THE USE OF LANGUAGE AND COLLOQUIAL TERMINOLOGY

THE Use OF LANGUAGE AND COLLOQUIAL TERMINOLOGY IN TONY HARRISON’S WORKS

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2005

Introduction

Tony Harrison, one of the most celebrated modern-day English poets, belongs to those persons who reject any existing linguistic communication and literary criterions and make their alone attacks to the portraiture of world and people. Harrison’s manner of composing reflects an ambiguity of look due to the differences in his societal environment and the standard instruction. In peculiar, Harrison demonstrates the tensenesss between conversational linguistic communication that reflects his background and Standard English that he learned at school. Although he seems to uncover the lack of conversational linguistic communication in his poesy and movies, he at the same time mocks at traditional linguistic communication regulations received in the procedure of his instruction. Such a contention demonstrates Harrison’s inability to unite conversational linguistic communication and standard linguistic communication in his poesy, as he realises the restrictions of both literary and spoken linguistic communications. The purpose of this essay is to analyze Tony Harrison’s usage of linguistic communication and conversational nomenclature in his plants, look intoing in deepness such poetries asThe Loiners,VoltandA Cold Comingthat are particularly appropriate for the analysis of Harrison’s poetic manner and signifiers of look. Descending from Leeds’ working-class society, Harrison managed to complete Leeds Grammar School and alumnus from the University of Leeds, where he mastered his cognition in Language and Classics and formed his new political orientations taken from the Hagiographas of such celebrated philosophers and writers as Hoggart, Milton, Marx and Thompson. Tony Harrison spent several old ages at a Nigerian University and a Prague University, developing pupils in English linguistic communication and at the same time learning regional idioms and Czech linguistic communication.

Working as a instructor and a bookman, Tony Harrison started to compose poesy and published his first poetic aggregationEarthworksin 1964, followed byThe Loiners( 1970 ) . Harrison’s poems show his proletarian background and his changeless efforts to transform the traditional poetic signifiers. The poet utilises the usual sonnet signifier, implementing certain idioms and conversational address that go beyond the norms of Standard English. Harrison’s poetic linguistic communication is so powerful and alone that he manages to bring forth verse movies on his verse form and adapt Greek calamities for modern theaters. As Richard Eyre ( 1997 ) puts it, “Poet and playwright are normally seen as reciprocally opposed functions – the poet a lone figure answerable to no 1 but his ain endowment and scruples, the dramatist a confederate, conspiring in the pragmatism and expedience of production” ( p.43 ) . However, Tony Harrison manages to successfully unite both functions and create unforgettable literary pieces of work. Harmonizing to Rowland ( 2001 ) , “there are clearly thematical and stylistic convergences between the two genres [ dramas and verse forms ] in Harrison’s work” ( p.27 ) .

Language in Tony Harrison’s movies and poesy

Using to the incompatible jussive moods and sing-song vowel rhyme in his verse form and movies, Tony Harrison reveals his thoughts on assorted societal issues taken from his childhood and young person, while his colloquial and slang nomenclature points at his efforts to get the better of the confined household upbringing. It was in Leeds Grammar School when Harrison began to retreat from his parents and extinguish his former values. The poet depicts this subject in about all pieces of his originative work through the truly brusk poetic address. For case, inThe Loiners( 1970 ) that was rewarded with Geoffrey Faber Memorial Prize, Harrison demonstrates this spread between him and his parents, between his societal background and the acquired instruction. Loiners are native people of Leeds, the topographic point of Harrison’s birth, but at the same time the poet compares these dwellers with ‘loners’ ( Crucefix, 1997, p.161 ) , people who alienate themselves from instruction and other facets of societal life. The verse form of this aggregation uncover the feelings of loss and disaffection that Harrison experiences because of societal political orientations that distance him from near people when he acquires different civilization and ways of communicating. In fact, Harrison utilises indecorous looks as subcultural arrows that reflect the poet’s desire to convey up the issues of society and civilization that problem him. Tony Harrison realises that his parents will non be able to understand and accept his poesy, but, using to conversational address in his verse form, the poet reveals that linguistic communication can either release or restrict a individual.

