust. They can develop a hapless ‘me attitude ‘ and go a job kid ( Corey, 2005, p.98 ) . The youngest kid is considered the babe of the household and tends to be pampered. An lone kid portions some of the features of the older kid, nevertheless they may non larn to portion or cooperate with others. Our birth order and our reading of the significance of the place in the household affects how, as grownups, we interact in the universe. It is from our childhood experiences that we develop our manner of associating to others and a position of ourselves.
While our lower status composite and birth order influences our lifestyle concept, they are non the ultimate determiner of who we are and how we live our lives. The ultimate determiner of our life style is our originative ego. This is the subjective power that allows us to interpret aims factors into personally meaningful events ( Prochaska & A ; Norcross, 2003 ) . This single reading of experiences prevents us from going mere merchandises of biological and societal fortunes. This histories for two individuals sharing indistinguishable life experiences developing different life styles and perfect ego.
Our lifestyle/style of life occurs within a societal context which reflects our nature as societal existences that exist and strive on interpersonal relationships. The importance of interpersonal relationships is seen from how human develop, where neonates are dependent on others for attention and endurance. Over our lifetime we change from entire dependance to independency and mutuality as our relationships with each other alterations. Our relational interaction is reflected in our lifestyle/style of life as societal involvement which is the built-in potency of all individuals. Social involvement is characteristic of a healthy personality and reflects a sense of designation and empathy with others ( Corey, 2005 ) . Social involvement is developed through fostering within a healthy household ambiance of trust, support and common regard. This environment encourages kids to reject strictly selfish involvement for greater societal involvement of all humanity ( Prochaska & A ; Norcross, 2003, p. 69 ) . Additionally, individuals must get the hang several cosmopolitan life undertakings such as edifice friendly relationships ( societal undertaking ) , set uping familiarity, lending to society and acquiring along with ourselves. Command of these life undertakings are so of import that disfunction in any one of them is frequently an index of psychological upset. ( Corey, 2005 ) .
Theory of abnormal psychology
Abnormal personalities develop when there is a deformation within personality development. This deformation occurs within the cognitive concept of the lifestyle/style of life and the reading of our societal environment and experiences by the originative ego. These affect the perceptual experience of the perfect ego and our behaviour in endeavoring for high quality. The deformation in knowledge leads to generalisation, overgeneralization, selective abstractions and inordinate duty ideas about society, our experiences and ourselves. Different pathologies relate to different cognitive concept and the reading of societal environment and experiences. Cognitive concept become distorted in hostile or overindulgent household scenes, which discourage the ability to obtain high quality and develop societal involvement ( Prochaska & A ; Norcross, 2003 ) .
These societal environments lead to personalities that strive for high quality at the disbursal of others in the undermentioned ways: attending seeking, power seeking, retaliation pickings and licking. The attending seeking personality develops when kids are pampered by their parent. Child who experiences this rearing suffers from feelings of insufficiency in their abilities which leads to an lower status composite. The lower status complex develops as individuals lack belief in ego to get the better of, prevents them from endeavoring for high quality and so they believe they are less than others and can non alter. This leads individuals to avoid basic life undertakings. These individuals universe position is that they should be taken attention of by society regardless of the fact that they are non lending grownups ( Prochaska & A ; Norcross, 2003 ) .
Children reared under a dominant parenting manner besides develop an lower status composite based on a sense of impotence to direct their ain life ; they feel unable to seek the development of the perfect ego. These individuals will reject basic life undertakings in favor of the end of seeking power so they will non be dominated once more. Persons reared in an opprobrious environment are likely to desire to take retaliation on society and seek high quality by attacking against society. Passive aggressive individual ‘s manner of life may be to ache others through changeless inconsideration ( Prochaska & A ; Norcross, 2003, p. 71 ) . Persons raised with disregard and indifference are likely to declare licking. They do non anticipate to win and so withdraw from society as their manner of showing their high quality.
All of these personalities besides use their experiences to pull wrong decisions about society and themselves and so develop maladaptive automatic ideas such as overgeneralising, where one state of affairs is used as the benchmark for any other state of affairs that is even remotely similar or selective abstraction, in which the lone step of ego is the failures experienced. Other maladaptive ideas include inordinate duty in which individuals believe that they are responsible for all bad things or life failures and dichotomous believing where everything is viewed in extremes.
