The Social Capital That Exists Between Charities Psychology Essay
As outlined within the purposes, this survey seeks to add to the literature researching the societal capital that exists between charities and their stakeholders, specifically looking at the societal capital that exists between charities and their stakeholders on SNSs. Four aims have been set to assist accomplish this purpose.
Objective 1 and 2 will be accomplished by transporting out a literature reappraisal looking into what other bookmans have said about societal capital and its relation the charities, PR and SNSs and the function stakeholders play in this procedure. A instance survey will so be undertaken of one charity and the relationships it has with stakeholders within one SNS, look intoing the presence of reciprocality and societal capital within these connexions. Empirical information will be collected, utilizing both questionnaires and interviews therefore enabling a in-depth image to be created about the SNS usage wonts of a sample of the stakeholders connected to this charity through this peculiar SNS, This will accomplish Objective 3.The research will so go on with an analysis of these wonts and how they affect the reciprocality, and hence the societal capital, within these relationships and any attempts to cultivate it.
A valuable facet of this research is Objective threes: to research how stakeholders view their relationships with charities on SNSs, deriving an apprehension of their usage wonts and the motives for this behavior. Chapter 2 – A Review of the related literature- identified reciprocality as an indispensable characteristic that determines the presence of the societal capital espoused by Putman ( 2000 ) and consequence its cultivation. This reappraisal besides identified that it was an of import portion of the natural societal capital bing within charities ( King 2004 ; Taylor 2010 ; Strauss 2010 ) therefore proposing that charities are illustrations of Putman ‘s construct of societal capital in action ( Onyx and Bullen, 2000 ) . Besides stressed in the reappraisal of the literature is that if charities want to truly understand the reciprocality and societal capital contained in these relationships they need to understand the positions of stakeholders ( Putman 1996 ; Putman Leonardi and Nanetti1993 ; Putman, Feldstein and Cohen, 2003 ; Heath 2001 ; Taylor 2010 ; Luoma-aho 2009 ; Smith 2010 and Lovejoy and Saxton 2012 ) . By happening out why stakeholders connect with charities utilizing SNSs charities can measure the value of the societal capital contained in these relationships and how this will impact any subsequent attempts to cultivate it ( Strauss 2010 ; Smith 2010 ; Lovejoy and Saxton 2012 ) .
So far the literature indicates that people are motivated to utilize SNSs because of the personal wagess they offer ( Cha et al 2010 ; Recuero, Araujo and Zago 2011 ) . This indicates that the societal capital bing within relationships on SNSs may non incorporate reciprocality, hence alining more closely with the societal capital theory of Bourdieu 1986 ) than Putman ( 2000 ) . The result of such research, should this besides apply to charities, indicates that these connexions may non hold the characteristics that needed to acquire stakeholders working together the meet the administration ‘s end to construct a better society.
However, with no research concentrating specifically on the demands and motives of charity stakeholders within this context, any thoughts on their motives remain merely premises. An of import part of this research work is hence to get down to make full this spread in the research, get downing attempts to understand these relationships and whether the ego centred schemes outlined above besides drive these partnerships. By comparing the findings of this survey with the literature that exists in this area- i.e. comparing the existent universe with the literature reexamine findings- this research worker will non merely complete Objective 4 but besides add to understanding societal capital contained within the relationships between charities and their stakeholders on SNSs.
Appendix 1 contains the U & A ; G points used to mensurate each societal concept and an illustration of the questionnaire used. Appendix 4 contains a sample interview construction.
3.2 Research scheme
Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill ( 2000 ) acquire to the Southern Cross of what is of most of import when make up one’s minding on an appropriate research scheme. They suggest that “ what matters is non the label that is attached to a peculiar scheme, but whether it is appropriate for your peculiar research… … … … … .. ” ( Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2000, p.92 ) .
The empirical research in this survey is interested in an in-depth survey within the SNS environment of today of the demands of stakeholders presently connected to charity through these channels. This will be accomplished by concentrating on obtaining the positions of stakeholders connected to a individual charity via one peculiar SNS, in this instance Saint Michael ‘s Hospice, Harrogate and Twitter, therefore accomplishing the purpose set out above while besides guaranting that the research is realistic and accomplishable in the timeframe set.