In this respect, Harrison’s refined riming poetry is based on glorious common people initial rhymes and idioms, uncovering the poet’s efforts to diversify poetic linguistic communication. The verse formBook Endsdepicts the inability of a male parent and a boy to speak with each other because of linguistic communication differences between them. Therefore, Harrison uncovers important societal and political issues beneath his equivocal and powerful linguistic communication. As Ellmann and O’Clair ( 1988 ) put it, Harrison’s poesy demonstrates “the clashing idioms of human behaviour” ( p.1475 ) . Using to masterfully take words and looks with the Yorkshire idiom, Harrison’sBook Endsuncovers the issues of being and alterations. For case, the boy remembers the words of his female parent who used to claim to his hubby and his boy that “You’re like book terminals, the brace of you” ( Harrison, 1988, p.1480 ) . Such an facile look demonstrates the chief thought of the whole verse form ; although two close people are similar, they are unable to pass on with each other, because they are separated by their different instruction, linguistic communication and manner of life. After the decease of Harrison’s female parent, their separation is aggravated even more, as the boy claims, “A dark you need my company to go through / and she non here to state us we’re likewise! / Your life’s all shattered into smithereens” ( Harrison, 1988, p.1480 ) .

Book Endsreveals the tensenesss between the boy and the male parent ; this is particularly obvious in the scene, when they discuss the words that should be written on mother’s gravestone. Harrison’s male parent appears to talk with negative emotions, using to rough words that are characteristic to the propertyless address: “You’re supposed to be the bright male child at description / and you can’t them what the screw to set! ” ( Harrison, 1988, p.1481 ) . The male parent utilises such ways of look, as he is non cognizant of other ways, but Harrison, whose linguistic communication is different, refuses to keep the negative emotions and linguistic communication of his male parent, and he answers in a unagitated voice: “I’ve got to happen the right words on my own” ( Harrison, 1988, p.1481 ) . Therefore, the boy makes an effort to pass on with the male parent, but the son’s instruction prevents him from understanding and back uping the male parent. Tony Harrison distances himself from his household, although he reveals much concern towards the propertyless society. InBook Endsand other verse forms Harrison depicts that the struggles between him and his parents are inspired by this on the job category. Harmonizing to Kelleher ( 1996 ) , “Harrison is a poet who opens the instance of British category struggle into other geopolitical countries ; and… returns a whole scope of concerns that might hold been considered immaterial to category political relations back to class” ( p.43 ) . Harrison applies to dry linguistic communication, when he discusses the grounds for the separation of the male parent and the boy: “what’s still between’s non the 30 old ages or so, but books, books, books” ( Harrison, 1988, p.1481 ) .

Although Harrison admires father’s love towards his female parent and realises that no words can truly show this powerful love, he however criticises his male parent for his hapless linguistic communication that does non let him to uncover his feelings. On the other manus, the poet feels that his cognition and profession create a sense of disaffection and solitariness in him and that linguistic communication is still limited, because it is non able to incarnate the nuance of human emotions and remembrances. In the verse formLong DistanceHarrison continues to show the struggles between the male parent and the boy, using to two different ways of looks, that is, Standard English utilised by the boy and Yorkshire conversational linguistic communication maintained by the male parent. Contrasting these linguistic communications, Tony Harrison reveals instead complex linguistic communication and emotional differences between two individuals. However, in the verse form the boy utilises one word ‘Mam’ that shows an inexplicit connexion between the boy and the male parent, because this dialect word proves that the boy is unable to to the full reject his societal background and continues to use conversational address. This little word brings two different personalities together, even though they are unable to come to footings with each other. Harrison’s verse formThem & A ; [ uz ]written in the signifier of a traditional sonnet but with the specific regional pronunciation of words returns with the treatment of linguistic communication, although to a different extent, as the verse form uncovers Harrison’s unfavorable judgment of the rigorous lingual linguistic communication forms taught in the Grammar School.