A collaborative curative relationship demands to be developed between the healer and the client. Through this relationship, the client ‘s maladaptive thoughts/beliefs, mistaken ends and faulty premises are identified. The designation of the thought brings into consciousness the ideas and the attendant impact on behavior. These ideas are challenged with the purpose of holding the client reconstitute their thought procedure so that they look at themselves and life in a new manner. Additionally, clients that demonstrate deficiency of command of basic life undertakings or have an improper manner of developing high quality, are reeducated and coached so that they can develop the ego assurance and an apprehension of intent of their behaviour and a new knowledge.
The techniques involve set uping the proper curative relationship and researching the psychological kineticss runing in the client by garnering life history informations such as household configuration and early remembrances ( Corey, p.104 ) . Additionally, in learning clients how to place, proctor and alteration automatic ego talk, behavioral techniques such as rehearsing, function playing and prep will be used.
Application to the instance of Stan
History and Presenting Problem
Stan is a 25 twelvemonth old divorced male. He is presently employed in the building industry, but has aspirations of traveling back to school to go a counsellor. Presently he lives entirely and is non in a committed relationship. Despite being married before, he admits that he is afraid of individuals his age or older and is peculiarly afraid of strong attractive adult females. He was raised in a atomic household and was the 3rd of four kids. He explained that is mother dominated his male parent. He felt his female parent treated him likewise to how she treated his male parent and that he was unloved and unwanted in the household. He recalled his female parent stating him she wished she ne’er had him.
His parents besides made unfavorable comparings between him and his two older siblings, who were considered perfect and academically superb, while his younger brother was pampered and spoiled. Some of his childhood recounts included his female parent ‘s laterality and invariably “ griping ” at his male parent who ne’er stood up to her. He besides recalled his female parent stating him he was her biggest error, impeaching him of aching her and demanding that he be a adult male. He recalled been hurt by these words and shouting himself to kip.
Stan stated that his matrimony was brief and that his married woman had left him because she could non stand to be near him. He besides mentioned that a major job in their matrimony was there sex life, which was negatively affected by turns of powerlessness. This he stated made him see him self as sexually unequal. When asked to depict his married woman he commented that she was strong and dominant.
Stan came to see me because he wanted to acquire over his fright of strong confident adult females, and acquire some control over his life ; he feels that he is a failure because he has non done anything right in his life as he is ever doing incorrect determinations.
The first few Sessionss would be spent constructing resonance with Stan every bit good as garnering information on his experiences. Stan has identified the countries that he wants to work on so specific attending would be paid to these countries and his past experiences that may hold contributed to his current behavior. Information was gathered on Stan household configuration and some of his early remembrances as summarized in the historical information. Stan ‘s fright of strong, attractive adult females and his feelings of sexual insufficiency seems to be linked foremost to his relationship with his female parent and so to his ex-wife.
Both adult females dominated him and made him experience unequal by minimizing him. This has resulted in Stan believing that this is how he will be treated by all adult females. He has developed the belief, that he is non much of a adult male and so is fearful, that in interacting with other adult females they will see him in a similar manner and will rule him. His experience has resulted in him overgeneralizing about how future relationships will come on based on his experience with two individuals in his life.
Stan would be educated on the importance of analyzing his automatic ego talk every bit good as assisted in detecting some basic knowledge that influence his ego talk, feelings and actions. Once Stan is able to place his automatic ego talk and understand its consequence on him, we would travel onto assisting him proctor and measure the ways in which he keeps stating himself these ideas.
Stan would be given prep to name some of the negative ego talk and challenged to travel see a physician to govern out any medical/physical nexus to the incidence of powerlessness. The issue of Stan perceived powerlessness is connected in my sentiment to his belief that he is less of a adult male. Male individuality is elaborately linked to their ability to execute sexually and so his ego regard would be negatively affected by these experiences. This may do anxiousness and turning away of sexual brushs or relationship that may go sexual. We would discourse his list and the consequences of his physician visit at the start of our following session. Assuming everything is all right medically, it would be highlighted that the lone thing impacting him sexually was his ideas.
