Computer The Internet And Telecommunication Information Technology Essay
2.1 Computer, The cyberspace and Telecommunication
Theoretical Framework has an of import part to Scientific Research. It evaluates your cognition and patterns and the literature reappraisal conducted so far. My thesis is about development of an e-business application. The growing of Information Technology and its proper usage in many applications has changed many things which were supposed to be done in a well long clip. Advanced Telecommunication System and Computer Science have significantly contributed to the human being in all facet of his/her life. Rapid technological alterations in package market and nomadic communicating did non go forth any infinite uncovered in the universe but besides created a new country for a wide research.
Internet which is considered to be the simple portion of work in day-to-day life, introduced a inexpensive and fast transmittal. Web 2.0 Interaction engineerings eroded the distance in sharing cognition and resources. Many concern organisations realized that it is non possible to travel without IT substructure in the company. The result formed the form of Enterprise Resource Planning, Customer Relationship Management and Inventory Control System etc. Education institutes started to ease the pupils with e-learning environment.
E-business and E-commerce are predominating tendencies of utilizing Internet in Business. Introduction of Service Oriented Architecture opened a new duologue for those organisations which are dependent on ERP systems. Java Web Services introduced a new manner to divide the concern logic from existent Implementation. Online Banking application solved this job to successfully purchase a merchandise from a web store by utilizing recognition card. The above is a general debut of computing machine part to the society. Rest of the chapter, I would depict the of import literature that I have been through and which is indispensable for my thesis. In the following subdivision, I will get down from package technology methodological analysiss.
2.2 Software Engineering Methodologies
Software Engineering is a uninterrupted acquisition procedure for quality betterment of package development attempt. Software Engineering Institute ( SEI ) has published a figure of articles and books on this subject. Project Management Institute known as PMI introduced a white paper in 1987 “ A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge ” which officially took the topographic point as a book, in which the nine cognition countries and five procedure group of undertaking direction have been mentioned. Each procedure is described in footings of Input, Tools and Techniques and Output. An of import difference was being made in the book about the quality of product/process.
Product quality is the acceptable degree of a merchandise to a client and Process quality is wholly dependent on the organisation which is utilizing the procedure of development. Software procedure betterment is the survey to better the procedure. There are a figure of package technology methodological analysiss available, among them good known are ; Waterfall Model, Spiral Model, Iterative Processes, Extreme Programming, Evolutionary Development, Model Driven development, Prototyping etc. Apart from the methodological analysis, there are five package development activities which are common in all ; ( 1 ) Requirement ( 2 ) Design ( 3 ) Implementation ( 4 ) Verification ( 5 ) Care
2.2.1 Waterfall Model
The name brings a really clear debut for this theoretical account. As H2O goes from top to bottom, the same phenomenon is followed in package procedure precisely. But in waterfall theoretical account, the five development activities ( mentioned above ) are followed precisely in the same order. First construct give rise to another. It is similar to the construct of building a edifice. Proper usage of this methodological analysis is considered when there is a high hazard involved. Mostly defence undertakings are done in this mode. Different package houses patterns different theoretical accounts to develop package.
Figure 1: Waterfall Model
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2.2.2 Coiling Model
To take advantage of top-down and bottom-up attack, this theoretical account combines design and paradigm in phases [ 31 ] .Spiral theoretical account is an alternate attack as compared to the waterfall theoretical account. What happens here is non like the one I mentioned above. It is an Incremental and Iterative attack where as in waterfall theoretical account ; each activity is conducted in a consecutive order.
In this attack Rapid prototyping is performed. Get down with the user demands and heading towards system design so constructing the merchandise in phases and executing the trial after it. This procedure is continued in the same mode unless and until the concluding merchandise gets developed. An of import characteristic could be noticed that you can break detect batch of bugs in this attack. Testing follows in each loop of every new physique. This attack is nevertheless popular because of its demand evocation in each loop. Following figure would explicate each stage in the Spiral Model.
