Part One: Appropriate Models of Teaching and

ADVANCED PRACTICE

Part One: Appropriate Models of Teaching and Learning

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The undermentioned essay seeks to research the ways in which to ease a more harmonious relationship between pupil and instructor with specific respects to adult larning within the context of Hairdressing and Beauty Therapy work. Although the focal point will be on this specific sort of employment-based activity, the essay will seek to look at generic theoretical accounts for learning and larning ( such as the behaviorist attack, the humanist attack and the cognitive attack ) to see how learning forms can be separately tailored to accommodate the single demands of the pupil in inquiry. As is the instance in the mandatory educational scene of the schoolroom, the landscape of grownup acquisition is littered with a broad assortment of degrees of intelligence and an even greater disparity amongst pupils with respects to age, income, personal political orientation and life experience. This means that learning in an grownup context is inherently hard to learning in a mandatory instruction context as, amongst other things, the grownups on a post-compulsory instruction class will frequently hold had to pay for their instruction, which is in direct contrast to under sixteen’s ( Armitage et al, 2003 ) . Surely, they will hold had to put valuable clip off from spouses and households in order to go to the class on offer. This necessarily impacts upon the construct of post?compulsory instruction ( PCE ) at both the instructor and pupil degree.

“The post-compulsory sector is distinguished from other sectors in its diverseness. Herein lies one of the most important jobs for authorities strategians, course of study contrivers and senior directors when planning and implementing structural alteration. The extent of the diverseness is such that even the name of the sector can be controversial.” ( Coles, 2004:3 )

However, certainly the greatest difference between learning in a compulsory and a post?compulsory educational environment concerns the bringing of learning methods for grownup scholars. Basically, while immature people in school and college require a ‘hands-on’ attack to learning ( forcing in many cases the kids to larn and to increase their expertness ) , this attack is negated when it is transferred to the context of big instruction. Not merely are the resources ( both in footings of clip, location and equipment ) available to the grownup instruction teacher wholly different to he resources available to the compulsory instruction instructor, but the grownup pupils can non be treated in the same ‘hands-on’ manner. These pupils are, after all, grownups and necessitate to be treated as such and in a entirely independent manner. In this manner vocational education’s nucleus values can “help to set up a form of self-motivated professional development and brooding patterns designed to go on long after the initial making is achieved” ( Wallace, 2004:19 ) .

Therefore, in the concluding analysis, post?compulsory instruction should non be viewed within the specific course of study context of any given vocational capable – be it hairdressing, technology or any other employment-based activity. Rather, it should be seen within the context of the authorities policy to cut down the societal, economic and political worlds of ‘social exclusion’ whereby grownup instruction categories can move as a launch tablet to include those marginalised members of society who have been historically excluded from mainstream civilization ( Pierson, 2001:96-97 ) . This is the background to the Learning and Skills Act, which was passed in 2000. The instructor accordingly needs to learn ‘transferable’ accomplishments that the pupil can utilize outside of the context of hairdressing and beauty therapy ( such as communicating accomplishments, literacy and numeracy ) in order to supply an grownup instruction that is grounded in the worlds of the twenty-four hours when the construct of ‘a occupation for life’ has ceased to be in the bulk of industries in modern twenty-four hours Britain ( Scott and Gough, 2003 ) . Surely, literacy is an of import issue at the present clip as the UK has been shown to hold lower grownup literacy degrees than any other industrialized state in the EU ( Papen, 2005 ) . In a profession every bit sociable as hair tonic and beauty therapy, the demand for improved literacy accomplishments may be lost on many pupils. It is, hence, up to the instructor to guarantee that these cardinal movable accomplishments are non overlooked in favor of the occupation specific accomplishments required within the hair tonic and beauty therapy industries.

