The Water Distribution Network Is Expanding Information Technology Essay

Water escape job is a Southern Cross in most of the imbibing H2O distribution systems. Harmonizing to the findings of the seminar organized jointly by so Nepal Water Supply Corporation ( now, Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited, KUKL ) with TATA Consulting Engineers, CEMAT Consultants Pvt. Ltd and ENTEC Operational Services, UK on March 5, 1995, the overall mean sum of lost, i.e. “ unaccounted for ” H2O in Kathmandu and Pokhara H2O distribution systems was approximately 25 % at 3m force per unit area. Unaccounted for H2O is normally attributed to several causes including escape, metering mistakes, and theft – escape is the major cause. In add-on to environmental and economic losingss caused by escape, leaky pipes pose a public wellness hazard as leaks are possible entry points for contaminations if a force per unit area bead occurs in the system.

Economic force per unit area, concern over public wellness hazard and merely the demand to conserve H2O motivate H2O system operators to implement escape control plans. There has non been any research sing H2O escape sensing and monitoring since 1995. The present system of KUKL uses years-old mechanical majority metres to mensurate the sum of unaccounted for H2O in the distribution web.

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As the H2O distribution web is spread outing, manual appraisal of H2O escape at different field points is infeasible, clip consuming every bit good as imprecise. Taking note of these jobs, we aim to set up a web of automated electromagnetic detectors to mensurate the flow of H2O and escape sensing in different field points locally every bit good as remotely. Specifically, the planned undertaking will present a wholly new system consisting electromagnetic flow metre, acoustic leak sensor, telemetry systems, and centralized waiter system. First, we will be puting up a theoretical account prototyping H2O distribution system with detectors and telemetry apparatuss. After deriving assurance with theoretical account surveies we are be aftering to carry on studies at certain pocket country of KUKL H2O distribution system. The information from study will be verified by the theoretical account surveies. The concluding expected result ( i.e. the statistics of escape volume ) will be deduced by exhaustively analysing the field informations. We hope the consequence from this survey will be utile for contrivers working for imbibing H2O distribution systems for efficient H2O direction by heightening H2O flow monitoring, quality commanding and gross aggregation.

For a complete statistics it is desirable to carry on this sort of research in a complete H2O distribution system like that of KUKL ‘s. However, this undertaking will be limited to a theoretical account survey and a study of a little pocket country due to budget restraints.

In this proposal Chapter I introduces the range and background of the proposed undertaking. Aims and Methodology are described in Chapter II and III, severally. Undertaking flow and execution schemes are presented in Chapter IV. Expected outcomes and impacts are summarized in Chapter V. Overall execution program and Cost appraisal are illustrated in Chapter VI and VII, severally.


The chief aim of the research undertaking is to look into the effectivity of a web of acoustic leak sensing equipments, in peculiar leak noise correlators, for distant localisation of leaks in H2O supply pipes. The research will keep the undermentioned chief aims:

Word picture of leak signals in H2O supply pipes.

Designation of necessary betterments to bing equipment and methods, and

Introduction of web of electronics to track H2O escapes in transmittal system.

Establish a detector web for flow measuring and escape monitoring

Water flow and escape analysis

Escape sensing

Localization of escape point

Leak volume designation


The undertaking begins with the survey of present system of H2O supply and escape monitoring system. A web of electronic flow metre and leak sensors will be setup in a little theoretical account that will be devised in our university research lab. The detector webs will convey the flow and escape dismay ( if any ) to a remotely located waiter where information analysis will be done. After the successful confirmation and analysis of the system theoretical account, it will be implemented on a pilot site.


The major constituents in the proposed system are

Leak Detectors

Flow metre



The extra equipments required are correlators, localizers, sizers, motors, armored combat vehicles, pipes etc.