Figure 2: Coiling Model
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2.2.3 Agile Software Development
Agile package development is acquiring celebrated in many organisations. Developing a merchandise in this manner is considered to be more dependable and fast deliverable merchandise. This sort of development method is good for little undertakings. Undertakings which take longer calendar clip do non choose for this option i.e. it delivers fast and little balls of merchandise. There are a figure of nimble methods available ; Cleanroom, DSDM, Extreme Programming, Scrum, Rational Unified Process, Rapid Application Development, V theoretical account etc. In Extreme Programming, there are 12 basic rules to be followed during the development and a figure of patterns i.e. Planning Game, User Stories, Test Driven Development, Open work infinite, Refactoring, Pair Programming, Continuous Integration, Customer as a Team Member, Short Cycles etc [ 66 ] . Another predominating agile procedure is SCRUM. We have a Merchandise and demands from users, clients, executives and even other squad members. Collection of these full things is called a Product Backlog or says a wish list. A merchandise backlog is farther broken into Release Backlog with Release Planning. Release backlog is farther split up into Sprint which is a short rhythm from 3-30 yearss. Scrum Master plays the function of director. In order to maintain a path of the undertaking advancement a meeting of 15 proceedingss holds mundane which is called “ The Daily Scrum ” [ 2 ] . Burn down charts is a day-to-day step of the advancement. Many package development organisations are used to utilize SCRUM patterns. SCRUM Master Certification endorses the solid cognition of this methodological analysis for package development and it is really good known in package industry.
An Enterprise Application is a concern application, in today ‘s corporate environment endeavor application are complex, scalable, distributed, constituent based and mission critical ” [ 33 ] . E-commerce is purchasing and selling the merchandise over internet. E-commerce is non merely a concern down the street but it is a topographic point for planetary selling where a merchandise can be sold to any individual from any portion of the universe. “ It includes Electronic trading, Electronic messaging, Electronic Data Interchange ( EDI ) , E-mails, Electronic catalogues, cyberspace, intranet and extranet services ” [ 35 ] . An of import difference can be made that e-commerce is a portion of e-business, or more merely gross revenues portion of e-business is e-commerce. E-commerce is unfastened for general populace. Common use of e-commerce is like Amazon.com, Ebay.com, dealextreme.com etc.
2.4 Agent Technology and Multi-agent System ( MAS )
Harmonizing to [ 68 ] , “ An Intelligent Agent is a computing machine system which is capable of flexible independent action in some environment ” . Software Agents are considered to be independent and they should work on behalf of the client. Distributed Artificial Intelligence ( DAI ) is an application of Artificial Intelligent ( AI ) and Distributed Computing ( DC ) is dedicated to job work outing i.e. spliting a chief job into bomber job ( Distributed Computing/Grid Computing ) .Main countries of DAI are Multi-agent System and Distributed Problem Solving [ 68 ] . Multi Agent System ( MAS ) is one which consists of a figure of agents which interact with one another to administer and work out the job. MAS applications ranges from Power Management, Transportation System ( Air Traffic ) , Internet Auction or practical Auction, Information Retrieval and e-commerce. Google is utilizing MAS system in information retrieval ( Search Engine Optimization ) .When you type some question in Google it gives you a suggestion during typing a question in hunt saloon, that is smart agent which percept what you are traveling to seek ; a semantic web attack.
An of import construct in MAS is mobility of codification, which distribute the computer science among several Waiters located on different topographic points. Code on Demand and Remote Evaluation are best known. In e-commerce, nomadic agents play an of import function. Mobile agents travel in practical market topographic points where interaction between purchasers and Sellerss can happen. A purchaser agent can go from site to site to move on behalf of its user and turn up the point which the user wants to purchase.A high degree of intelligence is required for such a nomadic agent. All the future e-commerce applications are traveling to be based on MAS.
Figure 3: Multi-agent System in E-Commerce
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Sing multi-agent system ‘s application in e-commerce, I developed an application for Agent Mobility in Java Development Framework ( JADE ) during my term undertaking. How an agent travel among several nodes.
2.5 Service Oriented Architecture ( SOA )
A figure of precise definitions have explained what Service Oriented Architecture is? SOA really intend different things to different people. In another term we can state that SOA is an equivalent to “ Web Services ” , “ Enterprise Application Integration ” . Services Oriented Architecture can be taken as a aggregation of services. An of import point is that these services communicate with each other.
“ SOA establishes an architectural theoretical account that aims to heighten legerity, efficiency and productiveness of an endeavor by positioning services as the primary agencies through which solution logic is represented in support of the realisation of the schemes ends associated with Service Oriented Architecture ” [ 37 ] . In SOA, web services is playing an of import function, Web Services mentioning to the engineerings that allow for doing connexions, it should non be confused with services. More exactly, service is the terminal point of connexion [ 38 ] .In the figure there is a really nice account of web services.
