The Weaknesses Of The Current Information Systems Information Technology Essay
Operational MANAGEMENT: this type of direction focal points on the present twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities of bring forthing services and merchandises and works straight with the clients and providers. It is at this degree of direction that net incomes are either made or losingss are incurred as seen in the instance of Tykes Ltd when the net incomes fell steadily over the last few old ages. The operational direction activities are directed at commanding people, merchandises and machinery as seen in Tykes Ltd where the caput of sections are the 1s commanding the employees of the production lines. Decisions are made infrequently and demands are in the signifier of bids or orders. Operationss are comparatively good ordered and directors are expected to analyze jobs and repair the rapidly. ( Licker 1997 )
Tactical Management: this type of direction involves the creative activity of mechanisms that ensures operations continue no affair what happens to the house ‘s environment. Tactical direction duties include some of those of operational direction and some of that strategic direction. The information concerns agendas, net incomes, costs and other economic indexs but in Tykes Ltd this type of direction was non seeable. ( Licker 1997 )
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: the strategic direction degree includes executives, boards of managers and high degree advisers. Tykes Ltd had the board of managers get downing from the pull offing manager to the production manager all the manner down to the fiscal manager. This direction focuses on the hereafter that is ; the determinations made by strategic directors are long term. The strategic degree plants are more originative than the lower degrees because it concentrates on be aftering instead than commanding. The executives are meant to work together and besides bring thoughts together but in the instance of Tykes Ltd it was more of commanding instead than be aftering. ( Licker 1997 )
B ( two ) . INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES CONSIDERED NECESSARY TO PROVIDE THE INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS:
First and first, there is a demand to understand what Information system ( s ) is all about ; ( Laudon and Laudon 2010 ) believed that “ Information system ” can be defined technically as a set of interconnected constituents that collect ( or recover ) , procedure, shop, and distribute information to back up determination devising and control in an organisation. An information system entails information about of import people, topographic points and the things within the organisation or in the milieus of the environment. However, explicating information we mean that informations have been shaped into a signifier that is meaningful and utile to human existences.
A practical illustration of information system is Data- Input-Process-Output. Input is a aggregation of natural informations from the organisation or its external environment ; whereas Process converts the natural input into something meaningful and Output is the transferring of processed information to the people that will do usage of it.
Information systems besides require feedback, which is end product that is forwarded to appropriate members of the organisation to assist them measure the input phase.
( O’Brien 2008 ) stated that an information system can be any organized combination of people, hardware, package, communicating webs, informations resources, and policies and processs that shops, retrieves, transforms, and disseminates information in an organisation.
( Laudon and Laudon 2010 ) defined Information engineering as a term that consists of all the hardware and package that a house needs to utilize in order to accomplish its concern aims.
In order to guarantee the operations of Tykes Ltd expeditiously and efficaciously there is a demand for a full use of appropriate and necessary information systems. The pull offing manager, John Tyke needs to put in the company ‘s information systems and besides the processs involved in the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours organisational work activities in the production lines in Sheffield and Leeds ; because this will be really helpful for the better public presentation of the company.
However, since there is an addition in demand for quality and organic merchandises I will urge to Tykes Ltd to set in more attempts with the stigmatization of their production lines in both towns ; and besides that clients should pay their debts at the stipulated clip to avoid deficit of net incomes.
Furthermore, debut of information systems in Tykes Ltd will take to efficiency because one of the chief maps of information systems is to derive competitory advantage over their challengers ( Hicks 1993 ) . The information systems will assist in footings of staff enlisting and direction, proviso of the company ‘s gross revenues and accounting bundle which supports the production of monthly histories and gross revenues studies.
INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES CONSIDERED NECESSARY TO PROVIDE THE INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS SUGGESTED IN ( A ) ARE AS FOLLOWS:
1. HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM ( HRIS )
2. EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEM ( ESS )
3. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM ( MIS )
4. TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEM ( TPS )
5. OPERATIONAL USE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
6. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM ( DSS )
7. COMPUTER BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS ( CBIS )
HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Kavanagh et Al ( 1990 ) specify the human resource information systems as a “ system used to get, shop, manipulate, analyze, retrieve, and distribute information sing an organisation ‘s human resources. An HRIS is non all about computing machine hardware and other associated HR- related package, although HRIS involves hardware and package, possibly it besides includes people, signifiers, policies and processs and informations.
