The Various Wi Fi Standards Information Technology Essay

Wi-Fi, besides known as 802.11, is a broadband radio engineering which provides high velocity radio cyberspace entree in distinct locations. Puting up a Wi-Fi web involves stop uping a little base-station into a broadband connexion. Users of Wi-Fi enabled laptops and manus held computing machines located within 50 meters of a basal station can so link to the cyberspace wirelessly at broadband velocities. This paper is designed to reply inquiries sing the background of Wi-Fi engineering, how it works, the jobs involved with said engineering, what economic and regulative restraints might act upon a determination to travel frontward, and how successful application might be.


Hotspots, DSSS, Broadband, Roaming, Multipoint, WPA, IP, MAC

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Wi-Fi is possibly the hottest and fastest turning service telecommunications engineering WiFi-an acronym for wireless fidelity ( radio ) -encompasses a figure of criterions that enable computing machines and other devices to link wirelessly to local country webs. It is merely a criterion for wireless enfranchisement for the connectivity of radio webs with several nomadic devices. Wi-Fi ‘hotspots ‘ can be found in airdromes, saloons, offices, coffeehouse and hotel anterooms.


The purpose is to understand the functionality, applications, and characteristics of Wi-Fi engineering. The development of Wi-Fi criterions and webs are described, every bit good as how this development has allowed for the usage of more bandwidth-intensive applications. The specific characteristics selected for analysis are

common to most wireless engineerings and let a common platform for comparing. The paper assesses operational issues, possible deployment scenarios, and success narratives and provides recommendations for the usage of Wi-Fi for backup communications.

Wi-Fi engineering

Wireless Fidelity, better known as Wi-Fi, is a term used to depict the underlying engineering of wireless local country webs ( WLAN ) based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ) 802.11 criterions. Initially intended to link nomadic calculating devices in local country webs ( LAN ) , Wi-Fi applications have grown to include assorted informations, voice, and picture services such as Internet entree and Voice over Internet Protocol ( VoIP ) [ 2, 3 ] . With the turning popularity of little portable devices, a radio web connexion proves more good by minimising expensive deployment costs, supplying user mobility, and back uping high bandwidth and quality of service ( QoS ) needs compared with traditional wired LANs. In add-on, assorted IEEE 802.11 criterions now in development are aimed to increase the public presentation of Wi-Fi webs and to supply users with greater flexibleness in radio communications.

Wi-Fi engineering platform is based on single-carrier direct-sequence spread spectrum ( DSSS ) and multi-carrier Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ) wireless engineerings to convey and have signals. The original version of the criterion, now referred to as “ 802.11legacy, ” was released in 1997 and had specified a maximal information rate of 2 Megabits per second ( Mbps ) , which was considered excessively slow to back up many high-data rate applications ( e.g. , picture telephone ) [ 4, 5 ] . The IEEE 802.11 criterions household consists of many amendments and service sweetenings to the original criterion, with the most popular being the “ a, ” “ B, ” and “ g ” criterions. Although the 802.11a criterion was the first criterion created in the 802.11 household, the 802.11b criterion became the first widely accepted radio networking criterion, subsequently followed by 802.11a and 802.11g.


Figure 1. Common Wi-Fi Network [ 6 ]

Wi-Fi is more normally used in point-to-multipoint ( PMP ) environments to let drawn-out web connectivity ( e.g. , private/backbone web, Internet ) of multiple portable devices such as laptops, telephones, or PDAs. Wi-Fi besides allows connectivity in point-to-point ( P2P ) manner, which enables devices to straight link and pass on to each other. A part covered by one or more APs is considered a “ hot spot. ” Home webs normally deploy one AP that is typically connected straight to an Internet service supplier ( ISP ) , whereas larger webs ( e.g. , endeavors, little concerns ) may necessitate at least several APs positioned in strategic locations to supply flexibleness of service to a big figure of users [ 2 ] . Because of scope restraints, Wi-Fi webs are used in localised parts.