It has been shown that vocational instruction is per se different from other manners of province sponsored and private instruction. As a consequence, the acquisition theoretical accounts used to convey vocational expertness are besides needfully different. For the intent of position, three learning theories will organize the footing of the analysis herein. As mentioned above these are the behavioristic attack, the cognitive attack and the humanist attack. The behaviorist attack, as the name suggests, intends to utilize acquisition to alter the behavior of the pupils who take the class in inquiry ( Rogers, 2002:89 ) . This can be deployed to help those pupils who have been out of work for a drawn-out period of clip or those pupils who have had troubles in the past with respects to behavioral and disciplinary issues. The behaviorist attack is hence a generic attack to post-compulsory instruction that is non specific in footings of capable affair so that the accomplishments learnt during the behaviorist centred programme can be easy transferred to other countries. This is therefore portion of the government’s cardinal accomplishments scheme that places an progressively high accent upon vocational preparation and the manner in which this preparation is able to alter the life style forms of those students who have been excluded, marginalised members of modern-day society.

The cognitive attack, on the other manus, marks “the manner the single learns, remembers and thinks, the self-managed accomplishments needed to specify and work out jobs ; and attitudes” ( Rogers, 2002:87 ) . This can be deployed in both a specific and non-specific educational context. For case, the grownup pupil can larn cognitively the specific trade of any given profession, for case hair tonic for work in a beauty salon. This can be achieved through cognitively supplying “a period of assimilation and foundation in a capable country or sill set” ( Brookfield, 1995:4 ) . This, in kernel, means that the pupil can, via initial instructions and ( followed by ) repeat, go a professional in about any given capable country.

With specific respects to hairdressing and beauty therapy, the cognitive attack would be an priceless manner of supplying learning commissariats as this would enable to the instructor to supply the pupils with the nucleus cardinal accomplishments sets that constitute the anchor of the profession ( this is what is referred to as the ‘framework’ of the hair tonic and beauty therapy apprenticeship ) . More refined accomplishments refering hair tonic and beauty therapy ( for case, tanning and reflexology ) could so be taught at a ulterior day of the month using alternate acquisition schemes or a merger of the two. Likewise, following a cognitive based attack to adult larning can – over clip – aid in developing a acquisition based mentality amongst the pupils which can in bend be transferred across different industries and occupation sectors ( such as an betterment in linguistic communication accomplishments ) . Therefore, the cognitive attack, like the behaviorist attack, can turn out to be most good for those pupils who have experienced a drawn-out sum of clip out of the work topographic point or those pupils who have been subjected to long periods of societal exclusion. The consequence can be a complete alteration in life form for those big scholars who immerse themselves within the cognitive, behavioristic attack to post?compulsory instruction.

It should be noted, nevertheless, that both the cognitive and behaviorist attack to farther instruction are in factmannersof learning. They do non act upon the topic course of study or the learning scheme per Se ; they are tailored to aim single students’ demands. Therefore, “educationists need to cognize more, for illustration, about how cognitive manner interacts with an individual’s attack to larning. It is the interaction of cognitive manner and acquisition scheme which combines to act upon an individual’s response.” ( Riding and Rayner, 1998:83 ) Basically, this means that the specific larning proviso can non be selected in progress of the instructor meeting and acquiring to cognize each single pupil in his or her schoolroom. Merely after estimating an single student’s cognitive and behavioral strengths and failings can larn schemes be tailored to run into specific, alone educational demands.

The humanist attack to adult acquisition is the one which arguably suits vocational instruction better than either the cognitive or behaviorist attacks. This is because the humanist attack highlights the primacy of the human experience ( Rogers, 2002:100?101 ) within the broader context of the grownup larning procedure so that the drift is shifted in portion onto the pupil every bit much as it is instigated by the instructor. This is an of import point and one that impacts straight upon the single type of larning scheme adopted in a post?compulsory scene. The humanist attack to acquisition is best suited to those pupils whose cardinal life accomplishments are more outstanding than their cardinal educational accomplishments. In this manner the instructor can steer the pupil through the acquisition procedure utilizing markers that are seeable to the pupil with more life than educational experience. Once once more, though, it is of import to observe that the humanist attack to acquisition is in fact a manner instead than a generic manner of learning that one can follow to accommodate an full grownup schoolroom. Therefore, neither the humanist attack nor the behaviorist or the cognitive attack is able to declare itself to be the ‘right’ acquisition scheme to follow. There is no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ in instruction ; and this is even more disposed with respects to adult instruction and vocational preparation. Indeed, each scheme is deemed to be interchangeable so that different acquisition manners can be tried and tested with different pupils in conformity with their ain personal, professional and educational development, representing a “lifelong larning conceptual framework” ( Jarvis, 2003: 39-64 ) .