To enable this to go on the research scheme chosen needs to be good suited to easing this type of elaborate survey of modern-day issues, therefore giving the research worker the best opportunity of accomplishing a richer apprehension of the phenomenon of societal capital in the modern-day scene of charity SNSs. This indicates that in kernel, this research is be chiefly qualitative instead than quantitative because alternatively of being concerned with measures and measuring it is interested in “ things in their natural scenes, trying to do sense of, or construe, phenomena in footings of the significances people bring to them ” ( Denzin and Lincoln, 1994, p.2 ) . However this research worker acknowledges that these two attacks do non hold to be reciprocally sole, as quantitative steps can be used in societal scenes in concurrence with qualitative methods ( Myers 1997 ) .
With this in head historical research, as a scheme, is non appropriate. It is usually associated with looking at non-contemporary phenomena, when, in fact, this research is concerned with the really modern-day context of the charity SNSs of today ( Biggam 2008 ) . Experimental research is besides unsuitable, as it concentrates on causal relationships, and does so by dividing the phenomena under probe from its societal context ( Blaxter, Hughes and Tight, 2006 ) . This empirical research Centres on societal capital, and one peculiar facet of the construct, reciprocality. In this instance the societal capital under probe is embedded in the context of charity SNSs. As this context is important to the understanding sought, it can non be separated from this environment, therefore governing out experimental research as an attack. This determination is justified by Bowling ( 2002, quoted in Blaxter, Hughes and Tight, 2006, p.218-219 ) who states that “ experiments can non capture the diverseness of ends, aims and service inputs which may lend to… … … … outcomes in natural scenes ” .
Similarly survey-centred research has been excluded. This determination was made after sing the pro and cons of such an attack, as outlined in the literature, which highlighted that informations collected utilizing this method is more like snapshot in clip instead an a deep probe ( Blaxter, Hughes and Tight, 2006 ) and hence inappropriate for an purpose that hopes to capture stakeholders positions in item
Action research, nevertheless, was identified as holding virtue. It does affect elaborate analysis but this would usually be an iterative procedure, done in coaction with the research topics and normally directed at work outing a particular job ( Blaxter, Hughes and Tight, 2006 ) . At its bosom it is ‘problem focussed, context-specific and future oriented ‘ ; ‘involves a alteration in intercession ‘ ; ‘involves a cyclic procedure in which research, action and rating are interlinked ‘ and ‘is founded on a research relationship in which those involved are participants in the alteration procedure ‘ ( Hart and Bond, 1995, quoted in Blaxter, Hughes and Tight, 2006, p. 37-38 ) . However, because this undertaking is non concerned with work outing a specific practical issue, and is hence non involved in proving a theory iteratively to happen a solution to a specific quandary, it was besides rejected as a possible research scheme.
The scrutiny of research methods above helped to get at the decision that the best research scheme to utilize to transport out the empirical research within this paper is the instance survey. The chief ground for using this scheme is because:
“ the instance survey research worker typically observes the features of an single unit- a kid, a category, a school or a community. The intent of such observation is to examine profoundly and to analyze intensively the many-sided phenomena that constitute the life rhythm of the unit ” ( Cohen and Manion, 1995, p.106 ) .
Using this definition, a instance survey is hence concerned with close observation of how a peculiar group of people behave in a certain environment, doing it a perfect vehicle to take to deeply examine the positions of charity stakeholders utilizing SNSs. It is besides considered “ really worthwhile manner of researching bing theory and besides supplying a beginning of new hypotheses ” ( Saunders Lewis and Thornhill, 2000, p. 92 ) . Although the intended end product of this survey is non to propose new hypotheses, the comparing will still be worthwhile as it will take to improved apprehension that both theoreticians and charities can utilize to develop their cognition of societal capital.
A instance survey scheme, nevertheless, is non without its critics who claim there are restrictions to following this attack that research workers need to turn to. The primary restriction outlined is trouble around whether one instance survey can be considered representative of the population and hence whether generalizations can be made as the consequence of its execution ( Adelman, Jenkins and Kemmis, 1977 ; Borg 1981 ; Bell 2005 ) . This restriction applies to this undertaking because the research worker is analyzing societal capital by researching one charity ‘s relationships with their stakeholders on one SNS.
