The Stroop Effect On Automatic And Control Processes Psychology Essay
The fluctuation of the Stroop Effect was examined in this experiment by looking at intervention between the automatic and control processes when colour-related words are visually written down in conflicting colored inks, there is another status which has coloured words for impersonal objects. Previous empirical research found that automatic procedure interferes with the controlled procedure ; the consequences reported here back up the old research by happening that it takes longer for participants to react to the coloring material related words that the impersonal. The consequences are statistically important with a 0.50 standard divergence point difference which is a medium consequence.
Our senses are exposed to a uninterrupted flow of information, this stimulation is ongoing and at the same clip the senses are at the same time having other information. How the senses attain the stimulation from the universe is called esthesis while perceptual experience is how stimuli is processed after the esthesis, this is an internal cognitive procedure. This is a bipartisan procedure in which the sensory system influences cognitive procedures which influence the sensory system ; while attending occurs between what has been sensed and what is perceived.
Attention can be looked at as a procedure by which cognitive processing resources are allocated. As it would be impossible to cognitively treat all information, attending therefore is selective on specific information at each clip ( Edgar, 2007 ) . Kahenman ( 1973 cited in Edgar, 2007 ) suggests that there is a ‘limited-capacity cardinal processor ‘ within the encephalon which processes incoming information, analyzing and incorporating it with information already present in memory. As there is so much information which is being processed by our senses, this processor has limited capacity and can non treat all information.
The processing of stimulations that involves a cognitive procedure and that exert witting control is termed a control procedure, this is the information that will be processed through the ‘limited-capacity cardinal processor ‘ ; but there is besides another procedure called the automatic procedure that does non utilize extra resources while treating stimulations and is non consciously controlled, these two elements to cognitive procedure have led to the development of a theory called the two-process theory.
An experiment by Stroop ( 1935, cited in Edgar, 2007 ) looked into the relationship between the automatic and control procedure and the possible intervention they cause ; this is now normally known as the Stroop Effect. One of the fluctuations of the experiment involved participants being timed to read out words, in the first status the colour-neutral words were written in a colored ink, hence there being no obvious coloring material that the participants would tie in to the word. In the 2nd status ( Stroop Condition ) the words were written in coloring material to a different colour-related written word. The undertaking for the participants was to call the ink coloring material of the word in both conditions every bit rapidly as possible. Stroop found that for the colour-neutral status this was easier to make than in the Stroop Condition ; the experiment concluded that there was important intervention between the automatic procedures of reading and control procedures of calling the ink coloring material ( Edgar, 2007 ) .
While the Stroop Effect demonstrated a negative facet to automatic and control procedure there are ways to cognitively overrule the automatic procedure, to some extent, by concentrating on the first missive of the word – in making so the control procedure will be stronger. It is this fluctuation of the experiment was replicated in this current experiment. The research hypothesis is that it will take longer for the participants to call the coloring material related ink words than the color impersonal ink words. This is a 1 tailed hypothesis. The void hypothesis is that there is non a important difference in the clip it takes to call the ink coloring material in each status.
The experiment was a within-participants design. The independent variable was the lists of colored words ; there were two conditions in the independent variable, the experimental status, the list of colour-related words, and the control status was the list of colour-neutral words. The clip it took for the participants to read the ink coloring material of the words on each list was the dependent variable ; this was measured in seconds, to the nearest second by the research worker on a stop watch, this was recorded on a information tabular array. One-half of the participants read the colour-neutral words foremost and half the colour-related words foremost this was achieved by uneven numbered participant ‘s on the informations tabular array get downing with status 1 and even status 2. The research worker read the same instructions out to the participants and they besides read through them at the same clip. The participants started each list reading aloud the ink coloring material from the word on the left of the page and worked down the list. The experiment took topographic point in a little survey room, free from external distractions and all participants had the same process. The participants were given a little sum of information on the field of survey which they would be take parting in but did non cognize any inside informations of the research hypothesis until the debriefing.
Twenty participants took portion in the experiment, 16 of whom the Open University provided the information for and 4 were voluntaries whom the research worker provided, aged between 18 and 69 old ages old – 10 were female and 10 were male. All participants could read colorss without any issues, were fluent in English, their seeing was satisfactory to take part in this experiment and consent signifiers were signed.
The two lists of stimuli demoing each status were on A4 paper with the 30 coloured words in two columns. The words in both lists started with the same missive and were the same length. A stop watch accurate to the nearest second for the research worker to clip how long it takes for the participants to read aloud each list ; instructions on the experiment and consent signifiers.