Regardless of which larning schemes are used to acquire the best out of single pupils, the key to generic success still resides in using effectual learning resources ( Harrison, 2005 ) . This is an progressively of import subject in the 20 first century as the digital revolution, fired by the duplicate engines of the Internet and nomadic telephone, has served to revolutionize learning methods at both a compulsory and non?compulsory degree. The most pronounced technological progress has been with the coming of ICT ( Information and Communication Technology ) larning schemes that enable instructors to utilize the web and new media solutions in order to learn every bit good as to supervise and reexamine the acquisition schemes that have been implemented. Equally far as the grownup pupils themselves are concerned, the debut of appropriate larning commissariats such as this can assist the pupil, “practise societal and synergistic accomplishments ; speculate and experiment ; utilize appropriate available resources and engineering ; work to deadlines.” ( Bloomer, 1997:48 )

New engineering resources can be used for pupils who are set abouting long distance acquisition classs so that those pupils who are unable to go to categories every bit on a regular basis as others are still able to maintain up with the nucleus class stuff via accessing on-line resources and web informations. The instructor can likewise utilize this sort of engineering to more accurately estimate the advancement ( or deficiency of ) of each single pupil through using spreadsheets and hebdomadal update studies to the hair tonic and beauty therapy class. Therefore, although hair tonic and beauty therapy preponderantly remains a practical topic that can merely be adequately taught via a proactive, ‘hands-on’ attack, the impact of the coming of new learning resources in the modern-day epoch should non be underestimated by instructors of this topic. In the concluding analysis, invention is the key to success in any big educational scene as this provides pupils with fresh drift to better their accomplishments without going excessively embroiled in the tenet of course of study or the boring repeat of the schoolroom ( Latham and Miles, 2001 ) .

Part Two: Critical Discussion

Part one of the essay looked at the socio?political context of big instruction in the 20 first century, specifically the manner in which it can move as a accelerator for disadvantaged, marginalised members of society to alter the form of their day?to?day lives. Furthermore, we looked at specific larning schemes and how they can be implemented into the hair tonic and beauty therapy programme. Yet while we looked at the advantages of these selected acquisition schemes we did non look at the jobs that can originate and the manner in which the grownup instruction supplier can try to work out these jobs.

Clearly, theory and pattern ne’er rather dovetail one another when the human component is introduced into the equation ( Pollard, 2005 ) . Planing for categories can be as meticulously researched as possible, yet the worlds of covering with pupils who can non be adequately labelled and pigeon?holed into certain classs of larning can render the full preliminary research procedure obsolete. Students with larning troubles such as dyslexia can, for case, alter the full attack of the grownup instructor. However, at the morning of the 20 first century there can be no more cumbrous concern for instructors than the issue of globalization and the manner in which globalization has served to do multiculturalism one of the most of import paradigms for modern-day instructors, peculiarly modern-day instructors in an grownup instruction context ( Burbules, 2000 ) .

“A cardinal statement is that tensenesss between globalization and social civilization make the acknowledgment of social civilization and cross-cultural similarities and differences, more, non less, of import. Consequently, the inclusion of social civilization as a factor in probes covering such subjects as the course of study, instruction and acquisition, leading and school based direction, is seen as an jussive mood for the hereafter development of educational leading as a field of research and practice.” ( Dimmock and Walker, 2005:7 )

