The Winchester Fire And Rescue Department Information Technology Essay

The Winchester Fire and Rescue Department operates an established combination fire and deliverance system. The section is responsible for EMS, fire and risky stuffs response for the City of Winchester and provides automatic and common assistance to Frederick County. In add-on, we are the lead bureau for a Regional Hazardous Materials Response Team.

Every facet of the fire and deliverance service revolves around decently trained and prepared forces. This demand is recognized by many organisations including the Occupational Safety Health Administration, Insurance Services Office, National Fire Protection Association, National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians, Virginia Department of Fire Programs, Virginia Department of Emergency Management and the Virginia Office of Emergency Medical. The three Virginia bureaus are all subdivisions of province authorities and they are the certifying bureaus for our fire and deliverance forces.

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Training of forces is the duty of the vicinity. Soon, the Winchester Fire and Rescue Department does non hold a preparation division. All of our current staff have assigned responsibilities and deficiency available free clip to efficaciously pull off preparation. In order to ease appropriate preparation, the section needs to make a preparation division and receive support from City Council for this new place.

Table of Contentss

Abstractaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦2

Table of Contentsaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ . aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.3

Background and Significanceaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ . aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦..4

OSHA Requirementsaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ . aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦6

NFPA Requirementsaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ aˆ¦.7

EMS Requirementsaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ . 10

ISO Reportaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … 12

Northern Shenandoah Valley Fire and Rescue Departments..14

Discussionaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … .14

Recommendationaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.. .16

Referencesaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ … 17

Background and Significance

The Winchester Fire and Rescue Department ( WFRD ) is a combination section with 66 authorised calling places that have the ability to react to fire and EMS exigencies. All four of our Stationss are volunteered owned. The voluntary Stationss besides own and maintain all EMS transport units, fire engines, and ladder trucks. The City owns six administrative vehicles and two risky stuffs response vehicles.

The fire and deliverance section is tasked with supplying EMS, fire, and risky stuffs response to the 9.2 square stat mis and the 26,587 occupants of Winchester ( Bureau, 2012 ) . In add-on, the section provides fire safety reviews, fire probe, plans reappraisal, public instruction, child safety place installing, and smoke sensor installing.

The fire and deliverance section administrative officers consist of the Fire and Rescue Chief, Deputy Chief of Operations, Deputy Chief of EMS, Fire Marshal, and Assistant Fire Marshal. The administrative officers are supported by an administrative helper, executive secretary, and EMS charge director. The staying 58 fire and deliverance employees are assigned to field operations with a primary duty of exigency response.

The fire and deliverance section responded to 5,756 exigency calls in 2012. Emergency Medical responses accounted for 4,438 of the incidents while fire responses totaled 1,318 incidents ( Department, 2013 ) . There was an norm of 4.07 forces per exigency response with each necessitating about three adult male hours to extenuate ( Software, 2012 ) .

Department SOG – 07-03 “ Operational Member ” establishes parametric quantities for voluntary forces to be classified as an operational member of the section. The SOG requires 24 exigency response and 24 hours of developing yearly. There were six voluntary forces that met the lower limit needed preparation hours of 24, but did non run into the minimal figure of 24 exigency responses. There were 18 forces that obtained the minimal figure of exigency responses, but did non run into the lower limit needed preparation hours ( Department, 2013 ) .

In 2012 the fire and deliverance section had 128 forces that documented engagement in preparation that totaled 9,724 hours of preparation ( Department, 2013 ) . More than 7,500 of the preparation hours were accumulated by calling forces. The truth of developing information can surely be disputed as forces are tasked with come ining their ain preparation hours into the coverage system and there is no method in topographic point to guarantee that it is done.

Soon, the section has no preparation division responsible for guaranting and supplying new preparation or continual instruction for fire and deliverance forces. As a halt spread step to obtain needed go oning instruction to keep EMS enfranchisement the section has subscribed to an online service that is recognized by the Virginia Office of Emergency Medical Services ( VAOEMS ) to obtain Category 1 ( required ) , EMS instruction. Although we are run intoing a province demand, this preparation method is less than optimum as it does non supply forces with the chance to interact and portion single cognition and experiences. For fire and risky stuffs developing we have no formal go oning instruction plan in topographic point. A recent Insurance Services Office ( ISO ) reappraisal supports that ongoing fire preparation is virtually non-existent. In add-on to the State required EMS preparation ; there are Occupational Safety and Health Administration ( OSHA ) ordinances that require assorted preparation and National Fire Protection Association ( NFPA ) criterions for preparation.

Occupational safety and health administration Requirements

Federal OSHA ordinances are in topographic point that require fire and deliverance sections to supply one-year preparation to forces in assorted constituents of the fire and deliverance business. The ordinances cover a assortment of demands from Bloodborne Pathogens to Hazardous Materials.

OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1030 requires that forces with the possible to be exposed to infective diseases receive Bloodborne Pathogens developing upon hire and so have one-year preparation “ within one twelvemonth of their old preparation ” ( Labor U. D. , Bloodborne Pathogens, 2012 ) . In add-on, the ordinance identifies what must be covered during the preparation. Furthermore, it besides requires that developing be done when “ new undertakings or processs affect the employee ‘s occupational exposure ” ( Labor U. D. , Bloodborne Pathogens, 2012 ) .

Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response is covered by 29 CFR 1910.120 and straight impact fire and deliverance sections with forces trained in risky stuffs. The WFRD is recognized by the Virginia Department of Emergency Management as a regional risky stuffs response squad. The WFRD forces are trained from the Hazardous Materials Awareness degree up through the Hazardous Materials Specialist degree. Part of 29 CFR 1910.120 reads as follows:

“ Training. Training shall be based on the responsibilities and map to be performed by each respondent of an exigency response organisation. The accomplishment and cognition degrees required for all new respondents, those hired after the effectual day of the month of this criterion, shall be conveyed to them through developing before they are permitted to take portion in existent exigency operations on an incident. ” ( Labor U. S. , 2012 ) .

The ordinance identifies the preparation points that are required for enfranchisement at each degree. In add-on, it identifies that one-year refresher preparation is required, but is non specific with the sum of hours required for each degree.

The U.S. Department of Labor besides has a Hazard Communication Standard 29CFR 1910.1200. This ordinance is designed to guarantee that employers and employees are cognizant of the chemicals that are present in the workplace. The methods of doing employees cognizant of risky chemicals can run from container labeling, material informations safety sheets, and preparation ( Labor U. D. , Hazard Communication, 2012 ) . The WFRD must follow with the OSHA ordinance due to the many chemicals that are utilized for cleansing of Stationss and installations.

OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134 is the respiratory protection criterion designed to guarantee that employees are decently trained and fit tested for the proper size SCBA face-pieces and inhalators that provide protection when come ining risky environments. Training and fit testing is required prior to utilizing any respiratory protection device. In add-on, the OSHA ordinance mandates that developing be conducted yearly and more often if needed ( Labor U. D. , Respiratory Protection, 2011 ) .

NFPA Training Requirements

The National Fire Protection Association is an association with representation from many bureaus. The NFPA signifiers proficient commissions comprised of representatives from a huge transverse subdivision of organisations and fire sections. The proficient commissions are responsible for developing new criterions when needed and reexamining and updating bing criterions every five old ages. The below criterions provide recommendations for preparation in assorted facets of fire and deliverance service countries.

NFPA 472 – “ Standard for competency of respondents to risky materials/weapons of mass devastation incidents – 2013 Edition ” ( Association, List of NFPA Codes and Standards, 2013 ) – This standard covers the preparation that is required for the assorted degrees of risky stuffs classs that are available. The papers covers from the lowest degree of Hazardous Materials Awareness through the Hazardous Materials Technicians with assorted forte preparation ( Association, Online Review Document, 2012 ) .

NFPA 1001 – “ Standard for firefighter professional makings – 2013 Edition ” ( Association, List of NFPA Codes and Standards, 2013 ) – “ The intent of this standard shall be to guarantee that individuals run intoing the demands of this criterion who are engage in firefighting are qualified ” ( Association, Online Preview Document, 2012 ) . This papers covers the necessary knowledge/skills/abilities for forces wishing to go firemans to obtain through occupation public presentation demands.

NFPA 1002 – “ Standard for fire setup driver/operator professional makings – 2009 Edition ” ( Association, List of NFPA Codes and Standards, 2013 ) – Provides the recommended degree of preparation to guarantee that forces are qualified to drive and run assorted types of fire and deliverance setup. The standard screens everything from processs to inspect for vehicle care, driving accomplishments that should be evaluated and required cognition ( Association, Online Preview Document, 2009 ) .

NFPA 1021 – “ Standard for fire officer professional makings – 2009 Edition ” ( Association, List of NFPA Codes and Standards, 2013 ) – Identifies the knowledge/skills/abilities that fire section forces should accomplish through preparation and instruction to progress from a Fire Officer 1 to the Fire Officer IV degree. Each officer degree continues to construct off the standards established for the old degrees ( Association, Online Preview Document, 2008 ) .

NFPA 1401 – “ Recommended pattern for fire service preparation studies and records – 2012 Edition ” ( Association, List of NFPA Codes and Standards, 2013 ) – “ Presents a systematic attack to supplying indispensable information for pull offing the preparation map of the fire service organisation ” ( Association, Online Preview Document, 2012 ) . The standard screens everything from the programming of preparation and installations, enfranchisement trailing, and trailing of equipment used during the preparation development.