This research worker takes this on board and will seek to get the better of such a restriction by concentrating of casting visible radiation on what is go oning in this peculiar scene, a technique suggested by Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill ( 2000 ) . By doing this determination the research worker is non proposing that findings of this empirical research will be representative of the charity ‘s full SNS presence or so other charities. Therefore the part to the academic community of this piece of research will developed from the synthesis of the instance survey findings with the literature reappraisal, adding to the cognition pool in this country of survey. Practitioners will besides profit, through the construct of relatability, the thoughts that other administrations may recognize the state of affairs described and can therefore learn from the findings ( Bassey 1981 ) .
With the instance survey research scheme now in topographic point the site chosen to set this into pattern was decided as Saint Michael ‘s Hospice. This site was selected because the research worker works for the charity and could therefore derive complete entree, comparatively easy to the public dealingss map, the SNSs attached to the charity and their followings. This was non merely needed for the research to be implemented but would hold been significantly harder as an foreigner to the administration offering an of import chance.
After taking Saint Michael ‘s as the site for the empirical research it became rapidly apparent that the charity ‘s societal networking activity was excessively big to be tackled by this little exploratory survey. To stay true to the aim of deriving a deep apprehension, and within the clip and resource restraints of this survey, it was decided that the empirical research would concentrate on one Saint Michael ‘s SNS, in this instance its corporate Chirrup history ( @ mysaintmichael ‘s ) . The grounds for taking this SNS were double.
First, as identified in the literature reappraisal, Twitter is considered to hold more possible to construct relationships between charities and their stakeholders than other SNSs ( Evans, Twomey and Talan, 2011 ; Lovejoy and Saxton, 2012 ) nevertheless few surveies have been undertaken to corroborate this capableness. This research seeks to assist turn to this academic spread by adding to the literature in this country. Second, Twitter was chosen because the bulk of the communicating that occur on the channel is conducted in public, therefore assisting to get the better of any ethical issues around privateness.
Privacy is non the lone issue this undertaking faces and before reasoning this subdivision on research scheme is besides of import to turn to one other of import concern environing how a research worker maintains objectiveness when analyzing their ain working environment, and the possible impact this has on dependability. There is a danger that anterior cognition of the charity, its SNSs and their followings could impact how this research is undertaken and taken. So, in a command to understate such a possibility the following scheme will be adopted. Until all research topics are secured, interviews completed and transcribed, the research worker will forbear from any interaction with the charity ‘s Twitter followings. The purpose of this behavior is to avoid straight or indirectly showing positions on the societal capital contained in these relationships to this group or geting their positions of possible research topics. After written text of the interviews, the names of those involved will besides be replaced by codifications and identifiable information removed and so a deliberate spread created before the information is analysed, a farther effort to understate any prejudice in the reading of the informations.
A 2nd issue around objectiveness has besides been considered. Due to the research worker ‘s place in the charity it may turn out more hard for participants to see her in any manner other than being attached to the cause. Such a job may impact their replies to the inquiries given. Attempts will besides be made to understate such possible prejudice. This will be achieved by the research worker continually clear uping her function in the undertaking and informing the participants of the intent of the research, the utilizations of the informations collected and the mode in which participants can help in the research.
3.3 Data Collection
3.3.1 Sample choice
With the site for this instance analyze established as Saint Michael ‘s corporate Chirrup history, it is now of import to make up one’s mind how the positions of the charity ‘s stakeholders utilizing this SNS will be collected. With a sum of 700 followings utilizing this channel, the population was excessively big to affect them all in this little exploratory survey. In order to do this instance survey accomplishable and realistic in the timeframes set a sample of seven members of this population will be taken. These sample will be chosen utilizing simple random sampling, which offers every member of a population the same opportunity of being selected, significantly cut downing any accusal of prejudice levelled at the sample chosen ( Biggam 2008 ) . This will be achieved by seting all the names of Saint Michael ‘s corporate Chirrup followings into a chapeau and first seven picked chosen are the research topics. Should any of these seven be unable to take portion for whatever ground, this procedure will go on until all seven had been secured.