When one thinks specifically of hairdressing and beauty therapy, one can see how multiculturalism and cross-cultural differences can present a serious job to all of the relevant acquisition schemes discussed herein. Language, for illustration, is the key to utilising cognitive and behavioristic attacks to larning as linguistic communication direction forms the footing of teaching students over new undertakings such as hair tonic and taking attention of clients in a beauty therapy context. Yet, linguistic communication is so much more than an educational tool at the disposal of the grownup instructor. It is a system of sounds, significances, and constructions through which people make sense of the universe in which they live and the profession in which they work. It is, moreover, the cardinal natural stuff of learning as linguistic communication provides a span between the teachers’s larning theories and the students’ responses to these theories. Knowledge and developing – be they delivered in a cognitive or behaviourist manner – can non be adequately transferred where there is a serious job of linguistic communication and communicating. This is a extremely of import point, particularly sing the specific profession discussed herein as hair tonic and beauty therapy are both particularly sociable careers where the worker has to be able to pass on with the client in both a professional and societal sense. Multiculturalism and the jobs of cross?cultural communicating should accordingly be seen as the major obstruction to the effectual bringing of grownup larning commissariats in the modern twenty-four hours ( Kohls, 1994 ) .

Multiculturalism besides impacts upon the effectual bringing of the humanist attack to adult instruction as the life experiences of pupils from those states with small or nil in common ( in footings of cultural heritage ) with the United Kingdom will needfully be different to the life experiences of those pupils who have been born and bred in Britain. Furthermore, these cross-cultural differences can take a assortment of signifiers. They can, for case, be spiritual in beginning. This can clearly impact upon the successful bringing of learning methods when one considers the wellness and safety patterns that must be adopted in a hair tonic salon or a beauty therapy workshop. Apprentices must, for illustration, take certain vesture and bind the hair back in certain, pre-agreed ways. This may non be possible with respects to some planetary faiths and this is bound to impact upon the acquisition schemes adopted by the grownup instructor.

Globalization and cross-cultural communicating troubles are non the lone jobs confronting the grownup instructor in a hair tonic and beauty therapy puting. Rather, there are besides jobs refering to implementing larning schemes outside of the physical context of the schoolroom to those pupils who wish to set about a distance larning class. This is hence an issue of engagement as an “active” portion of the acquisition procedure ( Rogers, 2002: 271-276 ) as opposed to engagement as an “inactive” portion of the acquisition procedure. Clearly, the active engagement of the pupil is an of import portion of direction with respects to such a societal profession as hair tonic or beauty therapy. Without it merely theory can be learned ; ne’er applied into pattern. However, one should non assume that the construct of distance acquisition is non relevant to hairdressing and beauty therapy and, furthermore, that the acquisition schemes discussed herein all of a sudden becomes disused when transferred to a distance based larning context.

When one thinks of, for case, the cognitive attack to larning one thinks of the altering idea forms that emerge as a consequence of prosecuting in the instruction procedure. Yet these thought forms can besides be changed via long distance acquisition. Cognitive larning schemes can take the signifier of both the verbal and the non?verbal assortment with some pupils reacting more fruitfully to the written word than to the spoken word. Therefore, distance acquisition delivered across a multimedia platform can really function to help the pupil instead than to take away from his or her learning experience. As Richard Meyer’s research suggests, “the cognitive theory of multimedia acquisition is based on the thought that humans possess two qualitatively different channels for processing” ( Meyer, 2001:67 ) . Should the long distance scholar possess more of a cognitive aptitude for the written word as opposed to the spoken word so the long distance acquisition scheme would non realistically necessitate to be modified in this case.

Similarly, with respects to the behaviorist attack to instruction, which one would assume would be much better suited to a group based larning environment. Yet, once more though, each single pupil will hold a different response to each particular larning scheme. Students uncomfortable in groups or category scenes can happen that the “class of one” attack to long distance acquisition can hold more of a positive, good impact on behavior forms than the alternate category or work based attack. Indeed, because the class stuff is all collected in written, booklet signifier, the pupil can maintain reexamining the same lessons and faculties as may times as they wish so that, instead than holding less of an impact upon larning behavior, the long distance attack to larning can in fact do the antonym and have much more of a positive impact upon behavior forms. For this ground, long distance larning programmes can be seen to be built-in with respects to furthering a long term association with instruction in students which can so be transferred to different topics outside of the parametric quantities of hair tonic and beauty therapy. The assurance that can be gained from come ining into such a student?tutor relationship should non be lost on either the long distance student or the long distance teacher.

