The Use Of Pob In Alj Management Essay
This survey set out to research the impact of positive organizational behavior as practiced in a big private company in Saudi Arabia. In add-on, this survey besides sought out to associate POB with PsyCap development, employee battle, and employee occupation satisfaction. Using a qualitative instance survey research design, this survey utilised face-to-face and phone interviews with directors of ALJ Group and questionnaires with employees from three ( 3 ) sections in the company: Partss, Gross saless, and Services. This chapter provides a reappraisal and treatment of the consequences utilizing relevant literature and surveies. It presents the common subjects and forms originating out of directors ‘ sentiments on POB every bit good as their beliefs on how POB benefits organizational pattern and results. Primary information was obtained through questionnaires and interviews with 5 ALJ directors and 20 ALJ employees. Secondary informations will be derived from pertinent literature in order to reply the undermentioned research inquiries:
What are the advantages of using positive organizational behavioral patterns in ALJ?
What possible recommendations are at that place for leaders and directors as to how best to make a positive clime which will heighten employee productiveness and battle?
What are the benefits of the psychological contract in bettering occupation satisfaction and finally high public presentation?
4.1.1 The Use of POB in ALJ
Five mid-level and senior directors of the ALJ Group served as the chief sources for this instance study research. All of them males, the directors headed assorted sections within the company: IT Support, Guest Relations, Organisational Development, Marketing, and Gross saless. All directors recognised the diverseness within the company, being one with an organizational civilization characterised and mediated by 45 different nationalities, to be an plus and non a liability. Although they recognised that the undertaking of pull offing diverse sections make their occupation more ambitious, the diverseness has however enriched the organizational clime. All directors were already familiar with the execution of POB, some more familiar than others. The programmes related to PsyCap development and POB patterns which were mentioned by the directors include the assorted leading development programmes already in force since 2005 such as the Leadership Excellence Acceleration Process ( LEAP ) for executive degree, MBA programme for in-between direction and Middle Management Development Process ( MDP ) . The Employee Engagement Programme was besides mentioned to hold been implemented in order to ease the active battle and work committedness of employees at all degrees of the administration. PsyCap development programmes were viewed to hold the aim of heightening the emotional intelligence of employees.
The directors besides mentioned the usage of rating tools to estimate how POB could be good to the company and to function as benchmark surveies to measure attitudes and beliefs, demands, and perceptual experiences of employees sing their several maps and their functions in administration. All the directors reported utilizing the Q12 as an one-year rating tool for employees ‘ occupation satisfaction, trueness and battle. Besides mentioned was the SF34 which measured the psychological capital of the employees. Another director mentioned the execution of direction schemes PRIDA and HOSHIN across all degrees of the administration to understate difference between the director and the employees.
4.1.2 Advantages of POB in ALJ
Many of the respondents provided rich descriptions of alterations that they had either personally experienced or that they had observed in their squad members. Several subjects emerged from these responses.
First, a figure of directors mentioned holding benefitted from an increased degree of consciousness of the demands of employees and being more attentive to their remarks and suggestions. One director commented: “ Appraising tools for PsyCap development has taught me that I need to listen more and detect more on what goes on with associates and how they might be experiencing. ” Another director mentioned that the execution of POB in the company has helped him derive a better apprehension of what manager-employee dealingss truly means: “ It is non plenty that you ask and expect employees to be the best at what they do. As a director, you need to put a positive organizational clime. ” Another director reported holding a deeper apprehension of his associates, “ I learned so much about my squad because of appraising tools like Q12. In the past, I can experience that my leading in the section was challenged for assorted grounds. Some employees merely do non wish to work with me. I ne’er understood why until now. ”
Second, the directors besides mentioned that POB has helped employees develop more positive behavior and better emotional intelligence. One director mentioned, “ POB tools aid do members of my section feel valued. The leading programmes increase their competence, and therefore, their self-esteem. ” Another director mentioned that simple positive patterns are already helpful but the institutionalization of POB makes employees work with great motive and pride. One director mentioned that complementing an employee instead than seeing merely his failings will advance a positive work attitude, “ Motivation and good communicating are the chief tools needed to decently prosecute the employees and do them take part in accomplishing the company ‘s ends. ” One director believed that better self-pride among employees is a merchandise of positive manager-employee dealingss, “ POB as a direction tool creates harmoniousness was really effectual in bridging the communicating spread between director and employees. ” Another director mentioned how valuable PsyCap preparations and programmes are in furthering managerial competency in animating employee motive, “ The preparations provided to the directors helped better the relationship between the director and his subsidiaries. ” All of the respondents opined that directors must be mandated to hold such preparations.