However, as seen in Tykes Ltd, the company did non truly hold a computerized system because they were still doing usage of the paper systems and this truly slowed down things for them in the company. For illustration, the company ‘s information relating to the direction of production and staff is non readily available on clip. Any analysis is usually performed in separate Excel spread sheets. This is one of the failings faced by the company ; a human resource information system needs to be introduced to Tykes Ltd so that the direction of employee information will be done every bit rapidly as possible in a computerized system.
Kavanagh et Al ( 2012 pg. 17 ) provinces that the primary intent of the HRIS is to supply service, in the signifier of accurate and timely information, to the “ clients ” of the system. Furthermore, there are several possible users, as information for Human Resource may be used for strategic, tactical and operational determination devising that is, be aftering for utile employees. There are certain grounds why Tykes Ltd needs HRIS:
Collection of of import suited informations and so change overing them to quality information.
Production of greater Numberss and current HR- related studies
Improvement of employees ‘ satisfaction by presenting of HR services in an accurate and effectual mode.
Enhancement of the efficient and effectual direction of the administrative maps or organic structures.
EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEM
The executives falls under this class, that is John Tyke ( pull offing manager ) , and the other direction squad members like the production manager ( Paul Tyke ) , the commercial manager ( Jayne Wheatcliffe ) who is responsible for distribution and gross revenues and besides the fiscal manager ( Sunhil Gupta ) . Tykes Ltd need this support system to enable them act good in the company ‘s schemes.
Hicks ( 1993 ) believes that Executive support system provide for the communicating of summary-level information to executives. Most executives make usage of this system frequently to maintain path of information refering the factors that they consider critical to their company ‘s success.
However, different writers use this system interchangeably. Some writers call it Executive support system whereas some refers it as Executive information systems.
Watson and Rainer ( 1991 ) Executive support system is a computerized system that provides executives with easy entree to both internal and external information of import to the success factors.
Sang and Jim ( 1997 ) suggests that most executive support systems are designed to back up the executives ‘ information and communicating demands.
O’Brien ( 2008 ) states that the executive information systems provides the critical information from the Management information system, Decision support system and other beginnings designed for the information demands of executives. For illustration, in Tykes Ltd this system is really needed for easy entree and besides to analyze the company ‘s public presentation and the actions of rivals they face from larger companies in the market.
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
The MIS provides in-between directors with studies on the organisation ‘s current public presentation. This information is used to supervise and command the concern and predict hereafter public presentation. Management information system summarize and study on the company ‘s basic operations utilizing the informations supplied by Transactional processing system. Laudon and Laudon ( 2010 ) .
Tykes Ltd senior direction can be seen to be affected with limited information of the costs or net incomes with the four production sections that is ; the two production sections in Leeds and the other two production sections in Sheffield. There were certain jobs Tykes Ltd company faced due to the monetary values dictated by market conditions and the big supermarkets. Tykes Ltd needs Management Information System particularly when John Tyke ( the pull offing manager ) became cognizant of the deficiency of quality information to back up determination devising, planning and control in the company.
Hicks ( 1993 ) believe that Management information systems by and large refer to a system that provides repeating information about modus operandi and awaited concern events. These systems produce drumhead information about normal concern activities to middle and upper degree direction.
O’Brien ( 2008 ) states that direction information systems are a type of system that provides information in the signifiers of studies and shows to back up concern determination devising. For illustration, in Tykes Ltd there is a demand for this system so every bit to assist out with the analysis of gross revenues, the production lines public presentation and besides their coverage systems on costs or net incomes within the production sections.
TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS
Laudon and Laudon ( 2010 ) believe that a dealing processing system is a computerized system that performs and records the day-to-day everyday minutess necessary to carry on concern, such as gross revenues order entry, hotel reserves, paysheet, employee record maintaining and transportation.
However, in Tykes Ltd it can be seen that the usage of Transaction treating systems was made used of when the company uses an incorporate gross revenues and accounting bundles which supports the production of monthly histories and the gross revenues studies.
Furthermore, the chief intent of systems at this degree is to reply everyday inquiries and to track the flow of minutess through the organisation.
O’Brien ( 2008 ) besides believes that Transaction treating systems are of import illustrations of operations support systems that record and procedure the informations ensuing from concern minutess. In Tykes Ltd, any analysis performed is usually undertaken in separate Excel spread sheets.
DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Tykes Ltd acquired this peculiar type of information system when John Tyke ( the pull offing manager ) took over the place of pull offing manager after the retirement of his male parent in 2011. He invested in the determination support system when he became cognizant of the deficiency of quality information to back up determination devising, planning and control in the company.
McLeod ( 1994 ) states that the determination support systems would help a director or group of directors in doing a individual determination. Whereas in a house it will merely be a individual Management information systems but it would hold many Decision support systems.