3.3.2 Data Collection Techniques
This instance survey will utilize two different informations aggregation techniques, interviews and questionnaires, with the former being the chief beginning of informations. This research worker feels the two complement each other and the undertakings aims. The questionnaire will be used to supply a good baseline of participants Twitter usage, something that is needed for the interviews to be able to concentrate on an in-depth geographic expedition of these utilizations and motives behind them and how these relate to their connexion with Saint Michael ‘s. Such a consequence will non be possible should the questionnaire be used on its ain as it would restrict the in-depth exploratory replies ( Blaxter, Hughes and Tight, 2006 ) .
Using the interviews on their ain will besides problematic because without a anterior apprehension of the participants general Twitter, there is a danger that the interviews will be taken up set uping this and should it non be established the elaborate geographic expedition outlined above impossible. Such a combination is besides deemed appropriate by the literature, where quantitative steps have been used in societal scenes in concurrence with qualitative methods ( Myers 1997 ) as outlined earlier.
Another good ground for double methods is that it will let for the triangulation of consequences, where different histories of the same phenomena can be compared and contrasted and peculiarly utile when seeking to accomplish a more rounded image or what you are looking at ( Geertz 1973 ) . By making this the research worker hopes to be able to farther investigation peculiar reply from the studies, contrast the replies given on the study with those in the interviews and comparison and contrast the participants general Twitter usage with their usage of Saint Michael ‘s Twitter provender.
To back up such work both the questionnaires and the interviews will take a U & A ; G attack to capturing to replying the inquiries around how and why participants use Twitter. This determination was made following a thorough reappraisal of the literature which showed that U & A ; G is appropriate to utilize in the context of SNSs ( Dunne, Lawlor and Rowley, 2010 ; Park, Kee and Valenzuela, 2009 ; Chiu, Hsu and Wang, 2006 ; Lee and Ma, 2012 ) and that it has the possible to explicate the societal capital contained in SNS relationships ( Papacharissi and Mendelson, 2008 ; Shao 2009 ; Leung 2010 ; Park, Kee and Valenzuela, 2009 and Nyland, Marvex and Beck 2007 ; Raacke and Bonds-Raacke, 2006 )
Although motivations for media use vary, most U & A ; G surveies on societal media have focussed around four utilizations ; amusement, socializing, information, self interest- although frequently described somewhat otherwise depending on the survey ( Diddi & A ; LaRose, 2006 ; Dunne, Lawlor and Rowley, 2010 ; Lee et Al, 2010 ; Lin, Salwen and Abdulla, 2005 and Park, Kee and Valenzuela, 2009 ) . Therefore this survey will follow these subjects are the chief countries for survey. However, one other will be added: self look. This usage has besides been highlighted in past surveies ( Papacharissi and Mendelson, 2008 and Shao 2009 ) as another usage for SNS. This allows for the significance of who you and what you do to demo on SNSs e.g. alining with a charity, and may be motivated by a demand for acknowledgment, celebrity or personal efficaciousness ( Shao 2009 ) . The add-on of this subject is of import as it allows for the U & A ; G model to be adapted to accommodate the charity context with the add-on of steps associating to charity use of Twitter to be brought in.
A questionnaire was designed utilizing Survey Monkey around this U & A ; G model. Respondents will entree the questionnaire through an on-line nexus and will foremost be asked for consent and to asseverate they are more than 18 years-old. They were so asked about their Chirrup use. All U & A ; G concepts were measured utilizing five statements, adapted from anterior research to be suited for this context ( Leung 2009 ; Lee and ma 2011 ; Papacharissi and Mendelson, 2008 ; Shao 2009 ; Park, Kee and Valenzuela ; 2009 ) . Participants will be asked to tag those statements which relate to their Twitter use.
The picks marked will so organize the footing for the interviews and hence collected and analysed foremost. The interviews will so take topographic point utilizing a semi-structured attack. Semi- structured interviews are identified in the literature as an appropriate agencies for roll uping qualitative informations and normally used in instance surveies ( Yin 2003 ) . The cardinal to semi-structured interviews is a “ willingness to allow the interview wane and flow, following associated leads and new issues as they arise ” ( Biggam, 2009, p.102 ) . This research worker believes such an attack is appropriate to the undertakings aim to examine each participants study consequences, as outlined earlier.
Therefore the research worker will come in the interview with a limited figure of pre-arranged inquiries constructed by analyzing their study consequences and designed to give the conversation construction and focal point. However, this research worker besides recognises that interviews are clip devouring therefore the little sample size used in this empirical research. The interviews will besides be recorded on an Iphone. This determination was made to enable research worker to be able to to the full concentrate on the interview procedure, cognizing that everything that is said will be captured and hence more easy interpreted when transcribed.