Here Tony Harrison presents a stereotyped vision of a instructor who does non believe that a male child ( small Harrison ) from a propertyless household is able to understand the linguistic communication of such a great poet as Keats. The instructor regards the male child as a barbaric due to his idiom and Harrison seems to dispute this position inThem & A ; [ uz ] .However, Rowland ( 2001 ) maintains the impression that “Harrison’s poesy is barbarian in that it is the merchandise of an agonised humanist who struggles to observe minutes of positiveness in a world” that lacks affirmatory temper ( p.1 ) . In the verse formThe LoinersHarrison ( 1970 ) presents the undermentioned Limerick: “There was a immature adult male of Leeds / Who swallowed a package of seeds. / A pure white rose grew out of his nose / And his buttocks was covered in weeds” ( 1-4 ) . Harmonizing to Martin Crucefix ( 1997 ) , “without losing sight of the indispensable comedy of this bit, it can be seen as suggestive of facets of Harrison’s career” ( p.161 ) . In peculiar, Harrison’s description of the male child who swallows seeds uncovers his dry representation of the traditional grammar school in Leeds, in which he studied. The image of a white rose demonstrates the rise of poesy that emerges as a consequence of the standard instruction. Therefore, the poet manages to unite instead contradictory images in several lines, uncovering his rejection of any conventional ways of look and stereotypes in respect to linguistic communication. In general, the signifier and construction ofThe Loinersreveal certain allusions to earlier poetic texts, but Harrison’s slang and conversational linguistic communication escalate the difference between early classical poesy and his ain verse form. As Sandie Byrne ( 1997 ) claims in respect to Harrison’s manner of authorship, “idiosyncratic sound qualities are as dexterously reproduced as the conventions of generic signifier, but his verse forms are ne’er merely glib imitation or pastiche” ( p.57 ) .

Describing some events from his life through his verse forms, Tony Harrison points at the fact that poesy “should turn to the hardest things in life, and the most powerful weapon it brings to the disturbance is its ain form” ( Winder, 1995, p.3 ) . As the poet pays much attending to linguistic communication, he uncovers his emotions and feelings through his use of peculiar words and phrases. For case, one of Harrison’s most celebrated poetic plants is the verse formVoltthat is created in the period of the miners’ exercise ( 1984-1985 ) and that portrays the poet’s journey to a graveyard in Leeds, where his parents are buried. In the foreword the poet utilises the words of Arthur Scargill, the caput of the National Union of Miners: “My male parent still reads the dictionary every twenty-four hours / He says your life depends on your power to get the hang words” ( Harrison, 1991 ) , indicating at the fact that words possess great power and are able to animate category battle. The verse formVoltwas farther adapted to a movie produced by Richard Eyre ; both the verse form and the movie uncover the contention between a conventional poetry construction and the raised societal issues. In this verse form Harrison demonstrates the racial and societal division of British society through linguistic communication differences of assorted groups.

In peculiar, the poet applies to turbulent and opprobrious linguistic communication to uncover his concern of societal inequality: “This cemetery stands above a worked-out cavity. / Subsidence makes the obelisks all list. / One go forthing left’s marked FUCK, one right’s marked SHIT / sprayed by some peeverd protagonist who was pissed” ( Harrison, 1991 29-32 ) . In this respect, Harrison’s use of slang looks shows the poet’s straightness and his efforts to escalate his thoughts. Therefore, the linguistic communication of the verse formVoltserves as a powerful tool that uncovers societal ill will and dramatic world. Harrison utilises the looks from a different civilization, the expletive words from his young person, likecrap,andscrew,to contrast them with the linguistic communication used in his ain household, uncovering the restrictions of his mind because of hapless linguistic communication of his societal background and at the same time showing his backdown from society as a consequence of his instruction ( Eagleton, 1996, pp.20-21 ) . The vulgar indistinct linguistic communication of bootboyss in the verse form provides Tony Harrison with an chance to bring out his ain vision on assorted political events ; this method of look alienates the poet from some groups of society, but he seems to acquire his ain manner. The manufacturers of the movieVoltfound it truly hard to set this slang and dialect linguistic communication to the overall secret plan, but it was this peculiar linguistic communication that conveyed the poet’s feelings, ideas and emotions, therefore it was necessary to continue it without alterations. Harmonizing to Melvyn Bragg ( 1997 ) , “The job was the linguistic communication. PISS, CUNT, SHIT and FUCK featured to a great extent, and the instance had to be made” ( p.49 ) .