NFPA 1403 – “ Standard on unrecorded fire preparation developments – 2012 Edition ” ( Association, List of NFPA Codes and Standards, 2013 ) – This standard identifies what procedures, procedure and forces fire and deliverance sections need to hold in topographic point when carry oning unrecorded fire preparation exercisings. The purpose is to cut down the jeopardies that are present during unrecorded fire preparation and supply for increased safety of fire and deliverance forces ( Association, Online Preview Document, 2012 ) .

NFPA 1410 – “ Standard on Training for initial exigency scene operations – 2010 Edition ” ( Association, List of NFPA Codes and Standards, 2013 ) – “ This criterion contains the lower limit demands for measuring preparation for initial fire suppression and deliverance processs used by fire section forces engaged in exigency scene operations ” ( Association, Online Preview Document, 2009 ) . Our section can use this criterion to help us with finding if forces are prepared for full operational responsibility.

NFPA 1451 – “ Standard for a Fire and Emergency Services Vehicle Training Program – 2013 Edition ” ( Association, List of NFPA Codes and Standards, 2013 ) – This criterion is designed to guarantee that all forces that drive and operate any sort of fire and deliverance vehicle receives developing prior to runing the vehicle. The standard recommends that after initial preparation forces participate in two re-trainings yearly. One of the preparations should be a practical development where they drive and operate the fire and deliverance setup that they usually drive ( Association, Online Preview Document, 2012 ) .

NFPA 1500 – “ Standard on fire section occupational safety and wellness plan – 2013 Edition ” ( Association, List of NFPA Codes and Standards, 2013 ) – Chapter 5 of this criterion is dedicated to preparation, instruction and professional development. Specifically under general demands it reads “ The fire section shall set up and keep a preparation, instruction, and professional development plan with a end of forestalling occupational deceases, unwellnesss, and hurts ( Association, Online Preview Document, 2012 ) . This chapter besides calls for preparation of new forces prior to puting them in risky environments and for ongoing preparation of forces.

Em Requirements

Forces that are certified as Emergency Medical Technicians or higher are required to obtain instruction hours that vary depending on the degree of enfranchisement. The initial enfranchisement must run into a National Standard Curriculum established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians ( NREMT ) and Virginia Office of Emergency Medical Services ( VAOEMS ) are the two certifying organisations that provide for initial enfranchisement and set up go oning instruction ( CE ) demands for EMS suppliers.

The CE demands of NREMT and VAOEMS are different. The demands besides vary depending on the degree of EMS enfranchisement. Regardless, all degrees of EMS suppliers are required to finish CE to be eligible for recertification. Continuing Education is farther defined as Category 1 ( required ) subjects and Category 2 ( optional ) subjects.

The NREMT certified forces regardless of enfranchisement degree are required to recertify by finishing their Cerium demands every two old ages. All NREMT degrees are required to obtain 72 hours of CE over a two twelvemonth period. The hours vary depending on degree of enfranchisement.

Certification Level

Class 1 Hours

Class 2










( NREMT, 2013 )

The VAOEMS enfranchisements are valid for assorted lengths of clip and necessitate different sum of CE hours depending on degree of enfranchisement. Basic Life Support ( BLS ) enfranchisement is valid for four old ages while all Advanced Life Support ( ALS ) enfranchisements must be renewed every three old ages.

Certification Level

Class 1 Hours

Class 2













( Health, 2012 )

Soon, Virginia requires that all EMS suppliers maintain their Virginia enfranchisement even if certified through NREMT. Recent EMS ordinance alterations in Virginia require that “ All certified EMT-Instructors must take the Virginia EMS Education Standards ( VEMSES ) Knowledge Competency Exam in order to denote, co-ordinate and learn BLS initial plans that end after July 1, 2012 ” ( Health, 2012 ) . In add-on, Virginia ALS Coordinators must both take and successfully finish the “ VEMSES Knowledge Competency test in order to ” ( Health, 2012 ) conduct initial enfranchisement classs or they may stay as ALS Coordinators and merely be able to denote CE classs or accessory classs such as Advanced Cardiac Life Support. ( Health, 2012 ) The new ordinances are designed to better the quality of preparation offered in Virginia. This in bend helps make the demand for a full-time preparation officer.

ISO Report

The Winchester Fire and Rescue Department was evaluated by the Insurance Services Office, Inc. ( ISO ) in 2012 for our fire protection capableness. “ ISO collects and evaluates information from communities in the United States on their construction fire suppression capablenesss. The information is analyzed utilizing our Fire Suppression Rating Schedule ( FSRSa„? ) and so a Public Protection Classification ( PPCa„? ) figure is assigned to the community ” ( Insurance Services Office, 2012 ) . The PPC figure is so utilized by insurance bearers to find insurance premiums for the legal power.