Leak Detector ( PHOCUS.sms )

Phocus.sms is an intelligent acoustic lumberman which detects the noise generated by a H2O leak. The lumberman samples grapevine noise at one 2nd intervals during each of three periods ( termed epochs ) during the dark when background acoustic noise is lowest. It carries out statistical analysis on each of the three era to find the Leakage Confidence Factor. If this is high so an dismay message is transmitted via samarium. The dismay message besides includes the lowest leak noise amplitude measured, termed the Critical Noise Value. This value is of import as a step of how close to the leak the lumberman is situated. In add-on to the dismay information via samarium Phocus.sms besides transmits a monthly health-check study. The health-check message comprises the last one month of every night Critical Noise Value and Leakage Confidence Factor values. This provides a record of the H2O web acoustic state of affairs. It besides prevents de-registration from the GSM web in the event that an dismay samarium message is non generated for long periods of clip. Logger features Intelligence built into lumberman to find presence and strength of leak noise Integral accelerometer with high sensitiveness to leak noise Operation resistance in most locations with particular distant aerial for optimized public presentation Additional dismaies for low battery and low SMS recognition Powered for 5 old ages Submersible to IP68 Visual indicant The lumberman gives an on-site, ocular indicant of the Critical Noise Value and Leakage Confidence.

Electromagnetic flow metre

Electromagnetic flow metres give standard stable measuring even in rough operating conditions. Accuracy is non affected by the alterations of fluid denseness, viscousness, temperature and force per unit area. None of its constituents halt the flow in the pipe. Pressure loss is low and it is maintenance-free every bit good. There is low demand of the consecutive pipe subdivision. The detector may hold grounded electrode to recognize sound foundation of metre. All signal processing is digital and strong anti-interference ability makes measuring dependable and accurate. It supports bi-direction flow measuring with bidirectional entire cumulative map. One of its of import characteristics is its HART communicating map.

Telemetry ( WirelessHART Technology )

WirelessHART engineering provides a robust radio protocol for the full scope of procedure measuring, control, and plus direction applications. Based on the proven and familiar HART Communication Protocol, WirelessHART enables users to rapidly and easy derive the benefits of radio engineering while keeping compatibility with bing devices, tools, and systems.

The HART Communication Foundation, its member companies and the industry leaders developed WirelessHART engineering to run into the alone demands of radio webs runing in procedure workss.

Cardinal Capabilities:

Reliability even in the presence of intervention, thanks to engineering like mesh networking, channel hopping, and time-synchronized messaging. WirelessHART coexistence with other radio webs is assured.

Security and privateness for web communications through encoding, confirmation, hallmark, cardinal direction, and other unfastened industry-standard best patterns.

Effective power direction through Smart Data Publishing and other techniques that make batteries, solar and other low-power options practical for radio devices.


WirelessHART is a radio mesh web communications protocol for procedure mechanization applications. It adds wireless capablenesss to the HART Protocol while keeping compatibility with bing HART devices, bids, and tools.

Each WirelessHART web includes three chief elements:

Wireless field devices connected to treat or works equipment.A This device could be a device with WirelessHART built in or an bing installed HART-enabled device with a WirelessHART arranger attached to it.

Gateways enable communicating between these devices and host applications connected to a high-velocity anchor or other bing works communications web.

A Network Manager is responsible for configuring the web, schedulingA A communications between devices, pull offing message paths, and supervising web wellness. The Network Manager can be integrated into the gateway, host application, or procedure mechanization accountant.

Figure 1: Wireless HART Network

A­A­A­The web uses IEEE 802.15.4 compatible wirelesss runing in the 2.4GHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical wireless set. The radios employ direct-sequence spread spectrum engineering and channel hopping for communicating security and dependability, every bit good as TDMA synchronized, latency-controlled communications between devices on the web. This engineering has been proven in field tests and existent works installings across a wide scope of procedure control industries.

Each device in the mesh web can function as a router for messages from other devices. In other words, a device does n’t hold to pass on straight to a gateway, but merely send on its message to the following closest device. This extends the scope of the web and provides excess communicating paths to increase dependability.

The Network Manager determines the redundant paths based on latency, efficiency and dependability. To guarantee the redundant routes remain unfastened and unobstructed, messages continuously alternate between the excess waies. Consequently, like the Internet, if a message is unable to make its finish by one way, it is automatically re-routed to follow a known-good, excess way with no loss of data.A

The mesh design besides makes adding or traveling devices easily. Equally long as a device is within scope of others in the web, it can pass on.

For flexibleness to run into different application demands, the WirelessHART criterion supports multiple messaging manners including one-way publication of procedure and control values, self-generated presentment by exclusion, ad-hoc request/response, and auto-segmented block transportations of big informations sets. These capablenesss allow communications to be tailored to application demands thereby cut downing power use and operating expense.