Overall, Harrison’s moviesVoltandPrometheus( 1998 ) reflect a consummate combination of different linguistic communication forms and methods, including vulgar parlances, curses, conversational address and reduplications that allow Harrison to travel off from a limited written signifier. In this respect, the films’ linguistic communication refers to emotions and supports aloof from specific societal events. Although Tony Harrison describes the working-class in both the verse form and the movieVolt, he however alienates from it, as he starts to talk a different linguistic communication. Through this linguistic communication Harrison implicitly criticises the passiveness of the working-class that adheres to its ideals and fails to oppose the bing societal system.Voltreflects “the ‘high culture’ as an educational ideal into a confrontation with the ‘way of life’ civilization of those whom it seems to exclude” ( Butler, 1997, p.93 ) . The verse form demonstrates that the struggle between two civilizations consequences in tensenesss and the devastation of individuality. But despite the fact that his linguistic communication reveals much pessimism, it depicts “private jubilation inside public hell” ( Thompson, 1997, p.115 ) . The linguistic communication of Harrison’s subsequently poetry is even more pessimistic and tough ; this particularly regards his verse formA Cold Comingwritten as a response to the ‘Highway of Death’ , a celebrated exposure that depicts the onslaught of America on Iraqi ground forces. In this verse form Tony Harrison presents a fabricated talk with a crippled dead Iraqi soldier who uncovers his war remembrances.

As Harrison ( 1997 ) claims at the beginning of the verse form, “I saw the charred Iraqi tilt towards me from bomb-blasted screen, / his windscreen wiper like a pen ready to compose down ideas for men… / I saw the charred Iraqi tilt like person made of Plasticine” ( 1-4 ) .A Cold Comingreflects a clear impact of certain anti-war poesy on Harrison, particularly Wilfred Owen’s lyrical representation of war issues. In Harrison’s poem the soldier begins his talk with the poet by stating him about three work forces that “left their sperm in nitrogen” ( Harrison, 1997, 11 ) . Further, he ponders over the issue of sperm in its relation with the war, and his linguistic communication is intentionally provocative and at the same clip excusatory. As the soldier provinces, “Excuse a skull half joint, half bone for utilizing such a contemptuous tone. / It may look out of all proportion but I wish I’d taken their safeguard. / They seemed the maestro of their destiny with sagely jarred ejaculate” ( Harrison 1997, 18-21 ) . The soldier’s sexual linguistic communication is inseparable from the occurred political events and societal world and it is apprehensible to common people ; harmonizing to him, “On Saddam’s wage we can’t afford to travel and acquire our seeds stored. / Sad to state that such high tech’s uncommon here. We’re stuck with sex” ( Harrison, 1997 25-26 ) . Tony Harrison achieves expressiveness in the verse form due to such simple and brusk truth. Simultaneously, Harrison draws a analogue between modern universe and ideals of ancient philosophers. For case, when the soldier discusses the military work forces, he compares their destinies with the vocalization of Sophocles and proves that it is a truly timely thought: “According to Sophocles, i.e. ‘the best of destinies is non to be’ / a doctrine that’s possibly black for any but an ancient Grecian / but hard these yearss to get away when spoken to by such a shape” ( Harrison, 1997 37-39 ) .