A 3rd common subject among the responses of the directors was that POB patterns result to better productiveness among employees and is hence good to the company in general. One director was able to compare the difference in organizational results with and without POB, “ PsyCap has improved the associates ‘ battle taking to the addition in gross revenues, nevertheless, when the method was replaced, gross revenues declined. ”
A 4th common subject that emerged from the interviews was the positive feedback that they had received from employees after PsyCap intercession. Several directors had amended their direction manners to advance avowal of employee public presentation and greater acknowledgment of the attempts and successes of employees, “ Before PsyCap, I knew who among my associates have been executing good but I ne’er truly singled them out and personally congratulated them. Now that I do ad-lib acknowledgment, employees react more positively to me. ” One director reported that a positive clime in the office sometimes requires merely mere acknowledgment that an employee is making the right thing. As explained by one director, “ Employees and directors are basically the same, we want to be appreciated and recognised when we do good. ” All directors reported that this pattern promotes harmoniousness in their offices and makes everyone feel valuable to the company.
Aside from the positive responses the directors gave sing POB and PsyCap programmes, they besides shared what they found disputing about this direction tool. Two directors admitted that civilization was disputing because they have to be careful about sensitivenesss of employees. Harmonizing to one director, the morale clime of the company has to be decently implemented since the company is a pool of different faiths and beliefs, “ From my terminal, I use unfastened duologue as the chief tool to get the better of the diverseness of the employees. ”
Another restraint was clip, “ Equally much as possible, I would desire my squad members and I to set up resonance and trust through team-building activities, but at that place seems ne’er adequate clip. ” Another major concern is the continuity of the success of PsyCap intercession, “ PsyCap truly worked for the old squad members I had but I am disquieted that the successes of the intercession will non be sustained when I find myself in another section or if my former employees passage to other sections. ” All directors believed that they have felt and observed the benefits of PsyCap and see the continuance of POB patterns to maximize to the full its impact for the company. While the directors were consentaneous in confirming that POB and PsyCap is a important direction tool for a planetary cosmopolite company like ALJ, the execution of such schemes is still a challenge. Directors rated an norm of 7 out of 10 when asked to measure the successful execution of POB schemes in the company.
Aside from the interviews with directors, a PsyCap rating tool was handed out to the employees of three different sections at ALJ: Servicess, Parts, and Gross saless. The tool had 24 inquiries all in all, categorised into four different subsets to mensurate the different PsyCap indexs: self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency. Analysis of the PsyCap questionnaires revealed agencies that were tantamount to really high degrees of PsyCap indexs among employees of different sections. This is consistent with the observations of directors about the increased degrees of assurance which were seen among employees. This determination is besides consistent with several surveies demoing that PsyCap intercession leads to higher degrees of self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and resiliency ( Avey, Luthans, and Mhatre 2008 ; Luthans, Avolio, Avey, and Norman 2007 ) .
Table 1. Means of PsyCap tonss among ALJ Employees
5.63 ( VH ) *
5.44 ( VH )
5.5 ( VH )
5.93 ( VH )
5.83 ( VH )
5.69 ( VH )
5.8 ( VH )
5.58 ( VH )
5.8 ( VH )
5.44 ( VH )
5.69 ( VH )
5.44 ( VH )
Legend: *VL – really low degree ; L – low degree ; U – undecided ; H – high degree ; VH – really high degree
4.1.3 Recommendations on Making a Positive Organisational Climate
All of the directors besides weighed in on how ALJ could advance and make a positive organizational clime among different sections and across all degrees of the administration. A common recommendation is the betterment of the internal communicating channel within the company. Another common subject was the standardisation of PsyCap rating tools in order to inform directors about employee ‘s demands every bit good as assist employees in a better apprehension of their ain demands. One director mentioned that it is of import for the company to recognize employees from across all degrees of the administration as a scheme to advance positive organizational clime. Another director opined on the importance of proper planning of the methods and schemes in ALJ, “ The execution of the positive organizational behavior is still new in the company. We still have a long manner to travel. Focus should be given on how to develop directors into using PsyCap tools effectively. “ One helpful recommendation was the formation of a squad that will organize with all concern units toward the pattern of positive psychological capital in the company. The same sentiment came from one director, “ Directors must be the first to derive cognition to be able to put as an illustration to their subsidiaries. ”
4.1.4 Impact of POB on Job Satisfaction and Employee Engagement
Besides important to this scrutiny of the importance of POB in a big private company is finding how employees benefit from positive behavioral patterns in footings of employee battle and occupation satisfaction. A sum of 20 employees of ALJ were given study questionnaires for them to carry through. The end was to measure how employees perceived of their battle with the company every bit good as their satisfaction with their several occupations.