The informations collected from each node will be updated in the centrally located server Personal computer. The analysis of the collected informations will be done in this server Personal computer.


Figure 2: Undertaking Flow and Key Activities

Supply theoretical account apparatus:

A installation will be constructed particularly for the undertaking in an experimental site at the Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering. Available equipments and tools in assorted research labs of the institute will be used for the research work. The trials will affect turn uping fake leaks at the experimental site without holding prior knowledge about their existent location.

Sensor / Network apparatus:

A web will be setup utilizing leak sensors and flow metres on the H2O supply theoretical account. The figure of detectors and flow metres will be determined by the country of coverage of the H2O supply theoretical account. The thought procedure for multiple detectors is to correlate acoustic, temperature, and force per unit area informations together in leak sensing and location pinpointing.A

Remote informations aggregation:

The detectors and flow metres will be invariably monitored to obtain the information values for escape sensing. The information will be stored in a telemetry informations lumberman which operates via GSM cellular wireless utilizing the Short-Messaging-Service ( SMS ) along with wireless-HART web. The informations lumberman can be used with a broad assortment of detectors for monitoring H2O webs.

The information lumberman communicates by directing text messages to a computing machine. The information lumberman has two flexible manners of operation:

Routine information transportation:

The lumberman can be pre-programmed to direct day-to-day text messages to a host computing machine. These messages contain the logged informations such as flow, force per unit area or deepness. It can besides direct surpassing dismay messages to a Personal computer or nomadic telephone.

Communication as required:

In add-on the lumberman has the capableness to be contacted from a Personal computer. This enables the user to obtain current informations values.

Datas analysis:

The informations received via the GSM theoretical account will be manipulated and further analyzed to place any escape bing in the system. Once the information is available on the receiver side, leaks can be identified and so located by utilizing leak-pinpointing package, and preventive care can follow. After the finding of the leak point, the leak size and volume of escape will be determined with the aid of Leak Sizer, an instrument holding package within to analyse leak sound to pull out a scope of cardinal characteristics.


Since the aim of this undertaking is to present a new IT based system for imbibing H2O supply system monitoring, it would be helpful for those governments working for H2O supply system to exactly supervise the distribution system and pinpoint possible leak locations and illegal tapes. It means, the undertaking will supply practical guidelines to H2O direction with quality control by heightening gross aggregations with proper H2O distribution. Overall, the undertaking will open gateways to follow new IT based systems over the bing manual H2O flow monitoring system.

As this research is a venture of IT with H2O supply system, it opens gateway to immature research workers working in IT field to spread out their research sphere into different countries that concern straight to the people. Since we will be developing a theoretical account to get down this undertaking, the proposed theoretical account will be utile for practical learning both undergraduate and graduate pupils.


Figure 3: Research Agenda

Cost Appraisal



Budget ( NRs )





Research workers



Part-time Advisers


degree Celsiuss




Equipment and Software



Flow metres



Leak Detectors


degree Celsiuss

GSM Modem


vitamin D

Wireless HART arranger


vitamin E

Personal computer


degree Fahrenheit

Shrieking, adjustments, motors, reservoirs and accoutrements







Assorted Administration and Support Costs ( including equipment mobilisation costs )








Table 1: Research Cost Estimation


TATA Consulting Engineers, “ Nepal: Leak Detection and Waste Control Program ” , March 5, 1995.

Xiao-Li Cao1, Chao-Yuan Jiang, Si-Yuan Gan, “ Leakage Monitoring And Locating Method Of Water Supply Pipe Network ” Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Kunming, 12-15 July 2008

Craig Huhta, Chris Ward, ” Flow Measurements utilizing an Upward-Looking Argonaut-SW Doppler Current Meter ” , Proceedings of the IEEUOES Seventh Working Conference on Current Measurement Technology, 2003.

Amjad Awawdeh, Satish T.S. Bukkapatnam, Soundar R.T. Kumara, Charles Bunting, Ranga Komanduri, “ Wireless Sensing of Flow-Induced Vibrations for Pipeline Integrity Monitoring ”

Damodar Bhattarai, Sagar Raj Goutam, “ Water Resources of Nepal: Challenges and Oppurtunities ”

D.B. Chadwick et Al, “ New Techniques for Evaluating Water and Contaminant Exchange at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface ” , IEEE, 2002.

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