The Technical Failure Of IT Projects Information Technology Essay
Every month intelligence documents announce in every state the ICT undertaking are developed, failures of astronomical proportions, the common ground for the failure of undertaking is delay in clip, increasing cost of the undertaking, and many ICT undertakings do non populate up to outlook
In developing states the ICT literature shows that the planning and direction of undertakings has a really hapless record, the issues for failure of ICT undertakings can be analyzed by presuming that larning from IS failures will supply the of import lessons for explicating the success program for the planning, developing, execution and direction of information system While discoursing dimensions of ICT failure, Beynon-Davies considers both the horizontal and perpendicular dimensions of the information sciences theoretical account. The horizontal dimension is expressed in footings of the difference between development failure and usage failure. The perpendicular dimension is expressed in footings of failure at the degree of ICT systems, IS undertakings, or organisation, or at the degree of the external environment. Six types of IS failure is identified as follows:
Beynon-Davies supports the statement with several instance surveies and quotes other theoretical accounts for IS failure
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.google.co.uk/url? sa=t & A ; source=web & A ; cd=5 & A ; ved=0CDAQFjAE & A ; url=http % 3A % 2F % 2Fejeg.com % 2Fissue % 2Fdownload.html % 3FidArticle % 3D70 & A ; rct=j & A ; q=critical % 20review % 20of % 20ICT % 20failure & A ; ei=nj5-TPrbFMu04AaX9OiYBg & amp ; usg=AFQjCNHLkjn94R7t2_qYmMI9-iDv1x6jBQ & A ; sig2=vuWc9fKtWiMDlKXvijeszA & A ; cad=rja
Factors for failure:
The factors for failure are those happenings that constraint proper execution of ICT undertakings in authorities. These factors can be barrier or inhibitors by these factors as observed in this subdivision can be social-culture, institutional and political, support, substructure and engineering.
Barriers can be considered as those happenings that hinder ICT execution some of those factors for failure
Poor informations system and deficiency of compatibility
Leadership manner, civilization
Inhibitors do non needfully forestall the execution of the ICT undertakings but they do forestall promotion and curtail successful execution and sustainability. Some of these factors for failures
Transportation of ICT idolizers
Those above factors are used for the intent of design a theoretical model
Partial failure of an enterprise, in which major ends are unattained or in which there are important unwanted results. Associated with partial failure is the sustainability failure where an enterprise first succeeds but is so abandoned after a twelvemonth or so.
Sustainability Failure Model ( partial failure )
This theoretical account provides a better construction for analyzing sustainability longitudinally. There is five chief consist of sustainability failures, they are listed below:
Fiscal sustainability failures:
Example: if the client supported plan loses its fiscal support after some clip.
Cultural sustainability failures:
Examples: from the undertaking some stakeholders will derive but others are hurt. This tenseness over clip leads to sustainability failure
Technological sustainability failure:
Example: The field hardware and package becomes outdated and no longer companionable with the equipment within the cardinal offices. This besides examines the importance of the content provided.
Example: the local victor foliages and without larger institutional agreements in topographic point the undertaking fails.
Environmental sustainability failure:
Example: if the undertaking will lose their utility so the undertaking program could be reclaimable, but the undertaking non hold programs for recycling so the environmental sustainability failure.
Critical Success and Critical Failure Factor Model:
The CSF and CFF theoretical account will explicate success or failure of an ICT undertakings can be understand in footings of several CSF and CFF factors. Ten critical factors can be organized listed below
Information factors associating to proviso of content
Technical factors such as handiness of hardware and package, compatibility of different hardware and package platforms, etc
Peoples factors such as handiness of skilled forces, appropriate preparation in usage of hardware and package, etc
Management factors, such as appropriate direction and organisational patterns for conveying the desired alterations through ICT undertakings
Procedure factors, such as modifying bing or planing new procedures for doing the undertaking successful in accomplishing its aims
Cultural factors, such as reforming organisational civilization for successful execution of new undertakings
Structural factors, such as structural rigidnesss in traditional organisational constructions that may be a cause for failure of ICT undertakings that aim at reforms
Strategic factors, such as determinations that cover a broad scope of services or cut across a figure of sections or impact the projectaa‚¬a„?s public presentation over a comparatively long term
Political factors, such as political support and support from the stakeholders ;
Environmental factors, such as alterations in the overall external environment of the undertaking
The 10 critical factors classs into seven critical dimensions: they are Information, Technology, Processes, Objectives and values, Staffing and accomplishments, Management and constructions, and other resources. This model needs measuring the spreads that exist in the design of the undertaking and the genuineness along these seven dimensions
The Gyandoot undertaking started in the twelvemonth 2000, the authorities of Madhya Pradesh initiates this undertaking. The purpose of the undertaking is to put up intranet based booth in small towns to supplying information about the agricultural patterns and update the market monetary values and besides supplying some Government services like dramatis personae and income certifications on-line application, land records transcripts, and on-line systems to cognize about the computing machine consciousness and entree all this services.
The undertaking has failed to run into its aims and the use is rather low.