The duologue between the poet and the soldier in the verse formA Cold Comingresembles the talk between the Old Man and Hermes in Harrison’s moviePrometheus,that is, in both instances the poet accentuates responses of the characters, explicit or implicit, towards the expressed thoughts. He does non truly interested in the result of the duologues, but concerns about the attitude of the talkers to the occurred events. Therefore, the extremist linguistic communication of the verse form and the movie reflects a connexion between strength and fluency, and all poetic elements are interconnected with each other in Tony Harrison’s works.A Cold Comingis progressed in a round manner ; in other words, it is impossible to understand the center or the terminal of the verse form, without appropriate apprehension of the initial portion. As a consequence, Harrison’s verse form demonstrates a integrity between intending and linguistic communication ; the unique slang linguistic communication ofA Cold Comingprovides the poet with the possibility to bring out the inhuman treatment of the war and the negative impact of assorted political determinations on common people. For Harrison, linguistic communication is important, and this is particularly obvious in his poetry movies, where he intensifies every word and phrase in order to reflect the nucleus thought with linguistic communication, but non with images.

As Tony Harrison provinces during one of his interviews, “The ear will give up even at those times when the oculus wants to shut, when the oculus doesn’t want to watch” ( Winder, 1995, p.3 ) . For case, in the movieGaze of GorgonHarrison applies to simple, but really tender linguistic communication, as he shows the images of halt people: “Before these Germans went to flight / the’d been beautiful to snog. / This is the Kaiser’s Gorgon choir / their petrification scene in, / grunting to the barbed wire lyre / gaggling on snags of Lohengrin” ( Harrison, 1992, pp.71-72 ) . Using a specific initial rhyme “gagging on snags” and an accordant rime “barbed wire lyre” the poet manages to unobtrusively convey the reader to the point of the war and uncover its negative impact on persons. This expressive linguistic communication provides Harrison with an chance to arouse both choler and understanding, at the same time disputing the necessity of war. In Tony Harrison’s movieShadow of Hiroshimathe linguistic communication is even more intensified, as the poet demonstrates a quiet contemplation of the Motoyasu river, but uncovers atrocious images of hurting and agony against these unagitated ocular consequence. As a consequence, linguistic communication allows the poet to pull a parallel between war and peaceable clip, every bit good as to accomplish the necessary strength of look, as in the undermentioned words: “the river those flayed by the Bomb, / including all his friends from school, / jumped in, trusting it would chill / their combustion and bomb-blackened tegument, / here where he dips his bottle in” ( Harrison, 1995, p.6 ) . Therefore, the tone ofShadow of Hiroshimais imperative ; Harrison specifically utilises this tone to affect the viewing audiences into the deepness of pragmatism. His linguistic communication is full of similes that accentuate this world, every bit good as such initial rhymes as “burns and blisters, bloated blister / burst” ( Harrison, 1995, 14-15 ) .

Harrison avoids any nonliteral elements, preferring to utilize direct linguistic communication that reveals the calamity of Hiroshima and uncovers children’s enduring. The poet describes global calamities through peculiar personalities, seeking to turn out that every individual is a portion of these societal calamities. His brusque and direct linguistic communication evokes powerful emotions, for case, he claims: “if these students here had been / in this same room at 8.15 / the 6Thursdayof August’45 / None of them would be alive” ( Harrison, 1995, p.10 ) . Such words make people better understand the universe and themselves ; as Auden ( 1938 ) puts it, “The primary map of poetry… is to do us more cognizant of ourselves and the universe around us… I think it makes us more human, and I am rather certain it makes us more hard to deceive” ( p.9 ) . In add-on to poems and movies, Tony Harrison uses his alone linguistic communication and conversational address in some interlingual renditions. For case, Harrison’s interlingual rendition ofThe Misanthropeby Moliere for the theatrical public presentation is overwhelmed with conversational and brusk looks that change the traditional interlingual rendition of this classical work. Other successful interlingual renditions of Tony Harrison areThe Mysteries, The Prince’s PlayandOresteia.