The assorted Wi-Fi criterions

The IEEE 802.11 criterion is really merely the earliest criterion, leting 1-2 Mbps of bandwidth. Amendments have be made to the original criterion in order to optimise bandwidth ( these include the 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g criterions, which are called 802.11 physical criterions ) or to better stipulate constituents in order to guarantee improved security or compatibility. The assorted amendments to the 802.11 criterion and their significance- :

802.11a – Wifi5

802.11b – Wireless local area network

802.11c – Bridging 802.11 and 802.1d

802.11d – Internationalization

802.11e – Bettering service quality

802.11f – Roaming




Layers of Wi-Fi

The 802.11 criterion militias the low degrees of theA OSI modelA for a wireless connexion that uses electromagnetic moving ridges.

Physical Layer

The physical bed defines the wireless moving ridge transition and signaling features for informations transmittal, while The 802.11 criterion really has three physical beds, which define alternate manners of transmittal: There are three sub beds in physical bed:

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum ( DSSS )

Frequency Hoping Spread Spectrum ( FHSS )

Diffused Infrared ( DFIR ) – Wide angle

Data Link bed

The information nexus bed defines the interface between the machine ‘s coach and the physical bed. The information nexus bed consists of two sub beds:

Logical Link Control ( LLC )

Media Access Control ( MAC )

Wi-Fi Network Elementss

The basic elements required are Access Points are the radio LAN base station that helps in linking assorted devices. Wi-Fi cards are chiefly inbuilt in laptops that accept signals. Antivirus and Firewalls that helps the web in procuring information.

Wi-Fi Technical Features

The primary criterions of Wi-Fi engineering have been developed from the IEEE criterions commissions to supply radio capablenesss that include assorted proficient characteristics.

The 802.11 a/b/g criterions back up some step of security utilizing mechanisms such as Wired Equivalent Privacy ( WEP ) and Wi-Fi Protected Access ( WPA ) , as developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance. The 802.11i criterion is designed to offer increased security on radio interfaces with hardware aid.

The 802.11a criterion supports wireless entree in the 5 GHz frequence scope, whereas the 802.11b/g criterions back up the unaccredited set 2.4 GHz. While the 802.11b/g criterions can back up radio entree up to about 300 pess indoors and 1000 pess out-of-doorss, the 802.11a criterion supports wireless entree at lesser scope of up to about 225 pess. Additionally, both the 802.11a and 802.11g criterions can back up high-velocity informations rates up to about 54 Mbps, while the 802.11b criterions supports informations speed up to 11 Mbps [ 4, 10, 16 ] .

Wi-Fi was originally designed for best-effort services. To enable QoS techniques in Wi-Fi webs, the IEEE 802.11 commission passed the 802.11e specification in September 2005 to specify alterations to the operation of the 802.11 MAC bed that enables prioritization and categories of service [ 14 ] . Table 1 summarizes those proficient characteristics for the assorted Wi-Fi engineerings.

Technical Feature

Primary Wi-Fi Technology








Frequency Band/

Channel Transition

5 GHz/


2.4 GHz /

11 Channels, DSSS with CCK

2.4 GHz/

OFDM above 20Mbps, DSSS with CCK below 20Mbps

Range and Coverage

( normally advertised )

shorter scope than 802.11b ( ~225 pess )

300 pess ( indoors )

1000 pess ( out-of-doorss )

300 pess ( indoors )

1000 pess ( out-of-doorss )

Data Rate

Up to 54Mbps

Up to 11Mbps

Up to 54Mbps

Quality of Service ( QoS )

Supports 802.11e

Supports 802.11e

Supports 802.11e






Not interoperable with 802.11b/g

Interoperable with 802.11g. Not interoperable with 802.11a

Interoperable with 802.11b. Not interoperable with 802.11a

Table 1. High-level Comparison of Wi-Fi Technologies [ 3, 9 ]



Wi-Fi webs typically consist of one or more APs and one or more clients. An AP will air its Network Name, besides referred to as the “ Service Set Identifier ” ( SSID ) , through informations packages, called beacons, every 100 msecs ( MS ) . Beacons are transmitted at a rate of 1 Mbps to guarantee that the connected user having the beacon is really provided an expected information rate of at least 1 Mbps [ 3, 5, 9 ] . The Wi-Fi criterion enables users to make up one’s mind whether to link to an AP. The microcode installed in the Wi-Fi client arranger card besides has an influence during the connexion procedure. If two APs of the same SSID are in scope of the client, the microcode may automatically make up one’s mind which of the two APs it will link based on signal strength.

