The Wenchuan Earthquake Or 512 Earthquake History Essay
If we continue our hunt by contracting it to different parts, the consequence does non alter a batch. These consequences reveal the alone attending paid to the Sichuan Earthquake:
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Google Trends consequence on “ di zhen ” ( China )
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Google Trends consequence on “ di zhen ” ( Taiwan )
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Google Trends consequence on “ di zhen ” ( Hong Kong )
From the statistics above we can recognize how the Chinese, from the mainland to other parts in the universe, gave precedency to this catastrophe. However, this consequence merely justifies the demand for a specialised research, so we are tempted to inquire the undermentioned inquiry: how has such an influential temblor affected the Chinese people?
e°?a?ˆa?‹Peter Gries Chapter 7cs„e§‚c‚?i??a…?a?Zbottom up patriotism! !
This article will concentrate on patriotism during the post-earthquake period from both top-down and bottom-up positions. Harmonizing to Allen Carlson, “ we need to travel beyond the conventional frame provided by the survey of patriotism and develop a process-oriented attack to the construct of national individuality. ” ( Carlson 2009, 20-35 ) Therefore, I will try to examine the issue of patriotism with a focal point on national individuality.
In the chapter # , two interesting observations will be provided with respect to this event. First, a sense of Chineseness was highly heightened within a short period after the temblor. Second, the spirit of selflessness and volunteerism all of a sudden exploded through charitable contributions and civilian deliverance squads. In add-on, an interesting treatment will follow about the possible alteration in the individuality of the Chinese.
Throughout the paper I make the undermentioned statements: First, the Chinese Government will confront a more complex job about patriotism when covering with a crisis like this. Although the authorities benefited from the heightened patriotism, it besides bore the force per unit area from it. Second, the temblor revealed the convergence and struggle of grass-roots patriotism and elitist patriotism in China. The defining of the hereafter Chinese patriotism will affect their interplay.
Third, the Sichuan Earthquake indicated a symbolic alteration in Chinese patriotism. Potentially, the rise of a civil battle might be a new component to lend to the national individuality.
Merely a few bookmans have specially focused on the relationship between patriotism and catastrophes. Within bing research, some surveies have taken advanced stairss.
Hutchinson analyzed major American crisis such as 9/11 and Katrina Hurricane to depict the ways in which citizenship is continually managed, manipulated, and contested in a assortment of media texts. His focal point on citizenship portions similarities with our focal point on patriotism. ( Hutchinson 2010, 191 )
Dickie observed that the temblor that struck the Straits of Messina on 28 December 1908 was followed by an extraordinary motion of public heartache and solidarity. He argued that different buildings of timing and memory are an index of the societal and political maps of nationalism, which offers ways to pull off crisis state of affairss like the temblor, but at the same clip covertly politicizes them. ( Dickie 2006, 147-166 )
Nel and Philip studied the hazard of violent civil struggle in the wake of natural catastrophes. They found that natural catastrophes significantly increase the hazard of violent civil struggle both in the short and average term, specifically in low- and middle-income states that have intermediate to high degrees of inequality, assorted political governments, and sulky economic growing. Therefore they addressed the importance of extenuating the societal and political hazards posed by these cataclysmal events. ( Nel and Righarts 2008, pp. 159-185 ) Similarly, Billon and Philippe explored the impact of natural catastrophes on armed secessionist struggles in Aceh and Sri Lanka following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. ( Billon and Waizenegger 2007, pp. 411-427 )
Among China bookmans, few articles have studied the development of patriotism during sudden catastrophes. However, it should be noted that some bookmans have realized the great impact of such events on Chinese patriotism.
In Rosen ‘s book on modern-day Chinese young person, he observed that the Sichuan Earthquake apparently changed the media mercantile establishments. They reversed themselves to laud young person ‘s virtuousnesss by observing that their selfless behaviour was non surprising because they had learned the virtuousnesss of “ great compassion, benevolence, and gallantness ” from absorbing traditional Chinese civilization, and that, after all, they had “ to the full enjoyed the accomplishments of China ‘s 30 old ages of reform and opening up. ” ( Rosen 2009, 359 )
Many Chinese bookmans regard the temblor as an chance. For illustration, Zhang Wenmu believed such an catastrophe can be the gas pedal of development for China, because “ the rise of state is a procedure of sing troubles ” . ( a? ?-‡??? 2008, 6-16 ) Some other bookmans extolled the positive impact of patriotism during the Sichuan Earthquake, such as Luo Yuting, Fang Haixia and Li Yiting. ( ?-??µ·a? i????Za?‰a? 2008, 42-44 ; e?†e??a»· 2008, 10-12 ) These articles normally hold an optimistic and nationalist position towards the temblor. However, their nationalist belief might hold impaired the objectiveness of their statements. Hence, they failed to turn to the complexnesss and recoils embedded in such issues.
This article will try to repair these jobs through a broader review of patriotism during the period. Specifically, I will discourse the differences and interactions between top-down and bottom-up patriotism that appeared during this event.
In general, small scholarly research on Chinese patriotism in this event has been undertaken.
The 1976 Tangshan Earthquake
Before discoursing the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake, I will pass some clip on another major disaster- the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake or the Great Tangshan Earthquakea”?a±±a¤§a?°e?‡ . It has been a corporate injury for the Chinese people for over 30 old ages.