Decision

Analyzing the usage of linguistic communication and conversational nomenclature in Tony Harrison’s poesy and movies, the essay suggests that the poet utilises conversational and dialect address to present certain alterations into a traditional sonnet signifier and escalate his portraiture of societal and political issues that chiefly cover with life and conditions of British workers. The linguistic communication of his poetic plants reflects ambiguity and faithlessness, every bit good as the rejection of by and large accepted literary norms. Using to slang and conversational forms, Harrison reveals the tensenesss between two civilizations – high civilization and single civilization. The poet demonstrates that linguistic communication can either unify a individual with society or estrange him/her. As a individual rejects the bing linguistic communication norms of his/her community and starts to adhere to other norms, he/she experiences alienation and solitariness. Harrison’s brusque and direct manner of look demonstrates the poet’s want to get the better of linguistic communication criterions and uncover the truth about societal and political events of modern universe. Although Harrison seems to back up the educational linguistic communication and normally applies to other linguistic communications to pull a parallel between two different civilizations, he besides reveals an dry attitude towards the traditional linguistic communication instruction, alternatively using conversational and slang looks to escalate his jeer. Therefore, in poetic plants and movies Tony Harrison demonstrates his inability to unify spoken and standard literary linguistic communications. However, it is this peculiar contention that provides Harrison with an chance to accomplish pragmatism and truth in his portraiture of societal and political events. The poet’s direct and true linguistic communication inspires actions, because he considers that poesy should arouse powerful emotions and do people move.

Mentions

Auden, W. H. ( 1938 ) . Introduction. In J. M ( Ed ) ,Poems of Freedom(pp.3-12 ).London: Victor Gollancz.

Bragg, M. ( 1997 ) . V. by Tony Harrison, or Production No.73095, LWT Arts. In S. Byrne ( Ed ) ,Tony Harrison: Loiner( pp.49-56 ) . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Butler, C ( 1997 ) . Culture and Debate. In S. Byrne ( Ed ) ,Tony Harrison: Loiner( pp.93-114 ) . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Byrne, S. ( 1997 ) . On Not Being Milton, Marvell, or Gray. In S. Byrne ( Ed ) ,Tony Harrison: Loiner( pp.1-28 ) . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Crucefix, M. ( 1997 ) . The Drunken Porter Does Poetry: Metre and Voice in the Poems of Tony Harrison. In S. Byrne ( Ed ) ,Tony Harrison: Loiner( pp.161-170 ) . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Eagleton, T. ( 1986 ) . Review of V by Tony Harrison.Poetry Review,76.1-2, 20-22.

Ellmann, R. & A ; O’Clair, R. ( Ed ) . ( 1988 ) .The Norton Anthology of Poetry( 2neodymiumed. ).New York: W.W. Norton & A ; Co.

Eyre, R. ( 1997 ) . Tony Harrison the Playwright. In S. Byrne ( Ed ) ,Tony Harrison: Loiner( pp.43-47 ) . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Harrison, T. ( 1970 ) .The Loiners. London: London Magazine Editions.

Harrison, T. ( 1988 ) . Book Ends.In R. Ellmann, & A ; O’Clair, R. ( Ed ) ,The Norton Anthology of Poetry( 2neodymiumed. ) ( pp.1480-1481 ) . New York: W.W. Norton and Co.

Harrison, T. ( 1991 ) .V. and Other Poems. Noonday Press.

Harrison, T. ( 1992 ) .The Gaze of the Gorgon. Newcastle-upon-tyne: Bloodaxe Books.

Harrison, T. ( 1995 ) .The Shadow of Hiroshima and Other Film/Poems. London: Faber and Faber.

Harrison, T. ( 1997 ) .A Cold Coming. Bloodaxe Books.

Kelleher, J. ( 1996 ) .Tony Harrison:Writers and Their Work. Plymouth, UK: Northcote House Publishers, Ltd.

Rowland, A. ( 2001 ) .Tony Harrison and the Holocaust. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

Thompson, N. S. ( 1997 ) . Book Ends: Public and Private in Tony Harrison’s Poetry. In S. Byrne ( Ed ) ,Tony Harrison: Loiner( pp.115-132 ) . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Winder, R. ( 1995 ) . Robert Winder meets Tony Harrison. Interview.The Independent Weekendfifth August, p.3.

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