Media Access Control and Physical Layers

The 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g Wi-Fi amendments all use the same Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance ( CSMA/CA ) signaling method in the media entree control ( MAC ) bed as defined in the original 802.11 criterion. The difference between the three criterions lies in the physical ( PHY ) bed and with the transition technique used to convey a signal. The 802.11b amendment employs complementary codification keying ( CCK ) , which is a direct extension of the DSSS transition technique [ 10, 11 ] . Conversely, 802.11a utilizations OFDM engineering, which consequences in an addition in channel handiness and informations rate public presentation [ 10 ] . 802.11g utilizes both techniques depending on the application demand for a peculiar state of affairs [ 12 ] . Appendix A includes extra elaborate information sing the MAC and PHY beds of Wi-Fi engineering.

Existing Technologies

Four IEEE WLAN criterions mainstream Wi-Fi engineering: 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, and 802.11a. As celebrated earlier, 802.11b became the first wireless criterion to be implemented widely. It was non, nevertheless, the first signifier of the 802.11 specification. The 802.11b criterion arrived after 802.11 Legacy, the first version of the IEEE criterion. With a velocity addition and monetary value decrease over 802.11 Legacy, 802.11b rapidly became an recognized engineering, doing Wi-Fi more mainstream. Officially ratified in 1999, 802.11b operated on the 2.4 GHz set. This became a disadvantage for 802.11b users, as the 2.4 GHz set was shared by many other contraptions, including cordless phones, microwave ovens, and Bluetooth engineering. This led to considerable intervention and debasement of the signal and finally slower connexion velocities.

Capable of “ point-to-multipoint ” abilities, an 802.11b entree point sends out a signal from one location to be potentially received in multiple locations at the same time. The information transportation velocities can make every bit high as 11 Mbits per second, presuming merely the absolute best conditions. As the signal grows weaker, transportation velocities diminish consequently. In such instances, the informations transfer velocity will be reduced from 11 Mbits per second to 5 Mbits per second, so 2 Mbits per second, and so eventually 1 Mbit per second as the signal continues to weaken. Additionally, the entree point may be configured for point-to-point as opposed to point-to-multipoint, leting for the transportation of informations to merely one user faster over a much greater distance, easing going from the entree point and still stay affiliated. The 802.11b criterion was instantly compatible with 802.11g, which was introduced several old ages subsequently.

The 2nd IEEE criterion introduced, 802.11a, was ratified in 1999. Unlike 802.11b, 802.11a operated on the 5 GHz set as opposed to 802.11b ‘s 2.4 GHz set, which meant intervention no longer interfered with other electronic contraptions as it had done for those on 2.4 gigahertz frequence. Ultimately, this suggested better signals and increased velocities over the old specification. However, one important job occurred with the use of the 5 GHz set. It was known that operating at the frequence gave a different signal than with 2.4 GHz. Obstacles absorbed the signal much more than the old set. Therefore, the signal did non perforate as far, and it required a better line-of-sight. This nevertheless, merely meant more entree points were needed to run the web expeditiously.

Sing velocity, 802.11a offered a possible information transportation velocity of 54 Mbits per second, about five times faster than that of 802.11b. As the 802.11a signal diminished, the informations transfer velocity was reduced to 48 Mbits per second, 36 Mbits per second, 24 Mbits per second, 18 Mbits per second, 12 Mbits per second, 9 Mbits per second, and eventually 6 Mbits per second.

Curiously, this criterion was non every bit good received as 802.11b. It was released to the populace shortly after the 802.11b, but due to its short scope effectivity and authorities ordinances, it did non go about every bit widely implemented as the 802.11b had been. Technological betterments have led better signals, about comparable to that of 802.11b, and the authoritiess around the universe have facilitated the engineering for people to utilize. The 802.11a criterion is merely compatible with itself.