188.8.131.52 Employee Battle
Twelve subsets mensurating employee battle were analyzed ( see Table 2 ) .
Table 2. Means of Employee Engagement scores among ALJ Employees
I know what is expected of me at work.
4.80 ( A ) *
4.80 ( A )
4.70 ( A )
I have the stuffs and equipment I need to make my work.
4.80 ( A )
4.80 ( A )
4.80 ( A )
At work, I have the chance to make what I do best every twenty-four hours
4.80 ( A )
4.80 ( A )
4.50 ( A )
In the last seven yearss, I have received acknowledgment or congratulations for making good work
4.80 ( A )
4.80 ( A )
4.50 ( A )
My supervisor, or person at work seems to care approximately me as a individual
5.00 ( A )
5.00 ( A )
4.30 ( A )
There is person at work who encourages my development
5.00 ( A )
5.00 ( A )
4.60 ( A )
At work, my sentiments seem to number
4.60 ( A )
4.60 ( A )
4.60 ( A )
The mission or intent of my company makes me experience my occupation is of import
4.80 ( A )
4.80 ( A )
4.80 ( A )
My associates or fellow employees are committed to making quality work
5.00 ( AE )
5.00 ( AE )
4.80 ( AE )
I have a best friend at work
4.80 ( AE )
4.80 ( AE )
4.50 ( AE )
In the last six months, person at work has talked to me about my advancement
4.20 ( AE )
4.20 ( AE )
4.40 ( AE )
This last twelvemonth, I have had chances at work to larn and turn
4.60 ( AE )
4.60 ( AE )
4.70 ( AE )
Legend: *DE – active detachment ; AE – active battle
Based on the agencies of the responses of ALJ employees on all 12 subset, the histories of the directors interviewed sing the advantages of PsyCap on employees is consistent. ALJ employees perceived that they were actively engaged with the company at assorted cases. First, they knew what the administration expected of them in footings of work. They were besides cognizant of the demands and competences which were required of them to make an effectual occupation. On manager-employee relationship, the employees felt that they had a supervisor or a supervisor who cared about their feelings and their public presentation. They were positively recognised by their directors on a regular basis and there is no sensed gulf between the employee and the director.
184.108.40.206 Job Satisfaction
Another of import impact of POB patterns that this survey wanted to analyze was employee occupation satisfaction. The consequences from the questionnaires seem consistent with several empirical surveies proposing that PsyCap and POB patterns enhance occupation satisfaction among employees ( Luthans, Norman, Avolio, and Avey 2008 ; Avey, Patera, and West 2006 ) .
Table 3. Employee Job Satisfaction of ALJ Employees
General working conditions ( hours-worked, schedule flexibleness, work location, paid vacation/sick leave offered )
Pay and publicity ( salary, publicity, chances, benefits, occupation security, acknowledgment of achievements )
Work relationships ( relationships with colleagues, supervisor )
Use of accomplishments and abilities ( chance to use accomplishments, learn accomplishments, training/education )
Based on the figures in Table 3, ALJ employees who were interviewed expressed high degrees of satisfaction on the general working conditions, work relationships, and the maximization of their accomplishments and competences as steps of occupation satisfaction. A perceptibly lower grade of satisfaction nevertheless was measured among ALJ employees across all sections on the wage and publicity subset.
It is normally recognised that negativeness in the workplace is a common menace to companies and administrations taking to travel in front and remain competitory despite the invariably germinating internal and external concern environment. The consequences of this survey suggest that the publicity of positive organizational behavior through PsyCap intercession, leading development programmes, and employee preparation may be important in developing positive workplaces characterised by high degrees of employee battle and high occupation satisfaction.