The participants were recruited by inquiring them if they would wish to take portion in an experiment on cognitive psychological science. A basic overview of this field of psychological science and research country was given to the participants but this did non include any hypothesis. They were besides told that the experiment would take between five and ten proceedingss to finish in its entireness ; on holding to take part they were advised that they could retreat at any clip and consent signifiers were signed ( Appendix 3 ) . Before the experiment took topographic point the age and sex of the participants was recorded on a information tabular array and they were asked if they had any anterior experience of psychological science. A written transcript of the instructions was handed to the participants every bit good as the research worker who read the instructions aloud and asked if they understand what they were required to make ( Appendix 2 ) . The participants were asked to read the words out loud get downing at the top left-hand column working their manner down the page so to the top right manus column and down to the underside, they were asked to make this every bit rapidly as they could. Then depending on which group they had been indiscriminately selected into by get downing on either coloring material related words or impersonal related words ( experimental status or command status ) , a sheet of A4 paper with the colored words printed on them was face down on the tabular array in forepart of them ( Appendix 1 ) , when the participant turned the paper over and began the stop watch started and when they had finished both columns the stop watch was stopped. This was repeated on their 2nd status and all informations retrieved from both conditions was recorded on the informations tabular array ( Appendix 4 ) . Once this had been completed the research worker debriefed the participants and explained the intent of the experiment and asked if they had any inquiries before they left.
The research hypothesis is that it will take longer for the participants to call the ink of the coloring material related word than the ink of color impersonal word. The void hypothesis is that there is non a important difference in the clip it takes to call the ink coloring material in each status.
The clip it took to call the ink of the words from each list was measured to the nearest second and recorded on the informations tabular array.
Table 1 shows a 3.1 2nd clip difference between the agencies of status 1 and status 2. This equates to a 12.7 % addition in clip for the participants to read aloud the coloring material related words than the color impersonal words. It besides shows that the spread of consequences was greater in the coloring material status than in the impersonal status with a standard divergence of 6.816 compared to 5.639.
A mated sample t-test was conducted ( Appendix 5 ) on the information which showed that the difference between these conditions was statistically important and harmonizing to Cohen ( 1988, cited in Course Team, 2007 ) the consequence was medium with a 0.50 standard divergence point difference ( T ( 19 ) =4.172, p=.0005, d=0.50 ) . On these consequence a void hypothesis was rejected.
The consequences indicate that it took longer for the participants to call the ink of the colour-related words than the color impersonal words. This is in support of the old Stroop ( 1935, cited in Edgar, 2007 ) experiments which it took longer for participants to call the ink coloring material of that was incongruent with the existent word the ink is written. This besides supports Schneider and Shiffrin ‘s ( 1977, cited in Edgar, 2007 ) theory on automatic and controlled procedures.
In the informations collected for this experiment two participants were am exclusion to these findings ( participant 2 & A ; 6 ) , if the experiment was run without these participants the findings would be a 3.6 2nd clip difference between the mean of the color status and impersonal status. This equates to a 14.6 % addition in clip. It besides shows that the spread of consequences was somewhat greater in the coloring material status than in the impersonal status with a standard divergence of 7.127 compared to 5.920. The mated sample t-test ( Appendix 6 ) showed that the difference between these conditions were statistically important and the consequence was medium ( T ( 17 ) =4.959, p=.000, d=0.55 ) . This farther supports the studies research hypothesis.
The intervention between the automatic procedure of reading and the control procedure of calling the ink coloring material of the words supports the two-process theory although automatic and controlled procedures could be seen as on a continuum as the more hard the stimulations can be associated with an automatic procedure the more likely that the control procedure will supplant the automatic response ; for illustration if a participant was shown the word SKY ( written in ruddy ) depending on the clip of twelvemonth and the participants temper, alternate responses to the right reply every bit good as blue could be gray therefore the significance that the participant ‘s associate to the word is besides a confounding variable which will consequence response clip.
It is deserving sing that this experiment did non take into history the participants doing any errors, so hypothetically the participants could state the ink coloring material of every word in each list incorrect and the completion clip would still be recorded on the informations sheet tabular array. An alternate to this could be that the research worker tells the participants to seek once more, on any wrong ink coloring material reply, in making so the clip recorded would demo how long it took the participants to acquire the words on each list correct and the difference in the clip would be a more true consequence of the intervention between automatic and the control procedure.
Another of import consideration is that non to merely happen out if the participants have any psychological science experience, but in the debriefing inquire the participants if they used a scheme for this experiment and if that they had come across this kind of undertaking before as there are computing machine games which train the encephalon to overrule the automatic procedure of reading. A questionnaire at the debriefing would supply good informations which could impact the consequences.
In decision, the consequences support that automatic procedure interferes with control procedure and is in line with the limited-capacity cardinal processor theory but in farther research it may be interesting to take human mistake from the experiment, by go oning until the list of words is read right for each status and looking at the continuum for the automatic and control procedure by happening out where the automatic procedure is a dominant as the control