One of the newer Wi-Fi engineerings was the 802.11g, ratified in 2003, became the 3rd criterion to be introduced. Like the 802.11b specification, 802.11g returned to the 2.4 GHz set, merely with the velocity of the 802.11a. The 802.11g had a possible information transportation velocity of 54 Mbits per second. It appeared to unite the best parts of its two predecessors, 802.11b ‘s strong signal scope coupled with 802.11a ‘s faster informations transportation velocities. Of class it inherited the defects of the 802.11b ‘s intervention from the other contraptions on the 2.4 GHz set every bit good ; however, it was hoped that the increased velocity would do up for it shortcomings. As the signal weakened, the informations transfer velocity was reduced to 48 Mbits per second, 36 Mbits per second, 24 Mbits per second, 18 Mbits per second, 12 Mbits per second, 9 Mbits per second, and eventually 6 Mbits per second. This is the same velocity debasement form seen from the 802.11a criterion.

802.11g, while widely adopted, had its just portion of jobs. It appeared that the intervention caused by other contraptions on the 2.4 GHz set had a greater affect on the 802.11g than it did with 802.11b, because of its higher velocities. This intervention causes the velocity to drop to highly low degrees, intending 802.11g users were non seeing velocities that much greater than person utilizing 802.11b.

This engineering became widely adopted by the populace as it was backwards compatible with 802.11b as they both used the 2.4 GHz set. While the two were compatible, holding an 802.11b on an 802.11g web would however decelerate bandwidth well.


Many have questioned if informations on Wi-Fi webs is unafraid. Now this is often asked, as it is of import to maintain personal and confidential information from acquiring into the custodies of others. Computers are directing informations through the air to one another, so how can any of it be protected? Often computing machine users surfing the cyberspace over Wi-Fi connexions enter legion user names, watchwords, recognition card Numberss, and banking information. Malicious users can “ whiff ” utilizing plans called “ wardrivers ” to observe Wi-Fi webs that might be broad unfastened to the populace. This allows them entree to the web. Once on the webs, it is possible for them to utilize specialised plans to stop signals being sent through the radio web, deriving entree to anything familial and received by the user.

This may sound chilling ; nevertheless, there is good protection from it. For personal users, protecting yourself can be simple as adding a firewall, turning off auto-connect to waiters, coding informations, and utilizing anti-virus protection. For concerns, decision makers need to trip the constitutional encoding ability of the computing machines right off. It is besides recommended that the concerns use a Virtual Private Network ( VPN ) connexion to make a connexion that can non be intercepted by any other computing machines than the 1s intended to have the information. Businesss should besides utilize the latest version of the Wi-Fi Protected Access ( WPA2 ) , which will maintain all confidential informations safe. It would besides be a good thought to put up a Secure Sockets Layer ( SSL ) when utilizing web services.

Advantages of Wi-Fi

Network connexions based on the Wi-Fi platform present many benefits to clients, particularly in the countries of easiness of deployment, cost, and flexibleness. Wi-Fi engineering does non necessitate the usage of wires to put up a LAN. Thus, Wi-Fi webs are easier and quicker to put in compared with traditional wired LANs. This characteristic can be utile in exigency state of affairss where communications must be established in a short period of clip. Wi-Fi besides offers users situated in locations non accessible by wires with an alternate method for easy linking to a nearby web.

Wi-Fi has been considered an economical signifier of networking because of the lessening in Si monetary values used in the production of Wi-Fi devices. As a consequence, the Wi-Fi platform is being incorporated into a broad array of devices to guarantee high-velocity radio informations, voice, and picture service capablenesss [ 3 ] . The deficiency of wires besides reduces costs associated with extra overseas telegrams and installing fees.