The epicentre of this 7.8 magnitude temblor was in Tangshan, Hebei Province, a metropolis of more than a million occupants at that clip. On June 28, 1976, the catastrophe, named among “ The Top Ten Disasters of Human Beings in twentieth Century ” , demolished the dumbly populated metropolis ; it caused more than 240,000 deceases and 160,000 hurts.[ 2 ]The temblor was regarded as the largest in the twentieth century harmonizing to the decease toll.[ 3 ]
The Chinese Communist Party ( CCP ) Government controlled the overall alleviation attempts and made them highly ideological. Such attempts can be found in major media coverage following the catastrophe. On June 29, 1976, the People ‘s Daily forwarded the intelligence of the temblor from Xinhua News Agency. However, this first study was thought by some Chinese research workers to be extremely politicized because its focal point was on ideological publicity alternatively of precise histories of victims and losingss.
It should be noted that the Great Tangshan Earthquake happened near the terminal of the Cultural Revolution, a period filled with political battle. A research worker examined the People ‘s Daily temblor studies from June 29 to August 31 and found about all the articles were embedded with political battle and political orientation ; these included issues of “ reprobating Deng Xiaoping?·±a…??‰?e‚“ ” , “ cultural revolution?- a?§e?¶c?§?-‡a?-a¤§e?©a‘? ” , “ category strugglea»?e?¶c?§? — a?‰a??c?? ” , and “ resistance to the rise of the rightista??a‡»a??aˆ?c?»???e?Z ” .[ 4 ]Another research worker took a lingual attack by analysing the People ‘s Daily column on this Earthquake.[ 5 ]She contended that the linguistic communication in such an column was structured to use the temblor as a tool to advance Maoism and political battle. In add-on to the political battles, narratives of gallantry and optimism about socialism ( c¤?a?sa?»a?‰a??e¶S?ˆ§ ) were besides widely propagated during this period.[ 6 ]In a word, the catastrophe served as a tool for the authorities ‘s ideological propaganda.
Besides, a mobilization of alleviation attempts was obvious during the Tangshan Earthquake. Harmonizing to a narrative that was recorded in Qian Gange’±a?s ‘s well-known book The Great Tangshan Earthquake, more than 100,000 People ‘s Liberation Army ( PLA ) soldiers were instantly sent to deliver Tangshan on the twenty-four hours of the catastrophe. And around 200 medical squads were enlisted and dispatched to the affected part. The state of affairs was described by Qian Gang as if “ a lethal, atomic war had merely broken out ”[ 7 ]. At the same clip, as discussed before, epic narratives of soldiers were widely reported. Many of Qian Gang ‘s narrations about PLA actions absolutely reflected PLA ‘s widely publicized image of “ people ‘s sonsa???°‘a?a?Ya…µ ” .
From the Tangshan Earthquake, we can detect a form of top-down extension of patriotism. However, to some extent, the patriotism issue was non emphasized by the authorities ; the impact on national individuality appeared as a combination of socialist political orientation with Maoist assurance. For case, the Chinese authorities followed Mao ‘s claim that “ the Chinese Peoples have arisena?a›?a???°‘a»Z?¤c«™eµ·???a?† ” as it refused to accept foreign assistance from the United Nations and insisted on autonomy.[ 8 ]At the same clip, a deficiency of alternate communicating might hold facilitated the authorities ‘s top-down use and farther stymied the impact of grass-roots patriotism. Hence, the impact of the Tangshan Earthquake on national individuality handily fell short. In comparing, the Sichuan Earthquake marked a important impact on national individuality through assorted facets.
The Sudden Intensification of Chinese Identity during the Sichuan Earthquake
[ A Brief INTRODUCTION ]
I will get down this subdivision with this quotation mark:
Dressed in white T shirts reading I [ bosom ] CHINA, the work forces are determined to make the nucleus of the desolation. “ After we saw the intelligence of the catastrophe, we decided we had to assist, ” says Wu Guanglei, a 36-year-old high school natural philosophies teacher from Zigong, a town 186 stat mis ( 300 kilometer ) to the South. “ We Chinese people are turning closer and closer together, ” says Wu Xiangping, 28, who took a leave from his occupation at a Beijing advertisement house to fall in the alleviation attempt. “ And because of that, the state ‘s morality is lifting excessively. ”[ 9 ]
Then, I will get down to analyse the eruption of nationalist sentiments during the Sichuan Earthquake. A sense of Chineseness was highlighted in both official and grass-roots beginnings. Key words like a¤©a?‘a?a?Zi??e?ˆ?µ“a?Z?°?i??a?ˆ?-???‰es?a…«?-??”???? appeared in high frequence.
And I believe the eruption was contributed by both top-down and bottom-up beginnings. I will supply certain grounds to warrant these observations. Evidence includes militarised temblor alleviation ( which is rather similar as the Tangshan Earthquake ) , the focal point of media coverage ( rather different from Tangshan ) and reactions of civilians. What is new for the Sichuan Earthquake is the grass-roots have more chances to show their sentiments.
Many interesting issues will be featured, including:
High-rank functionaries instant visit to the temblor part
Rumors and responses. E.g. Sharon Stone ‘s “ karma ” talk ; the Liaoning Girl ‘s picture that was attacked by 1000s of netizens
Boundary streamers. E.g. abroad Chinese, Tibetans
However, I need to calculate out a manner to form all these stuffs.
For the remainder parts, I have come up with their rubrics. All these parts will represent and back up the statements I made in the debut.