The survey found that when directors utilise positive resources and support positive emotions of employees through PsyCap and other POB patterns, employees are better motivated to work. Using PsyCap in a culturally diverse environment like ALJ is besides helpful in countering negativeness that may originate from different patterns, positions, and beliefs. Positive organizational behavior allows directors to be more antiphonal to the demands of employees, a pattern that develops trust and cooperation ( Sweetman and Luthans 2010 ) . It besides increased the degree of consciousness of directors peculiarly their accomplishment in listening and pass oning with employees. Positive resources of directors such as PsyCap let them to better their relationship with employees by confirming positive attitudes and acknowledging single accomplishments. This is consistent with findings already established in empirical research ( Avey, Patera, and West 2006 ; Sy, Cote, and Saavedra 2005 ) and research pointing to the important impact of leader behavior on the work force clime ( Heskett, Jones, Loveman, Sasser, and Schlesinger 1994 ) . Surveies have found that leaders who are enthusiastic, energetic, and motivated have a higher likeliness of motivation and stimulating their subsidiaries ( Burke and Cooper 2009 ) . Avey, Luthans and Mhatre ( 2008 ) concluded that directors ‘ PsyCap may be straight related to subsidiaries ‘ PsyCap. Sy, Cote, and Saavedra ( 2005 ) besides suggested that if leaders work in an optimistic temper, single squad members were besides more likely to be optimistic. Furthermore, is besides proposed that leaders who are hopeful about positive work outcomes transmit hopeful attitudes among subsidiaries and positively influence corporate public presentation, keeping rate and employee occupation satisfaction ( Peterson and Luthans 2002 ; Luthans et Al. 2008 ) .
This survey besides found that employees ‘ PsyCap seem to be related to desired behaviors such as employee battle and occupation satisfaction. Employees with high PsyCap indexs – self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience – besides demonstrated active battle with the administration and high grade of occupation satisfaction. In other words, positive employees ‘ psychological capital could be an of import part to positive organizational alteration in the company ( Salanova, Schaufeli, Xanthopoulou, and Bakker 2010 ) . Extant research already points to how PsyCap straight affects the work outcomes of employees ( Luthans et al. 2007 ; Youssef and Luthans 2007 ) .
PsyCap has been shown to be positively related to a assortment of work public presentation results such as public presentation evaluations ( Luthans, Avey, Avolio, Norman, and Combs 2006 ) , productiveness ( Luthans, Youssef, and Avolio 2007 ) , and attitudes ( Luthans et al. 2006 ) . Qualitative research has besides revealed that engaged employees are extremely energetic, self-efficacious persons who exercise influence over events that affect their lives ( Schaufeli and Bakker 2010 ; Luthans et Al. 2008 ) . Previous surveies have systematically shown that occupation resources are positively associated with work battle ( Bakker 2009 ) . Because of their positive attitude and activity degree, engaged employees create their ain positive feedback in footings of grasp, acknowledgment, and success ( Bakker and Leiter 2009 ) .
Sweetman and Luthans ( 2010 ) explained why psychological capital may be straight related to work battle among employees. High PsyCap thrusts continuity and doggedness because of strong belief that future success is come-at-able ( Avey, Luthans and Mhatre 2008 ; Luthans et Al. 2008 ) . Employees who have high psychological capital besides have high degrees of end accomplishment and are optimistic about positive results as a consequence of their work. For case, surveies have shown that directors who are more occupied are less likely to go forth the administration and accomplish higher public presentation than those with lower degrees of battle ( Wellins, Bernthal, and Phelps 2005 ) . Surveies have besides pointed that there are many grounds as to why engaged employees perform better than employees who are disengaged ( Peterson and Luthans 2002 ) . One ground is that active battle involves positive emotions such as enthusiasm, optimism, and joy which “ broaden people ‘s though-action repertory ” ( Frederickson 2001, p. 34 ) . Another ground is that active battle is related to better wellness which makes engaged employees go more productive than those who are non ( Burke and Cooper 2009 ) . A 3rd ground is that battle has a slightly contagious consequence, enabling engaged employees to reassign their positive emotions to the group or squad, and as a consequence, act uponing results indirectly ( Bakker and Xanthopoulou 2009 ) .