A big figure of public hot spots are now found in places, corporate endeavors, and university campuses worldwide. Many military operations have integrated Wi-Fi engineering to back up multiple field applications. Users possessing portable Wi-Fi devices in these locations can remain attached to the web while rolling by merely linking to the nearest entree point. If there is an equal figure of APs, the job of by chance go forthing a coverage country is eliminated, thereby avoiding unexpected breaks in of import communicating applications. The fact that Wi-Fi supports mobility introduces extra voice and picture applications that could non be antecedently supported. Applications that require low latency in order to supply high-quality service [ 3 ] , such as VoIP and vehicular communications, are now possible through Wi-Fi webs.

Since the coming of the original 802.11 criterion, many sweetenings and amendments have been added to better upon anterior defects. As of 2006, security has been improved with the add-on of WPA and WPA2 encoding methods, proven to be really hard to check if strong watchwords are used. Furthermore, new protocols for QoS and power-saving mechanisms make Wi-Fi more suited for latency-sensitive applications such as voice and picture services [ 3 ] . Further specifications to heighten Wi-Fi engineering are in the plants or in early proposal phases.

Disadvantages of Wi-Fi

It is known that there are a few clear defects of Wi-Fi engineering. While 802.11n provides important addition in scope for radio webs, many of the estimations are generous. Similarly Wi-Fi will ne’er be as fast or stable as a wired ethernet web. Rolling besides becomes an issue. True mobility can non be achieved without proper rolling capablenesss, leting the passage from one radio entree point to another. As antecedently mentioned, weakened signal strength further worsened through frequence intervention provides a system of decreasing returns.

Last, security has been changeless issue. It takes a competent computing machine user to decently configure the security scenes for any wireless web. Wireless webs have frequently been compared to walking outside without have oning any apparels. Anyone is able to utilize unbarred radio webs and therefore have possible entree to sensitive information. Furthermore, the most popular security step WEP, has been proven uneffective through many beginnings. Presently, there are even web sites that provide elaborate ushers and tools for successfully checking a WEP “ secured ” web. However, the promotion of the WPA security step is a positive measure for a secure radio environment. However, it has non been implemented widely.

Future of Wi-Fi

The hereafter is set to supply greater and longer connexion ranges with faster transportation velocities. This allows users to freely surf on the web, cheque and send electronic mails, connect to your corporate web, make free voice over IP phone calls, play on-line games, update your web log, and IM with your friends more expeditiously with stablenesss. As of 2010A Wi-Fi engineering has spread widely within concern and industrial sites. In concern environments, merely like other environments, increasing the figure of Wi-Fi entree points provides web redundancy, support for fastA roamingA and increased overall network-capacity by utilizing more channels or by specifying smaller cells. Wi-Fi enables wireless voice-applications.

New Wi-Fi Applications

Early utilizations of Wi-Fi WLANs were preponderantly meant for set uping a individual high-velocity Internet connexion for multiple users. The original criterions specified informations rates that could back up merely basic informations services and were impractical for low-latency applications. However, as the capablenesss of Wi-Fi webs escalated by manner of amendments and sweetenings, clients were able to execute voice and picture services without any loss in quality. Voice applications over WLANs allow users to ever remain connected, therefore cut downing response times in exigency state of affairss. As the Wi-Fi criterion continues to better, voice and picture services can be applied otherwise to better function the community.

Another use of Wi-Fi engineering turning in popularity is in respect to video surveillance. Many metropoliss are sing using picture surveillance cameras on streetlamps to diminish condemnable activities. Previously, informations gathered on surveillance cameras was easy lost with harm to the tape. Wi-Fi cameras will now be able to convey picture in real-time to a cardinal database, vouching better dependability in salvaging information.


At present the major telecoms companies appear to be optimistic that the populace will be receptive to Wi-Fi services and that this will fuel telecoms growing, complementing 3G services over the following 4-5 old ages. A figure of industry analysts on the other manus are warning that Wi-Fi may non be the metaphorical ‘golden goose ‘ that has been predicted. They cite competition from of all time sophisticated nomadic webs, the handiness of free Wi-Fi entree through community sites, and consumer behavioural forms ( non everyone carries a laptop, and those that do have them will non systematically have them ) every bit grounds as to why the flight to Wi-Fi may take off more easy than expected, or even anchor itself.

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