The ISO rating looks at three general countries with each country holding a maximal recognition available. The countries and recognition available in each are ; having and managing fire dismaies 10 points, fire section 50 points and H2O supply 40 points. There are assorted subcategories under each country that are evaluated and a numerical mark is assigned based on how good you met the ISO standards. The fire and deliverance section has no direct impact on the tonss received in the handling fire dismaies and H2O supply as the City ‘s 911 Emergency Communications Center and Public Utilities are responsible for those countries.

There are eight subcategories under Fire Department that we are evaluated on. Of those eight classs our glowering failing is developing. We received a mark of 3.45 ( 38 % ) out of a possible 9 points for preparation. In the other seven classs we were awarded an norm of 75 % of the points available for each class.

The City of Winchester earned a PPC evaluation of category 4 from this rating. “ Class 1 represents an model fire suppression plan, and category 10 indicates that the countries fire suppression plan does non run into ISO ‘s minimal standards ” ( Insurance Services Office, 2012 ) . Our PPC evaluation of category 4 topographic points us in the top 15 % of fire sections countrywide and in the top 6 % in the Commonwealth of Virginia. By turn toing the lacks identified in the preparation part of the ISO rating the section can easy obtain a PPC evaluation of category 3 and be in the top 6 % for fire sections Countrywide and in the top 2 % of fire sections in the Commonwealth.

When measuring the ISO study for lacks in preparation included construction fires, leading, driver/operator, and constructing pre-fire planning reviews need drastic betterment. The below tabular array was created utilizing information from our 2012 ISO Summary Report:

Training Area

Recognition Earned

Recognition Available

Structure Fire Related Subjects



Leadership and Management



Annual Driver/Operator



New Driver/Operator



Pre-planning Inspections






The above tabular array clearly indicates that we have a great chance for betterment with preparation of our forces.

Northern Shenandoah Valley Fire and Rescue Departments

The WFRD is surrounded by fire and deliverance sections that have identified preparation divisions with at least one individual responsible for carry oning, organizing and record maintaining for preparation. Frederick County Fire and Rescue has a Deputy Chief in charge of their three individual developing division that provides preparation for their calling and voluntary fire and deliverance forces. Shenandoah County Department of Fire and Rescue employs a Training Head that is responsible for organizing preparation for both calling and voluntary forces. Warren County Fire and Rescue has a preparation division that is under the way of a Captain. With the exclusion of Frederick County the other two sections have far fewer calling forces than WFRD.


There are many external organisations that develop guidelines and criterions for fire and deliverance sections. Many of these criterions set up minimal degrees of cognition, accomplishments, and abilities that are necessary in order for fire and deliverance forces to obtain enfranchisement through either national enfranchisement plans or province degree enfranchisements plans. Some of these enfranchisements require that fire and deliverance forces take part in Continuing Education in order to stay certified to execute certain accomplishments.

OSHA, ISO, NFPA, NREMT, and VAOEMS recognize that initial and on-going preparation is of import for forces to be able to show their ability to execute the indispensable accomplishments necessary to manage exigency state of affairss on an on-going footing. Complying with OSHA demands for preparation is critical for organisations. Failure to follow can take to pecuniary mulcts for the section and legal power.

The study from our ISO reappraisal identifies developing as being an country where there is an chance for great betterment in fire and deliverance section preparation. Bettering preparation to better our ISO PPC evaluation from a 4 to a 3 can greatly profit City occupants as insurance premiums for concern and place proprietors could be reduced.

The nine NFPA criterions summarized in this paper besides supports the importance of preparation. In add-on, there are many more NFPA criterions that cover developing including Airport, Marine, and Technical Rescue criterions to call a few. Although conformity with NFPA criterions is voluntary ; the criterions can be used against organisations that fail to run into them in the event of civil judicial proceeding.

NREMT and VAOEMS both have preparation demands that EMS forces certified by them must run into for initial enfranchisement and re-certification. In Virginia obtaining preparation from an teacher that is certified through VAOEMS is necessary to have proper CE recognition.


Based on the findings of this research undertaking it is recommended that the Winchester Fire and Rescue Department make a preparation division to guarantee conformity with the federal OSHA ordinances, meet NFPA recommended preparation criterions, better the lacks noted with preparation in the ISO study and to supply the instruction needed to keep EMS enfranchisements. With the creative activity of this new division it is besides recommend that the section seek blessing and support in the sum of $ 70,210.22 from City Council for a new full-time place. The new place should be at a wage class of 25 and be recognized as a Deputy Chief.

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