Chapter 5: Decision
The psychological beliefs, assessments, and anticipations of both directors and employees seem to be related to a positive organizational clime. As demonstrated in the survey, POB patterns implemented within the administration allows directors to travel beyond traditional organizational capital and concentrate on retaining employees by developing their positive resources. ALJ implements positive organizational behavior such as PsyCap intercession, leading development programmes, employee preparation and development, and managerial schemes that enhance relationships and respects diverseness. As discussed, these patterns have been shown to lend to positive employee managerial and worker results for the company. Directors are able to take subsidiaries better and drive their groups toward better public presentation because they experience higher degrees of self-awareness about their leading every bit good as the demands, anticipations and beliefs of their employees. Furthermore, PsyCap has besides led to high degrees of employee battle and occupation satisfaction among employees.
In this competitory planetary environment, administrations continually struggle to last and win ( Youssef and Luthans 2007 ) . The survey promotes the usage of POB in driving positive organizational results, an protagonism already promoted by many research workers ( Luthans, Youssef, and Avolio 2007 ) . Research provides grounds that administrations that invest in PsyCap derive positive consequences. This survey provides extra support for this recommendation, and offers as grounds the findings and observations made by ALJ directors and employees.
Despite the positive consequences obtained out of this instance survey research, the findings need to be interpreted with consideration of the survey ‘s strengths and restrictions. One strength of the survey was the support of the directors and employees involved in the survey. Information was provided when needed and engagement was encouraged. Participants were really antiphonal and asked clear uping inquiries throughout the undertaking. However, the survey was besides constrained by several factors. First of all, due to the qualitative nature of its enquiry, there was no accent on asperity or cogency, doing the consequences prone to bias. Another restriction is that the consequences of the survey could non be generalisable in other organizational scene and offer merely findings helpful to ALJ. Another failing is that the PsyCap consequences were interpreted without agencies of comparing because no appraising or pre-test PsyCap questionnaire was obtained. The high degrees of PsyCap among employees could be attributed as a consequence of POB patterns if there had been a benchmark survey to mensurate pre-intervention PsyCap among employees. Furthermore, the qualitative instance survey designed did non let accent on PsyCap or POB intercessions and their relationship with employee battle of occupation satisfaction. This means that the high degrees of battle and occupation satisfaction may be interpreted as a consequence of other different variables and non merely PsyCap. Further research on the impact of PsyCap for the intent of human resource development could follow the longitudinal design in order to let for grounds of the discrepancy of PsyCap tonss of employees or directors over periods of clip ( Avey, Luthans, and Mhatre 2008 ; ( Seligman, Steen, Park, and Peterson 2005 ) .
Chapter 6: Recommendations
This survey provides several important deductions for direction pattern and
organizational behavior for private companies in general and ALJ in peculiar. First, this survey was able to garner preliminary grounds of the impact of positive organizational behavior in administrations. It was non merely the directors who were able to take part straight in the behavior of the survey but employees were besides able to back up directors ‘ sentiments on the influence of POB. In add-on to the positions and observations of directors on how PsyCap has helped them personally in their leading functions and in act uponing employee behavior, the directors ‘ subsidiaries reported high degrees of PsyCap, high degrees of employee battle, and high grade of occupation satisfaction.
The consequences of this survey are meaningful to ALJ because it could supply empirical support for the continuation and precedence of POB patterns to beef up and better employee results and organizational public presentation. Due to the several restrictions of this undertaking, farther research could besides put the foundation for the behavior of bigger research enterprises in the company. The qualitative research design chosen for this survey could be modified into an experimental or longitudinal design in order to mensurate alterations in PsyCap degrees of employees or directors post any POB intercession.
This survey can besides impart empirical support for companies to do significant investings in psychological capital and POB for human resources development. The usage the PsyCap Questionnaire ( PCQ ) can be a valuable tool for benchmark surveies which the company can utilize to name and advance better consequences from preparation and leading programmes and other employee development enterprises in the company. Intervention directed at furthering positive emotions, beliefs, and assessments among employees can utilize the PCQ to beef up hope, resilience, self-efficacy and optimism ( Burke and Copper 2009 ) .
Additionally, this survey extends old research on PsyCap and positive organizational behavior to back up more effectual preparation course of study which be used for human resource development. This survey besides contributes a preliminary apprehension of the positive relationship between PsyCap, employee battle, and occupation satisfaction. Further surveies can analyze statistical correlativities among these variables to formalize these initial findings. As administrations such as ALJ continue to craft schemes in order to accomplish optimal organizational public presentation, positive organizational behavior has been demonstrated in this survey as an of import to drive positive results for companies.