Reasons for the failure of the undertaking
Lack of cybernation of the back-end procedures,
Lack of back uping ICT substructure in the small towns,
Lack of back uping enterprises for better service bringing,
Lack of fiscal sustainability of the booths, and relevant content for the hapless,
The execution of the undertaking besides suffered enormously as no attempts had been made at commiting the undertaking after the initial title-holders left
Lack of Computerization of the back-end procedures:
The Gyandoot undertaking has computerized merely front-end but non the back terminal. The direction is non yet successful in the electronically conveying the services petition to all sections from its intranet waiter. Almost all dealing are handled manually at the back terminal of the Gyandoot intranet waiter, because all govt sections presently perform their undertakings manually
Example: The citizen will subject the on-line application and waiting at telekisok for a response, but at the back terminal the authorities section degrees are non computerised so they will publish out the application or petition or ailments and direct to the authorities section to farther action, after having study from the govt departments the informations entry operators will come in the response in the gyandoot intranet. For this procedure the clip frame is seven yearss
To do better and rush service response clip, the all sections required to set about the important alterations reengineering exercising to better the information procedure methods and quality of services, that will possible when all sections introduce the computing machines in the different sections degrees. The gyandoot smaiti have the authorization and fiscal power to alter the single departments the authorization exists merely with the province authorities
hypertext transfer protocol: //itidjournal.org/itid/article/viewDownloadInterstitial/199/69
Lack of back uping ICT substructure in the small towns:
Introducing E-government undertaking in any hapless rural country it is a immense challenge of the engineering point of position. At present there is non suited substructure available for Soochnalaya as all of the Soochanalayas ( Kiosk ) are in rural country. In the DhAA?r territory the Tele-communication substructure is rather low and telekisoks are unable to supply the voice services and electric power supply is less, the systems and booths are working with the aid of the UPS which holding battery and the capacity to work four hours if it is charged to the full. It takes eight to ten hours to charged but most of the small towns current supply will interrupt down every three or four hours. A figure of proficient attacks to supply the basic web were ab initio evaluated. Gyandoot rejected both LAN and VAST attacks as being excessively dearly-won and utilizing dial-up web utilizing modems over bing telephone lines which is non speed and many times it got interrupted in between a procedure. And the procedure will acquire detain due to weak connectivity, that connexion was found to be undependable and many booths are enduring immense jobs of linking to the intranet waiter
Lack of relevant content is critical:
The framers are acquiring loss for non updating the market monetary values and they are selling the out-of-date monetary values and the figure of services offers by booth but merely some of them are utilizing, the content in the local linguistic communication ( Hindi ) is besides of import to increasing the use and presenting the benefits to the people and modify the content for adult females is besides of import to increase the use among them and turn toing gender specific digital divide
The booths made up with low investing because substructure constrictions, and the slow web is utilizing which is dialup connectivity and non stable power supply at least 6- 8 hours power supply will be cut so for working the booths added extra power backup, the handiness of electrical power determines the times during which the soochanalaya can be opened
Promote the in private owned booth proprietor to offer other services like computing machine preparation, run offing. And public telephone to cover the loss of gross, so that the proprietor can concentrate on other services
In Dhar territory the consciousness of the gyandoot still rather low degree among the villagers, particularly the hapless and labors, in malice of important media attending and promotion in Dhar territory the 60 % of the non-users did non utilize gyandoot because they thing that no demand to make and 35 % of citizen are non cognizant about the services offered by gyandoot and 5 % of citizen have negative feeling about the gyandoot
Even though grudge filing has been structured through a list of options, many ailments are sent utilizing the e-mail installation in local linguistic communications, which make them hard or impossible to turn to.
Transportation of senior staffs: the chief cardinal factors of the undertaking is the initial squad of the undertaking and the squad of the territory officer has conceived the program and implemented it and they know the entire undertaking but once the authorities functionary is acquiring transferred and the new members will come and takes a clip to understand the undertaking ( procedure ) and easy reverted to their unresponsive attitude to citizens
hypertext transfer protocol: //siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEMPOWERMENT/Resources/14649_Gyandoot-web.pdf
The govt of MP may use the following techniques to do undertaking success:
May it is perchance to judge the viability of the gyandoot system, it take some clip in the rural countries. To constructing consciousness about the undertaking and the use of the ICT application in rural countries may take more clip than expected by the undertaking squad. This holds true particularly when the value proposition for the citizen is weak as in the instance of gyandoot undertaking in which one portion of the full procedure is computerized
To supply velocity service, the territory degree section demand to computerise and significantly reengineering in footings of holding built up package application that processes and monitors the advancement of applications or ailments received. The functions and duties of authorities officers need to be clearly divided. In each section, IT enthusiasts could be recognized who could be in charge for a complete end-to-end bringing of a service to the citizen.
The adult females user is non sing the gyandoot soochanalaya, but some services will really utile to adult females like health care and child care, few experiment were designed to promote them to see the booth
Example: there is an on-line competition of happening the healthiest kid, so the female parent conveying the kids of one to three old ages of age to the booths and supply all relevant informations online to territory central offices, the choice was made of the basic informations from all the booths and consequence will denote in the booth intranet