Figure 4: Service Oriented Architecture Application
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We have an ERP System, which has Selling, Gross saless, CRM, Finance, Data Warehouse and External spouse. In the left portion of the figure, there are many connexions to the informations depository which creates a sort of confusion. But on the right manus side, the first measure to SOA is enterprise service coach in the center which connects these services with informations depository. Harmonizing to [ 69 ] , cardinal protocols which enable communicating between the web services are:
SOAP ( Simple Object Access Protocol )
WSDL ( Web Services Description Language )
UDDI ( Universal Description Discovery and Integration )
The Conceptual Model in the diagram is the clear representation of the above mentioned protocols. Service Provider will register the services it can offer.
Figure 5: Conceptual Architecture of SOA
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2.6 Cost and Duration Estimation of Software
An of import subscriber to successfully finish the undertaking is cost and duration appraisal in front of clip before acquiring started the undertaking i.e. so that the full merchandise becomes completed in the frame of allocated clip and the client acquire it on the deadline. A figure of techniques have been introduced to convey the cost and continuance appraisal.
Harmonizing to [ 69 ] , there are three different techniques ; ( 1 ) Size-related prosodies. ( 2 ) Function-related prosodies. ( 3 ) Line of Source codification per programming month ( LOC/pm ) . In more item, it is summarized that the delivered beginning codification is the existent size related metric. It is deserving noted that the delivered object codification or the system certification produced, can besides be considered as a size related metric. Function related metric is something about the working package, more merely it is the overall functionality of the delivered package. Function points and object points are the best known-metrics of this type [ 69 ] . Line of Code technique which is besides used by a figure of industry developers.
International Function Point User Group is working on Function Point Analysis technique. A group of research workers at Simula Research Laboratory Oslo, are besides working on this method for package costing. Harmonizing to [ 70 ] , “ Function Point ( FP ) is a package size step ; which includes the criterion FP and many different theoretical accounts derived from it. The standard FP method created by Albrecht in 1979 is presently known as the International Function Point User group ( IFPUG ) ” . An attack which is used by developers and directors to gauge cost, clip in adult male hours and development attempt, resource needed etc.
2.6.1 Benefits of Function Point Analysis
Harmonizing to Software Metrics, FPA has great advantage over Line of Code with a figure of benefits, “ Increase Return on IT investing, Improves Communication, Enhances demand procedure, manage work loads and cut down clip ” , [ 40 ] .It is deserving noted that FPA is non merely used for Cost and Duration appraisal but besides for a better communicating with stakeholders. The chief advantages of Function Point Counts are summarized as follows:
( 1 ) The Cost of Project, ( 2 ) Duration and ( 3 ) Staffing Size with the ability to gauge accurately, apart from that assisting the productiveness rate and finding the retail value of this package plus to the company [ 40 ] .
2.7 Team Viewer
Team Viewer is an unfastened beginning package that is used for on-line informations transportation, remote control, remote calculating, desktop sharing and informations handling. It is available in two versions, Client and Server. Client runs at one terminal and waiter at other terminal. To get down communicating through squad spectator, a handshake procedure is done at both sides. When both users authenticate and allow each other so they get the entree of other computing machine. It is really utile particularly for skilled developers who are shacking at distant location. A minor job can be encountered i.e. computing machine gets slower as the processing starts Both terminal users have the option to kill the application and end it at any clip. In distributed universe, squad spectator made it really easy to make trouble-shooting and plan handling in a really short clip.
2.8 Java Language
Sun Microsystems introduced Java as a pure object oriented linguistic communication in early 90s. Java gained so much popularity when Sun Microsystems released its Enterprise Edition. Enterprise Edition known as J2EE, JEE 5 and JEE6 ( introduced in late November 2009 ) [ 41 ] . Enterprise Edition made it possible to divide concern logic from its existent execution which is going a measure rock for many organisations to present Service Oriented Architecture for their ERP system. While Java Mobile Edition ( J2ME ) is strictly for nomadic application development. Most of the package organisations are utilizing Dot cyberspace and Java linguistic communication to do new application. Java got an upper manus for web application in footings of web security. Most of the online banking system utilizing Java security characteristic for secure and dependable dealing.
In order to set up e-business in a peculiar state so e-readiness is the survey of the ICT substructure of that state. If your peculiar involvement is to sell a merchandise in that state so Economics Intelligence Unit provided a new manner to acquire yourself familiar with that state political, economical, judicial, technological Infrastructure so that to understand all the possibilities and obstruction that might halt you or state you welcome to get down e-business. It is fundamentally a survey of one ‘s state to see how much the state is accepting the digital engineering, what sort of adept force available, how much authorities is efficient and willing to welcome new investors, the economic state of affairs which is at what degree to let you to sell your merchandise, IT engineering use in that state etc.