The construct of DSS was merely to help in footings of determination devising ; the DSS is a representation for both the directors and computing machines to work together in a job solution.
Hicks ( 1993 ) the basic thought of affecting the determination support systems is the proviso of the computing machine based tools so that direction information systems ( MIS ) can bring forth information to back up semi structured and unforeseen determinations.
OPERATIONAL USE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
These are systems used for the monitoring of twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities and minutess. For illustration, gross revenues, grosss, quality steps, stuff flows and paysheet etc. for the answering of everyday inquiries such bills paid and recognition determinations.
O’Brien ( 2008 ) there have ever been the demand to treat generated informations and used in the operations of the concern. The operation support systems provide a broad assortment of information merchandises for both external and internal usage.
Tykes Ltd need to use the Operational usage of information systems because it will assist in the smooth running of the company in footings of efficiency and effectivity. It will give the company the capableness to treat their concern minutess in the production lines and besides give them the assurance to confront the several challenges and besides to back up the company ‘s coactions and communications.
COMPUTER BASED INFORMATION SYSTEMS
McLeod ( 1994 ) information comes from both computing machine and non – computing machine beginnings. The computing machine part of a complete information system contains each of the application countries – a direction information system, determination support systems. All of these systems work together to supply the information for job resolution.
This comprises the computing machine hardware engineerings and the computing machine package engineerings. The computing machine hardware engineerings includes the personal computers and the large mainframe systems, input, end product and storage devices like flash thrusts, difficult disc whereas the computing machine package engineerings comprises of web browsers, database direction systems and package drivers ( O’Brien 2008 )
Parker and Case ( 1993 ) states that computing machine based information systems is an information system in which the computing machine plays a major function. The system consists of both the hardware and the package. The hardware refers to the machinery. That is, this class includes the computing machine itself and which is frequently referred to as the Central Processing Unit ( CPU ) and the package which is referred to as computing machine plans and the manuals.
Boddy et Al ( 2008 ) believes that computing machine based information systems is the linkage of computing machines with other telecommunication systems which makes it quicker and cheaper to interchange information with small respect to distance.
C. ISSUES THE MANAGEMENT OF TYKES LTD NEED TO CONSIDER BEFORE IMPLEMENTING RECOMMENDATIONS.
1. Staff enlisting and direction
2. Lack of quality information to back up determination devising, planning and control
3. Lack of proper certification of information.
4. Loss of net incomes
5. Poor public presentation
6. Brand problems/brand names
7. Issue of selling monetary values
8. Production of the party – clip scope bars
9. Issue of information systems
10. Co-ordination and communicating issue
Staff enlisting and direction: this has largely been the kingdom of the line directors with the support of a personnel officer. Tykes Ltd needed to enroll a human resource director to assist them supervise the strategic functions in the concern. A immature human resources alumnus was appointed in the company and she was really acute to develop the human resource support given to directors across the company and besides for human resource to presume a more strategic function in the concern. Besides, a concern analyst was appointed to urge ways in which information systems and engineering might be effectual and efficient in the company.
Lack of quality information to back up determination devising, planning and control: there was a demand for Tykes Ltd to convey up the debut of information systems in the company so as for the departmental caputs to cognize which information to go through around and besides to cognize which sort of information is available to the directors.
Lack of proper certification of information: this is a really critical issue in Tykes Ltd and this can be related to the direction of production and staff ; information is non readily available and the analysis of the company is usually undertaken in separate Excel spread sheets. Even the senior direction have limited information of costs and net incomes.
Loss of net incomes: Tykes Ltd gross revenues and net incomes persistently fell over the last few old ages and this is due to the addition in demand for quality and organic merchandises over the same period.
Poor public presentation: the company performed ill because of the terrible competition they faced from larger companies in the market every bit good as a few issues which involved the production of the Party – clip scope bars.
Brand job: the production lines for the bars is supposed to be branded with merely Tykes bars alternatively of seeking to divide the mundane bars from the jubilation cakes with different trade name names. This is a large issue because confusion is decidedly traveling to put in and people will non even know that it is the same Tykes Ltd that is bring forthing both the mundane bars and the jubilation bars.
Issue of information systems: the information systems been used in Tykes Ltd does non truly conform to recognized criterions. There was a demand to present the major types of information systems like the DSS, MIS and the ESS.
However, debut of information systems was truly needed in Tykes Ltd because they lacked information to back up determination devising, planning and control.
Issue of selling monetary values: the merchandising monetary values are get downing to acquire dictated by the market conditions and the big supermarkets.