Patton ( 1990 ) suggests that semi-structured interviews should do usage of open-ended inquiries, where there is no bound to the figure of responses available to the respondent, as this encourages meaningful replies. This research will endeavor to follow this advice but this research worker is cognizant that such an attack does non come without its jobs. Open-ended inquiries can non merely turn out hard to reply but the respondent may be tempted to give reply he/ she thinks that research worker may desire to hear or possibly pigments them in a good visible radiation. Besides possible is the respondent merely blurts out the first thing that comes to mind ( Biggam 2009 ) . There is a possibility that such issues could happen during this survey, but this research worker will stay peculiarly vigilant of respondents giving replies that they think the research worker wants to hear. There is a higher than normal possibility of this occurrence because of the research worker ‘s connexion to the charity and hence the respondents want to delight them, hence conveying the dependability of the undertaking into inquiries, as discussed earlier.
This instance survey purposes to go through the trial of dependability by using the thought of Yin ( 2003 ) , who suggests that the research worker be crystalline about every item involved in every measure of the probe. This means supplying inside informations about the rightness of the instance survey scheme, the site selected, the informations aggregation techniques used, the sample interviewed, the completed questionnaires, the existent interviews and the method of informations analysis. This will complement the usage of a research scheme and informations aggregation techniques considered to be valid by the research community.
3.4 Model for Data Analysis
The model for informations analysis to be adopted to dissect the information from the instance survey is based around the iterative procedure of Wolcott ( 1994 ) . He describes three key constituents to this method: description, analysis and reading, and topographic points accent on pull outing and understanding the emerging subjects. However, this research worker does appreciate this is non the simple additive procedure that appears above. In fact it requires an iterative attack to capturing and understanding these subjects and forms ( Miles and Huberman, 1984: Creswell 1997 ) by continually revisiting and reexamining the information.
In footings of this peculiar survey the procedure will take a three pronged attack, foremost there will be an analysis of the questionnaires, which will be used as a base for the interviews, as explained in the informations aggregation subdivision. The interviews will so be undertaken and so analysed. At this point possibly the most of import portion of this empirical research occurs, as participants ‘ positions as highlighted by the interviews and the questionnaires are compared and so considered in relation to the relevant findings of the literature reappraisal. This procedure in kernel reflects recognized pattern as set out by Bogdan and Biklen ( 1982, p.145 ) who describe it as
“ working with informations, organizing it, interrupting it into manageable units, synthesizing it, seeking for forms, unwraping what is of import and what is to be learned, and make up one’s minding what you will state others ” .
This procedure will be helped by organizing the information and presenting forms utilizing the U & A ; G subjects developed for the informations aggregation procedure. This will enable the research to keep a consistent and clear construction throughout, therefore helping the informations aggregation procedure and the subsequent work to understand the information collected. The research worker will so pull on the reappraisal of the literature to assist place the societal capital contained within the positions of participants. Harmonizing to Putman ( 2000 ) one of the key norms needed for societal capital to be and be cultivated is generalised reciprocality, which is defined by the inclination to assist others. Most research workers agree that its presence is demonstrated by parties in the relationship acknowledging, understanding and back uping each other ‘s demand ( Putman, Leonardi, Nanetti, 1993 ; Putman 1996 ; Putman, Feldstein and Cohen, 2003, Heath 2001 ; Taylor 2010 ; Luoma-aho 2009 ; Strauss 2010 ) . With reciprocality outlined and/ or used as an index of societal capital in such a wealth of old research it is deemed as an appropriate step by which to estimate what participants interview responses say about the societal capital contained in their Twitter connexion with Saint Michael ‘s.
4.5 Restrictions and Potential Problems
There are figure of restrictions to this piece of research, with two of the most of import already been dealt with above ; cogency and dependability. This therefore leaves ethical considerations, understood to intend the “ rightness of your behavior in relation to the rights of those who become the topic of your work or who are affected by it ” ( Saunders Lewis and Thornhill, 2007, p.183 ) , and tackled at the clip this research was proposed. These can be found in Appendix 6: the research proposal.