An of import facet of E-Readiness is that it can assist leaders from developing states to mensurate and suggest a program for Information and Communication Technology Integration [ 42 ] . Developing states where the ICT substructure is non so good and there are more opportunities for non welcoming the e-Business and losing the chance to lose concern alternatively of booming.
2.10 Python Language
Harmonizing to [ 43 ] , Python is a dynamic scheduling linguistic communication which welcomes a broad scope of application spheres and unfastened beginning engineering for commercial usage as good, its comparing is made with Ruby, Scheme, Perl, Tcl and Java. Application domains typically means that it can be used for Web and cyberspace Development, Database Access, Desktop GUIs, Scientific and Numeric Purposes, Education, Network Programming, Software Development, Game and 3D artworks. It has a criterion library which provides a powerful tool to cover everything.
Python linguistic communication is non so popular as compared to Java and other linguistic communications. Python is said to be one of the easiest linguistic communication in sentence structure. It plays good with all other linguistic communications ; it can incorporate with COM and CORBA objects [ 43 ] . For Java practical machine compatibility, Python has developed a characteristic which is Jython. Similar compatibility for Dot Net model which is called Iron Python [ 44 ] . It besides runs on all OS i.e. Windows, Linux/Unix, OS/2, Mac and Nokia series 60 OS [ 43 ] . This linguistic communication will derive more popularity with the transition of clip. An of import characteristic of Python for Web and Internet Development is: it offers batch of web models to develop cyberspace applications. Among them several are: Django Project, Pyweb, Webware, Turbo Gears, Clear Silver, Draco etc [ 45 ] . The most popular web model which is being used for web development is Django Project, pronounced as Jango. It encourages fast development with crystal clear matter-of-fact design [ 46 ] . Another powerful facet of Django is, it creates web services really easy and in a fast manner.
Current versions of Python which are in usage now yearss are: Python 2.6.5 and Python 3.1.2 [ 47 ] . It is downloadable from Python Official website [ 43 ] . A Number of IDE besides available for Python, most popular is Pfaide v1.0 ALPHA Milestone 2.
2.10.1 Significance of Python
Python has a figure of advantages on other linguistic communications. Clear Syntax, natural look of procedural codification, high degree dynamic informations types, sphere compatibility, platform compatibility and crystal clear design [ 48 ] .
2.11 Web Usability and Heuristic Evaluation
Jakob Nielsen is one of the celebrated writer composing for the web serviceability. He is the 1 who proposed heuristic rating. It is 10 point guideline strategy for measuring human computing machine interaction to acquire better apprehension of the human behaviour when it comes to shop a web site and observe what a user typically wants and how he/she interacts with the system [ 49 ] . In [ 71 ] , the writer has mentioned a figure of serviceability jobs that sometime halt user or rag them to interact with the web site. These guidelines non merely assist developer to understand the human psychological science but besides help in garnering functional demands as good.
Figure 6: Web Page and its Statisticss
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Harmonizing to [ 71 ] , the writer has ranked each serviceability job harmonizing to the country that is covered by the activity in the above diagram. For illustration Search, Information Architecture, Readability, Content, Product Information.
There are many disagreements with web serviceability, the existent content ever found losing and irregular Information Architecture. To better these things proper allotment of resources would be required to repair it [ 71 ] . These activities normally cause more jobs as compared to other activities covered by a little part in the circle. The intent to present Web Usability here is let the reader aware of Jakob Nielsen surveies sing web, which will be used for the undertaking subsequently on.
2.12 National Book Foundation Pakistan
As mentioned before in the first chapter that National Book foundation is a welfare organisation in Pakistan which offers a assortment of books to its clients on inexpensive monetary values ; in add-on this organisation is being run by the Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan [ 55 ] . Although National Book Foundation ( NBF forth ) established in 1972 and they have a legion sum of clients but the book merchandising environment is traditional. By traditional I mean front shop shopping. NBF seeking their best to heighten their system. They would wish to present e-shopping environment. They have latest publications and books available but their e-marketing is non so good. After analyzing their system and holding a twosome of net meetings increased my cognition of web application development and particularly the obstructions that might go on during the development of web application.