I would utilize several Sessionss to challenge and dispute some of Stan current ego talk. These include Stan belief that he is like his male parent. This belief in his head was reinforced by his soldierly experience, plus his credence of his parents ‘ sentiment of him as a individual missing worth. He would be asked to supply grounds to back up these beliefs and so we could utilize reframing techniques to alter the significance that Stan has attached to these life events. He would be encouraged to develop new ego talk
Assertiveness preparation and function drama would be used to help Stan to get the better of his fright of adult females. The alteration in his ego talk should assist Stan to better his position of ego /or ego assurance. Role drama would be used to see how Stan interacts with adult females and supply the chance for him to pattern identifying and altering any negative ideas and anxiousness attached to these interpersonal interactions. Stan would so be given some calibrated prep assignments where we would get down with a low anxiousness state of affairs such as merely nearing a strong attractive adult female and striking up a conversation and bit by bit come oning to more high anxiousness state of affairss such traveling on a day of the month. The purpose would be to dispute Stan and decrease his anxiousness, by reconditioning through averment. At each stage of the exposure through function drama, we could cover with any ruinous outlooks associated with the experience ( Prochaska & A ; Norcross, 2003 ) .
The information gathered from the nonsubjective interview sing Stan ‘s household configuration and birth order, working in relation to the basic life undertakings and reading of early remembrances would be used to carry on a lifestyle appraisal. This appraisal would be used to bring forth a sum-up of basic strong beliefs and interfering thoughts. Based on Stan ‘s recount his basic strong beliefs are the universe is rough and unkind and that no 1 cares about him. He believes he has failed to accomplish anything worthwhile in his life and that he is a letdown to everyone. Success is measured by making good academically and holding a good occupation. Some of Stan ‘s interfering thoughts are that he is a failure, he is non good plenty compared to others, he is non bright plenty to accomplish his ends.
My purpose would be to assist Stan run into the challenges of lending to society ( occupational undertaking ) in the mode he has identified as desirable ( going a counsellor ) and self credence. This would be done by helping Stan to understand his basic beliefs and feelings about himself and how he acquired these beliefs. Help him develop penetration into how these defective premises affect his behavior and help him to develop alternate ways of thought, feeling and behaving and to interpret these into action to alter his life.
Stan ‘s defective manner of life has developed out of his belief that he is worthless, and as a consequence, he has developed an lower status composite where he sees himself as less than others. His experience of being negatively compared to his academically successful siblings and his failure to accomplish similar academic success and the end point benefits has contributed to his feelings. He besides doubts his ability to win academically likely based on the fact that he did non make good in high school. In his head, his errors outweigh any good in his life. His desire to assist kids in problem seems to stem from his childhood experiences and desiring to assist others avoid some of the errors that he made. This demonstrates that despite his experiences he has developed societal involvement.
We would get down by disputing Stan ‘s belief that he should hold finished college by now. Stan would be asked how that clip was determined and if accomplishing his coveted end was less worthwhile if he achieved it after age 25. This would be aimed at assisting him to see that this was a ego imposed timeline that was doing him to experience like a failure. He would be promote to reframe his perceptual experience of where he is presently, to see that he has achieved the end of traveling to college and that he was on a way to accomplishing his end.
Stan would besides be challenged to see his errors as acquisition experiences that could help him in going a better counsellor peculiarly in helping individuals with similar experiences.
Stan would be challenged to do a list of positives in his life and a list of 10 things that he likes about himself. This would be aimed at assisting him concentrate on the positives about his life so that he would get down to hold a different frame of mention to see his life. Positive facets of his life that could be highlighted includes his ability to go forth some of his yesteryear buttocks, he was in college, the support of his young person cantonment supervisor and his job..
Along with the alterations in Stan knowledge we would besides research how he was pull offing his clip given that he had work and survey. This would be of import as it could impact his ability to make good in school and do a reverse in advancement. Stan would be encouraged to see that although he may meet challenges and reverse in life he could get the better of by non brooding on the negatives and traveling purposefully towards his ends.
I have proposed one psychological position point on how human behaviour and abnormal psychology occurs and the curative attack that that can be used to assist individual ‘s better header with the challenges of life. Its application has been successfully demonstrated in the instance of Stan, nevertheless other psychologist will hold other attacks to the same jobs and these can non be discounted as there is no ‘one size tantrum all ‘ attack to understanding and handling human behaviour.