Finally, the humanist attack to adult instruction is besides affected by the transference of work?based larning programmes into the domain of distance?based larning programmes. Clearly, the minus of the active engagement of the distance scholar from the educational procedure needfully impacts upon the instructor in so much as he or she is unable to estimate first manus the life experiences that have moulded the pupil in inquiry. Yet this does non intend that the humanist attack no longer retains any relevancy for the distance based larning schemes deployed. Distance based manners of acquisition can still enable the pupil to critically believe about the topic mater at manus, to develop an ‘authentic’ educational personality and to analyze autonomously at a velocity that suits the specific acquisition degrees of the pupil in inquiry ( Aloni, 2002: 85-97 ) .

Therefore, arguably, the humanist attack to adult instruction can really be enhanced by reassigning larning from a work based to a distance based context as the pupil is encouraged to believe for themselves in a much more proactive manner than would be the instance if the pupil were still located within the confines of the schoolroom or the workplace. As is the instance with both the behavioural and cognitive acquisition schemes, distance acquisition does non needfully hold to compare to a less rounded acquisition experience for either the pupil or the instructor. As of all time with respects to the profession of grownup instruction, a small invention and alteration of bing larning schemes can greatly change the manner any give class is received.

Ultimately, hence, grownup instruction is every bit much of a procedure of larning for the instructor as it is for the pupil. Merely through test and mistake can the teacher manage to orient lesson programs that are separately suited to the diverse scope of pupils in his or her category. In this manner, both the pupil and the instructor learn new accomplishments that can be transferred to of all time increasing educational and professional environments.

Mentions

Aloni, N. ( 2002 )Enhancing Humanity: The Philosophical Foundations of Humanistic EducationLondon: Kluwer Publishing

Armitage, A. , Bryant, R. , Dunhill, R. , Hayes, D. , Hudson, A. , Kent, J. , Lawes, S. and Renwick, M. ( Eds. ) ( 2003 )Teaching and Training in Post?Compulsory EducationBuckingham: Open University Press

Bloomer, M. ( 1997Curriculum Making in Post 16 Education: The Social Conditions of StudentshipLondon: Routledge

Brookfield, S. ( 1995 )Becoming a Critically Reflective TeacherLondon: Jossey Bass Wiley

Burbules, N.C. ( 2000 )Globalization and Education: Critical PositionsLondon: Routledge Falmer

Kales, A. ( 2004 )Teaching in Post-Compulsory Education: Policy, Practice and ValuesLondon: David Fulton

Dimmock, C.A.J. and Walker, A. ( 2005) Educational Leadership: Culture and DiversenessLondon: Sage

Harrison, R. ( 2005 )Learning and DevelopmentLondon: Chartered Instituted of Personnel and Development

Jarvis, AP. ( 2003 )Adult Education and Lifelong Learning: Theory and PracticeLondon: Routledge Falmer

Kohls, L.R. ( 1994 )Developing Intercultural Awareness: A Cross-cultural Training HandbookLondon and New York: The Intercultural Press

Latham, C. and Miles, A. ( 2001 )Communication, Curriculum and Classroom PracticeLondon: David Fulton

Meyer, R.E. ( 2001 )Multimedia LearningCambridge: Cambridge University Press

Papen, U. ( 2005 )Adult Literacy as Social Practice: More than SkillsLondon: Routledge Falmer

Pierson, J. ( 2001 )Undertaking Social ExclusionLondon: Routledge

Pollard, A. ( 2005 )Brooding Teaching: Evidence Informed Professional PracticeLondon: Continuum

Riding, R. and Rayner, S. ( 1998 )Cognitive Styles and Learning Schemes: Understanding Style Differences in Learning and BehaviourLondon: David Fulton

Rogers, A. ( 2002) Teaching AdultsBuckingham: Open University Press

Scott, W. and Gough, S. ( 2003 )Sustainable Development and Learning: Framing the IssuesLondon: Routledge Falmer

Wallace, S. ( 2004 )Teaching and Supporting Learning in Further EducationExeter: Learning Matters

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